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PRINT EDITION
LEXPERT-RANKED LAWYERS
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Friday, August 30, 2019 – Page E5

Adkins, Robert J.M. Thompson Dorfman Sweatman LLP (204) 934-2483 rjma@tdslaw.com Mr. Adkins has a varied practice, but for the last 30 years he has been significantly involved in areas of Indigenous law and natural resource development, including energy and rights-of-way for transmission lines and pipelines.

Annibale, Jason J. McMillan LLP (416) 865-7912 jason.annibale@mcmillan.ca Mr. Annibale is an expert in construction and P3 disputes. He deals with complex construction delays, variations and cost overruns affecting biomass plants, electrical power stations, transportation facilities and other infrastructure. He has also represented an international energy company on the purchase of construction projects and related assets in one of Canada's largest construction bankruptcies.

Antonopoulos, George Dentons Canada LLP (403) 268-7136 george.antonopoulos@dentons.com Mr. Antonopoulos acts for companies in the energy sector, focusing on the planning, drafting, negotiation and completion of complex energy transactions and project work in both the upstream and midstream oil & gas sectors, including advising clients on M&A, joint-venture arrangements, commodity transportation, storage arrangements, corporate reorganizations and energy project development.

Archer, Marcus W. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-9547 marcus.archer@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Archer focuses on debt and equity financings, mergers & acquisitions, reorganizations and purchases and sales of businesses and assets. He has been involved with a number of the largest energy-related financings and transactions in Canada in recent years and is recommended by Lexpert for Corporate Finance & Securities, is recognized by Best Lawyers in Securities and is an Acritas Star.

Argento, Aldo P. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-9548 aldo.argento@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Argento practises in the areas of Aboriginal law, commercial arbitration and insurance litigation. He has acted as counsel in the litigation and arbitration, of various disputes involving the energy industry. He also regularly advises on the duty to consult First Nations in the context of energy and resource development.

Arthur, Crispin J. Lawson Lundell LLP (403) 218-7546 carthur@lawsonlundell.com Mr. Arthur focuses on corporate finance and M&A, primarily for oil and gas and renewables sector clients. His experience embraces public offerings, private placements, change of control transactions and other business combinations. He also counsels on governance matters.

Atcheson, Aaron E. Miller Thomson LLP (519) 931-3526 aatcheson@millerthomson.com Mr. Atcheson leads MT's Projects Group and is Chair of its National Real Estate Group. He advises clients on all aspects of project finance, energy, environmental and real estate law, and is recognized as an expert in the development, permitting, construction and financing of renewable and traditional energy projects, and on transportation, water/waste water and other infrastructure projects.

Backman, QC, Philip D. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3366 backmanp@bennettjones.com Mr. Backman acts for borrowers and lenders involved in syndicated credit agreements, project financings, public & private debt issues, cross-border financings, leveraged loans, and debt restructurings in oil & gas, oil sands, utilities and pipelines. He has acted on some of the largest project financings in Canada, including the $7.5-billion North West Redwater refinery financing.

Bakshi, Vivek Dentons Canada LLP (416) 863-4658 vivek.bakshi@dentons.com Mr. Bakshi represents clients in the energy, natural resources and infrastructure sectors. He specializes in the structuring, negotiation and documentation of natural resource projects and related financings, and in domestic and cross-border mergers & acquisitions in the oil, gas, water and power sectors.

Barichello, QC, Enzo J. Bennett Jones LLP (780) 917-4269 barichelloe@bennettjones.com Mr. Barichello, Managing Partner of the Bennett Jones Edmonton office and Co-head of the Government Affairs and Public Policy practice, acts in commercial electric power and gas transactions, M&A, major commercial leases, and major commercial and financing transactions, with a focus on transactions in the following sectors: energy, construction, pharmaceutical contract manufacturing and forestry.

Barkin, Ira S. Goodmans LLP (416) 597-4112 ibarkin@goodmans.ca Mr. Barkin's real estate practice includes clean energy land development and financing. He has represented Enwave in its acquisition of the assets of Veresen Inc.'s London, Ontario and Prince Edward Island district energy businesses, Brookfield in its acquisition of Enwave and Atlantic Power in various acquisitions and financings.

Basra, Harinder Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-4494 basrah@bennettjones.com Mr. Basra practises corporate and securities law, with a particular emphasis on advising public and private companies on mergers and acquisitions, securities offerings, corporate governance and regulatory compliance matters. His practice focuses on advising domestic and international clients on transactions in all sectors of the oil and natural gas industry.

Bergner, Keith B. Lawson Lundell LLP (604) 631-9119 kbergner@lawsonlundell.com Mr. Bergner is a recognized authority on Indigenous law, energy, regulatory and environmental processes. He has appeared before all levels of courts, including the Supreme Court of Canada. He has experience relating to major natural resource projects in various industries, including oil & gas, LNG, pipelines, mining, and hydroelectric generation & transmission and infrastructure & transportation projects.

Bigué, AdE, Ann Dentons Canada LLP (514) 878-8808 ann.bigue@dentons.com A former National Energy Board Counsel, Ms. Bigué focuses on regulatory law and Aboriginal law in the fields of energy, mining, natural resources and environmental assessment. She represents corporate clients in the negotiation of agreements between Aboriginal communities and project proponents, and provides strategic advice on complex issues relating to Aboriginal rights.

Blundy, Paul D. Bennett Jones LLP (416) 777-4854 blundyp@bennettjones.com Mr. Blundy has more than 35 years' experience in construction and project finance. Acting for public authorities, private-sector proponents, lenders, underwriters, contractors, designers and service providers, he has participated in a wide variety of both privately procured and Public-Private Partnership (P3) transactions in power generation, transmission and facilities operation and maintenance.

Booth, QC, Robert (Bob) T. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3252 boothb@bennettjones.com Mr. Booth has a broad commercial practice in energy and resources.

He represents clients in the oil & gas, pipeline, LNG, uranium and electricity sectors. He advises on purchases, sales, new businesses, joint ventures and partnerships.

Borden, Richard P. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-8362 rick.borden@nortonrosefulbright.com Practising extensively in the area of complex commercial transactions, Mr. Borden focuses on large-scale projects and financings in the energy sector, including oil sands projects, pipeline projects and LNG projects.

His clients include major Canadian banks and project sponsors and he has strong relationships with the key project-lending specialists at the major Canadian banks.

Bremermann, Eric H. Stikeman Elliott LLP (416) 869-6821 ebremermann@stikeman.com Mr. Bremermann is a partner in the Mergers & Acquisitions and Project Development & Finance Groups, as well as Co-chair of the Toronto Energy Group.

He leads the firm's initiatives in respect of Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

He is also a member of the firm's Diversity Committee. His practice focuses on corporate and commercial law, with an emphasis on Canadian-European cross-border issues.

Brennan, Patrick J. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3433 brennanp@bennettjones.com Mr. Brennan leads the Banking & Secured Transactions Group. He acts in banking and debt financings, asset-based financing and leasing, personal property security, debt restructuring, aircraft acquisition, disposition, leasing and financing and commercial transactions, with a focus on oil & gas, aviation, manufacturing and financial sectors.

Bright, Denise D. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-4468 brightd@bennettjones.com Ms. Bright is a corporate partner in the firm's Calgary office. Her practice is focused on secured and unsecured corporate debt and project finance, where she acts for a variety of public and private companies, partnerships, trusts and private-equity vehicles in regard to their debt requirements and restructurings.

Buchinski, Marie H. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-8136 buchinskim@bennettjones.com Ms. Buchinski is a partner in the firm's Energy, Environmental and Aboriginal Practice Groups. Her practice focuses primarily on energy regulatory, compliance and Aboriginal law matters. She has significant experience with respect to provincially and federally regulated energy developments, and regulatory and environmental matters in relation to those developments.

Burns, Stephen D. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3050 burnss@bennettjones.com Mr. Burns co-leads the firm's Innovation, Technology and Branding Group. He regularly negotiates IP aspects of major energy and infrastructure projects, M&A, divestitures, reorganizations, collaborations and joint ventures. He advises on significant IT outsourcings, investments in technology and information systems, and in respect of data governance, cybersecurity and privacy.

Bursey, David W.

Bennett Jones LLP (604) 891-5128 burseyd@bennettjones.com Mr. Bursey's regulatory practice focuses on natural resource and infrastructure development, environmental assessment, water resource management and Aboriginal law. He also advises clients on the economic regulation of public utilities and energy delivery systems. He advises natural resource industry clients, public utilities, First Nations and government agencies.

Carrière, Mathilde Dentons Canada LLP (514) 878-5823 mathilde.carriere@dentons.com Ms. Carrière leads the corporate law practice of Dentons' Montréal office and is one of the leaders of the office's infrastructure/PPP group and national Construction group. She has developed unique expertise in the area of procurement, construction and infrastructure in the energy, manufacturing and transportation sectors, and has dealt extensively with M&A and venture capital investments.

Chatwin, Keith R. Stikeman Elliott LLP (403) 266-9088 kchatwin@stikeman.com Mr. Chatwin is a partner in the Corporate Group. His practice involves a broad array of securities and general corporate transactions, ranging from public and private debt and equity financing to mergers and acquisitions, corporate restructuring and recapitalizations, and shareholder activism and defense.

He is co-chair of the firm's Korea Group and an active member of the firm's Japan Group.

Christian, Jeff Lawson Lundell LLP (604) 631-9115 jchristian@lawsonlundell.com Mr. Christian is a partner, practising in the energy & natural resource sectors.

He represents clients before regulatory tribunals such as the BC Oil & Gas Commission, NEB and AUC. He advises on regulatory/legislative reform initiatives, cross-border project development and cross-border litigation. He is recognized by Chambers Global, Lexpert and Best Lawyers. He is called to the Bar in BC, AB and NWT.

Clare, James Bennett Jones LLP (416) 777-6245 clarej@bennettjones.com Mr. Clare is a corporate and securities lawyer with a focus on the mining sector and an emphasis on domestic and cross-border corporate finance and M&A. He also represents issuers and underwriters on general corporate and securities law matters.

Clark, Heidi Dentons Canada LLP (416) 863-4626 heidi.clark@dentons.com Ms. Clark is a partner and department manager in the Toronto office of the Firm's Banking and Finance group. Her practice includes advising domestic and foreign financial institutions, institutional investors, corporate and institutional borrowers, and governments on a broad range of complex and structured financing transactions.

Clarke, QC, Colin J. Cox & Palmer (902) 491-4215 cclarke@coxandpalmer.com Mr. Clarke provides litigation and regulatory advice to major energy producers. He appears before all levels of court, NS Utility and Review Board, and administrative tribunals. His practice includes institutional and government litigation including representation of parties in complex administrative inquiries. Lead counsel for the Canadian Medical Protective Association and its members throughout NS.

Corbett, Leland P. Stikeman Elliott LLP (403) 266-9046 lcorbett@stikeman.com Mr. Corbett is a partner in the Corporate Group. He frequently acts in public and private financing and other capital markets transactions, including corporate and investment banking transactions, share and asset acquisitions and dispositions, securities transactions and other merger and acquisition activity.

Corley, Richard F.D. Goodmans LLP (416) 597-4197 rcorley@goodmans.ca Mr. Corley leads Goodmans' Cleantech group. He has over 25 years of experience assisting clients to successfully complete complex M&A and commercial transactions in renewables, cleantech and IT. He is a member of Canada's 2016 Clean50 and is a director of the Building Energy Innovators Council, the Ontario Clean Technology Industry Association and the Canadian Institute for Exponential Growth.

Curpen, Radha D. Bennett Jones LLP (604) 891-5158 curpenr@bennettjones.com Ms. Curpen is the managing partner of Bennett Jones' Vancouver office and co-head of the firm's Environmental Law practice and Aboriginal Law practice.

She specializes in environmental, Aboriginal and regulatory matters, advising on regulatory compliance, business disruption and regulatory enforcement, and the defence of environmental-related prosecutions.

Davey, Peter J. Fillmore Riley LLP (204) 957-8388 pjdavey@fillmoreriley.com Mr. Davey is the Chair of the firm's Securities Law Practice Group. He practises in the areas of M&A, commercial and corporate law in various industries, including agriculture, mining, oil & gas, technology, telecommunications, real estate and financial services. He has extensive experience advising public and private companies and other entities in all areas of their businesses.

David, Mylany Langlois lawyers, LLP (514) 282-7827 mylany.david@langlois.ca Ms. David's Real Estate and Commercial Law practice encompasses the myriad legal and financing aspects inherent in developing renewable energy and infrastructure projects. She is mainly recognized for her expertise in PPP, implementing P3 arrangements and supervising large due diligence teams.

She advises and negotiates on behalf of developers, purchasers, governments and financial institutions.

Davies, QC, Donald G. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-8183 don.davies@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Davies practises energy law, with a focus on the regulatory and litigation fields. He has acted for both proponents and intervenors in many applications for the approval of pipeline facilities and for the determination of pipeline tolls and tariffs. His cases typically involve complex environmental, Aboriginal, constitutional, jurisdictional, economic and financial issues.

Davis, Paul D. McMillan LLP (416) 307-4137 paul.davis@mcmillan.ca Leader of the firm's Capital Markets and M&A group, Mr. Davis advises private and public, domestic and foreign companies on securities and business law matters, including high-profile proxy contests and precedent-setting contested transactions. His industry expertise spans key sectors, including energy and natural resources. A past director of 10 public companies, he was also seconded to the OSC.

De Vuono, Carl A. McMillan LLP (416) 307-4055 carl.devuono@mcmillan.ca A senior member and partner in the firm's Business Law Group, Mr. De Vuono advises public and private clients in all aspects of their business including M&A, corporate reorganizations, joint ventures and other strategic alliances.

Acting for clients in various industries, including energy and telecommunications, he has been involved in numerous transactions and other commercial arrangements.

DeMarco, Lisa (Elisabeth) DeMarco Allan LLP (647) 991-1190 lisa@demarcoallan.com Ms. DeMarco is a world-leading energy and climate change lawyer. She represents several governments, leading Canadian energy companies and Indigenous business organizations in a wide variety of natural gas, electricity, pipeline and energy storage matters. She regularly appears before regulators including the National Energy Board and the Ontario Energy Board and has addressed the UNFCCC plenary.

Dépelteau, Jean-Pierre Dentons Canada LLP (514) 878-8814 j-p.depelteau@dentons.com Mr. Dépelteau is a member of the Construction and Infrastructure group offering more than 40 years of experience. He provides legal and strategic advice to a variety of public, semi-public and private-sector owners, as well as construction contractors, specialized construction companies and equipment suppliers.

Drance, Jonathan S. Stikeman Elliott LLP (604) 631-1361 jdrance@stikeman.com Mr. Drance specializes in energy law, including energy-related M&A, corporate finance and project finance. He has participated in transactions involving major pipelines, related oil and gas facilities, power plants and transmission lines. He served on the Board of BC Hydro. He writes extensively on energy law, particularly energy project risks and investment trends.

Duffy, Patrick G. Stikeman Elliott LLP (416) 869-5257 pduffy@stikeman.com Mr. Duffy is a partner and Co-head of the Project Development & Finance Group. His practice focuses on project development, including municipal and planning law, environmental permitting and litigation, energy regulation and Aboriginal engagement. He has considerable experience dealing with environmental assessments and other regulatory approvals in a variety of sectors.

Dunberry, Éric Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (514) 847-4492 eric.dunberry@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Dunberry has vast experience in risk management and litigation, particularly in matters relating to energy, regulation, compliance, manufacturers' liability and infrastructure projects. He represents clients before the civil courts, administrative, regulatory and arbitration in civil litigation, class actions and administrative disputes.

He is an American College of Trial Lawyers Fellow.

Dunlop, David R. McMillan LLP (416) 865-7175 david.dunlop@mcmillan.ca A member of the firm's executive committee, Mr. Dunlop advises clients on the purchase and sale of businesses, private equity, corporate financing, corporate governance and outsourcing. He has negotiated a variety of transactions and complex commercial arrangements in the energy sector, and assisted international clients in corporate establishment, restructuring and operations.

Dunsky, Ilan Dentons Canada LLP (514) 878-5833 ilan.dunsky@dentons.com Mr. Dunsky is National Co-chair of Dentons' Infrastructure and PPP group.

He represents both domestic and international clients in the development of infrastructure, public-private partnerships and project finance, particularly in the energy, transportation and health sectors. He also advises governments and government agencies on the procurement of major global projects.

Engbloom, QC, Robert J. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-9405 robert.engbloom@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Engbloom advises clients on M&A, transactional, governance and general business matters. He has acted as lead counsel on a wide variety of significant transactions and has extensive experience in providing advice on mergers & acquisitions, reorganizations and related-party transactions, as well as advising boards and special committees on both governance matters and substantive transactions.

Erickson, G. Frederick Stikeman Elliott LLP (403) 266-9016 ferickson@stikeman.com Mr. Erickson is a partner in the Energy Group. His practice focuses on significant transactional and advisory engagements, and he has extensive involvement as lead counsel in major acquisitions and dispositions, restructuring projects, project developments, joint ventures, financings, asset monetizations, securitizations and other transactional matters.

Estep, Laura K. Dentons Canada LLP (403) 268-6308 laura.estep@dentons.com Ms. Estep assists major oil and gas companies through all stages of the regulatory process including representation before the NEB, the Alberta Utilities Commission and the Alberta Energy Regulator. She has appeared at various levels of court on energy-related appeal and judicial review matters. She also advises energy clients on land acquisition and compensation matters.

Fader, Nicholas P. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3474 fadern@bennettjones.com Mr. Fader acts for public and private corporations, including oil & gas, industrial and technology clients. His practice extends to private and public debt and equity offerings, domestic and international acquisitions, license and distributorship arrangements, debt restructurings and shareholder disputes (including proxy contexts).

Fedun, Wayne W. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-9414 wayne.fedun@nortonrosefulbright.com Since 1992, Mr. Fedun has advised on large oil and gas upstream and midstream acquisitions and dispositions, sophisticated joint venture, project development and off-shore arrangements, and long-term processing, transportation and marketing agreements, respecting both conventional and unconventional resources.

Ferguson, Clara C. Lawson Lundell LLP (403) 218-7508 cferguson@lawsonlundell.com Ms. Ferguson is a partner in the Vancouver office with a practice focused on energy and public utility regulation. She advises clients on a broad range of matters before regulatory boards and the courts including market design, compliance, regulatory requirements and rate design. She understands the regulatory environments in both BC and Alberta and spends significant time practising in each jurisdiction.

Ferrara, Justin E. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-8393 justin.ferrara@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Ferrara is a corporate and commercial lawyer who focuses on mergers and acquisitions, corporate finance and corporate governance. He has represented both publicly traded and privately held clients in a broad range of matters, including significant mergers and acquisitions, public and private equity financings, corporate reorganizations and corporate governance issues.

Fortin, Myriam Stikeman Elliott LLP (514) 397-3270 mfortin@stikeman.com Ms. Fortin is a senior associate and heads the environmental practice in the Montréal office. She advises clients in their dealings with both private parties and governmental authorities with respect to environmental, energy and natural resources regulatory and contractual obligations. She also acts on a wide range of corporate transactional and litigation matters.

Foxcroft, Simon R. Bennett Jones LLP (780) 945-4756 foxcrofts@bennettjones.com Mr. Foxcroft has a commercial practice focused on mining and energy projects. He draws on his experience as senior in-house counsel for Canada's largest coal mining company to help clients during all the stages of a project, from inception to daily operations. He also provides advice with respect to occupational health and safety matters throughout Western Canada.

Fransen, Aaron Stikeman Elliott LLP (416) 869-5231 afransen@stikeman.com Mr. Fransen is a partner in the Mergers & Acquisitions, Banking & Finance and Project Development & Finance Groups. His practice focuses on M&A and project finance of infrastructure and energy projects in the bond and bank markets. His clientele includes banks, securities dealers, technology companies, resource companies, media and telecom companies, government entities and private-equity firms.

Friend, QC, Anthony L. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3182 frienda@bennettjones.com Mr. Friend practises in the areas of corporate, securities and energy industry litigation, arbitration and mediation, defence of medical malpractice claims, and corporate arrangements and restructuring. He has acted in over 90 corporate arrangements and restructurings.

Gallivan, QC, Daniel F. Cox & Palmer (902) 491-4126 dgallivan@coxandpalmer.com Mr. Gallivan's corporate practice spans all facets of energy law. He provides informed counsel and regulatory advice to major oil & gas projects, exploration and production companies, service and pipeline companies, regulatory agencies and governments. Consistently ranked as a leading practitioner in his field, Mr. Gallivan has also held the leadership role of CEO of Cox & Palmer.

Gauvin, Mira Dentons Canada LLP (514) 878-5812 mira.gauvin@dentons.com Ms. Gauvin's practice comprises analyzing the impacts of jurisprudential and legislative developments on her clients' activities, advising on compliance with environmental laws, cap-and-trade regulations, environmental assessment and permitting issues, land rehabilitation and remediation projects, and the implementation and closure of industrial sites.

Gill, Laura M. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-4492 gilll@bennettjones.com Ms. Gill has an active commercial litigation and dispute resolution practice, which specializes in disputes arising in the energy context including First Nations issues and environmental matters. Her experience in the energy industry includes litigating ownership issues and joint-venture and partnershiprelated disputes, and judicial reviews and appeals from regulatory approvals.

Gill, Sony Stikeman Elliott LLP (403) 206-5529 sgill@stikeman.com Mr. Gill is a partner in the Capital Markets and Mergers & Acquisitions Groups. His practice focuses on public and private company creation, growth, restructuring and value maximization. He acts as counsel to a wide range of clients, including oil and gas exploration and production companies and energy services companies.

Gilliland, William G. Dentons Canada LLP (403) 268-6826 bill.gilliland@dentons.com Mr. Gilliland advises public and private company buyers, sellers and target companies on numerous merger and acquisition transactions, primarily in the power, renewable energy, oil and gas, and other resource sectors, both in Canada, internationally and cross border. In addition, he is a leader in environmental/climate change financings, in particular in "green bonds."

Gilmour, Bradley S. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3382 gilmourb@bennettjones.com Mr. Gilmour's practice focuses on environmental, regulatory, energy and Aboriginal law. He advises on due diligence, environmental approvals, release and incident reporting, contaminated sites and environmental investigations and prosecutions on a range of energy, chemical, petrochemical, hydro, bio-fuel, wind and other industry types.

Gorman, William (Bill) Goodmans LLP (416) 597-4118 bgorman@goodmans.ca Mr. Gorman's practice focuses on domestic and cross-border corporate finance and M&A. He represents public companies and underwriters in the energy sector in a range of transactions including initial public offerings, debt and equity financings and mergers & acquisitions.

Gormley, Daniel Goodmans LLP (416) 597-4111 dgormley@goodmans.ca Mr. Gormley leads Goodmans' Energy Group. He acts for owners and developers of clean/renewable energy projects (solar, wind, geothermal, district energy) across Canada and internationally and owners of distribution and transmission assets. His clients include Enwave, AMP Energy, SkyPower Global, Forum Equity, several Ontario municipalities/utilities, and Ontario's association of electricity distributors.

Green, Bram J. Goodmans LLP (416) 597-4153 bgreen@goodmans.ca Mr. Green's real estate practice extends to all aspects of domestic and international utility-scale solar and wind power renewable energy generation projects. He has acted for Recurrent Energy in its development of utility-scale solar projects in Ontario.

Greenfield, QC, Donald E. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3248 greenfieldd@bennettjones.com Mr. Greenfield's energy practice spans asset and share sales and acquisitions in Canada and abroad, LNG and oil and gas development and facilities financing, construction and operation. He also regularly advises non-Canadian investors on matters relating to the Investment Canada Act. He is regularly ranked among the best energy lawyers in Canada and internationally.

Grenier, Pierre Dentons Canada LLP (514) 878-8856 pierre.grenier@dentons.com Mr. Grenier is a partner in Dentons' Litigation and Dispute Resolution group.

His practice focuses on corporate and commercial matters as well as on the construction, energy and real estate sectors. He represents owners and developers, general and specialized contractors, equipment manufacturers and franchisors, financial institutions, industrial corporations and investors.

Griffiths, Leonard J. Bennett Jones LLP (416) 777-7473 griffithsl@bennettjones.com Mr. Griffiths is part of the Environmental, Energy, Health and Safety team that assists clients with a wide range of energy, industrial, mining, transportation and real estate projects, including approvals, completing environmental assessments, conducting M&A/financing transactions, risk management and litigation. He is certified by the Law Society of Ontario as a Specialist in Environmental Law.

Gropper, QC, Mitchell H. FARRIS LLP (604) 661-9322 mgropper@farris.com Mr. Gropper's practice involves complex transactions focused on corporate finance, reorganizations, M&A and commercial real estate. He has advised boards of directors on mergers and other transactions, going-private transactions and other corporate matters.

Harrison, QC, Elizabeth J. FARRIS LLP (604) 661-9367 eharrison@farris.com Mrs. Harrison has extensive experience in corporate, M&A and securities transactions in multiple industries, including energy. She represents corporations and investment dealers. Her experience includes M&A, take-overs and related-party transactions, and public and private financings.

Harvie, Alan S. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-9411 alan.harvie@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Harvie has practised energy and environmental/regulatory law since 1989 and regularly deals with commercial, operational, environmental and regulatory issues, especially for the upstream oil & gas, energy, waste disposal and chemical industries. He is a member of the firm's energy and environmental departments.

Haynes, Bryan C. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3162 haynesb@bennettjones.com Mr. Haynes has more than 26 years of experience in commercial transactions and business law, with a focus on private mergers & acquisitions, including cross-border transactions, and corporate restructurings. He recently served on the Board of Governors of McGill University and represents Bennett Jones on the Pacific Rim Advisory Council (PRAC), a leading global association of top-tier law firms.

Haythorne, John S. Dentons Canada LLP (604) 691-6456 john.haythorne@dentons.com Mr. Haythorne practises in the areas of construction, engineering and infrastructure, with special emphasis on negotiating, drafting and advising on contracts. He is particularly experienced in public-private partnerships, advising owners on the structure and administration of procurement and legal issues relating to design and construction. In addition, he is a Registered Professional Engineer.

Hendry, Robert M. Miller Thomson LLP (306) 667-5601 rhendry@millerthomson.com Mr. Hendry is an intellectual property lawyer, Canadian and US patent agent, and Canadian trademark agent, with a focus on patent prosecution, large portfolio management, technology-related due diligence, strategic advising and technology commercialization.

Henrie, Pierre-Paul Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (613) 780-3777 pierre-paul.henrie@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Henrie practises corporate and commercial law, with particular emphasis on matters relating to project financings, private placements, secured lending transactions, mergers & acquisitions, contract negotiations, technology contracting, licensing and technology-related transactions. He is managing partner of the firm's Ottawa office and Ottawa chair of its business law group.

Herbst, QC, Ludmila B. FARRIS LLP (604) 661-1722 lherbst@farris.com Ms. Herbst is a litigator whose practice focuses on commercial, regulatory and constitutional cases. Ms. Herbst represents clients before all levels of court, arbitrators and tribunals such as the BC Utilities Commission. She has been counsel on matters related to rate design, revenue requirements, project development, power supply, capital expenditures and many other energy-related matters.

Hoffman, Derek D. Miller Thomson LLP (306) 667-5648 ddhoffman@millerthomson.com Mr. Hoffman advises public and private entities in the mining, energy, agriculture and technology industries. He was previously in-house counsel in a global mining company. He provides strategic legal advice including on corporate governance, M&A, project development, real estate, Aboriginal, corporate finance & securities, regulatory compliance and intellectual property matters.

Hudec, Albert J. FARRIS LLP (604) 661-9356 ahudec@farris.com Mr. Hudec's energy law practice focuses on legal issues relating to the BC LNG liquefaction and associated upstream and natural gas pipeline industries, wind power and run-of-river hydro projects and alternative energy technologies, including acquisitions, financing, contracting, regulatory and Aboriginal issues.

He is an experienced practitioner with a depth of understanding on energy law issues.

Hueppelsheuser, Darren D. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-8242 darren.hueppelsheuser@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Hueppelsheuser's practice concentrates on income tax law, with an emphasis on the tax aspects of financing and transaction planning for corporations and partnerships in both private and public transactions. He also advises with respect to international tax structuring of Canadian inbound and outbound investments. He regularly makes presentations on cross-border and domestic tax issues.

Hunter, QC, Clarke Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-8292 clarke.hunter@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Hunter has practised litigation and dispute resolution since 1980, after a clerkship with Chief Justice Laskin at the SCC. He has represented clients in domestic and international arbitration and mediation, in the Courts of Alberta, two other provinces, the Federal Court, the Tax Court and the SCC.

He has acted on a broad range of subjects, but with considerable focus on the energy industry.

Hurst, Michael A. Dentons Canada LLP (403) 268-3046 michael.hurst@dentons.com Mr. Hurst is Dentons' national and global Energy sector lead for Canada.

He advises on oil and gas upstream, midstream and pipeline acquisitions; the structuring of greenfield projects; financing transactions; and product sales arrangements. He has worked on infrastructure projects in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, the Canadian Arctic and offshore areas and South America.

Jacquin, Maxime Stikeman Elliott LLP (514) 397-2444 mjacquin@stikeman.com Mr. Jacquin is a partner in the Corporate Group. His practice is mainly focused on corporate financings and mergers & acquisitions. He also has extensive experience in the infrastructure and energy industries, in particular with respect to renewable energy projects.

Jenkins, William K. Dentons Canada LLP (403) 268-6835 bill.jenkins@dentons.com Mr. Jenkins is Co-lead of Dentons' Banking and Financial Services group in Calgary and has a diverse transaction-based practice advising on the structuring and implementation of debt and equity financings, project financings, mergers and acquisitions and joint ventures. He has experience advising financial institutions on issues relating to lending practices and capital markets compliance.

Johnson, Gregory M. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-4470 johnson@bennettjones.com Acting for clients in the energy industry, Mr. Johnson's practice focuses on corporate tax, corporate reorganizations, mergers & acquisitions and private equity. He is also a chartered accountant who practised with an international accounting firm before joining Bennett Jones.

Johnson, QC, Kevin E. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-8250 kevin.johnson@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Johnson's practice focuses on corporate and securities law matters, acting for a variety of participants in capital markets transactions, primarily in the energy sector. He acts for issuers, selling shareholders, independent committees of boards of directors and investment dealers in public and private securities offerings, corporate reorganizations and M&A transactions.

Johnston, Chip Lawson Lundell LLP (403) 218-7574 cjohnston@lawsonlundell.com Mr. Johnston is a partner in Lawson Lundell's Calgary office. His practice focuses on M&A and equity financings. He has particular expertise representing energy growth capital, both for investors and managers. He believes that the legal industry has a duty to improve the quality of service while reducing its cost. He works with clients that have the same values.

Junger, Robin M. McMillan LLP (778) 329-7523 robin.junger@mcmillan.ca Mr. Junger advises clients on environmental, Aboriginal and regulatory matters, and has helped proponents of energy, infrastructure and other major projects secure approvals. He previously served as BC's Deputy Minister of Energy, Mines & Petroleum Resources, Chair of the BC Oil & Gas Commission, head of the BC Environmental Assessment Office and a Provincial Chief Treaty Negotiator.

Keays, Ryan W. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-9523 ryan.keays@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Keays practises primarily in the area of energy and resources, but also focuses on business law and corporate and commercial law. He advises clients on a broad range of corporate and commercial matters, with a specific focus on the energy sector, both domestically and internationally.

Keen, Matthew Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (604) 641-4913 matthew.keen@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Keen is an energy and environmental lawyer whose practice spans the interrelated areas of energy regulation (including tolls and tariffs, and project development), environmental assessment, environmental permitting and compliance, and Indigenous law. He regularly appears before a variety of tribunals on behalf of clients and leads our national power team.

Kennedy, Jennifer K. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-8188 jennifer.kennedy@nortonrosefulbright.com Ms. Kennedy's practice focuses on corporate and securities law matters, with a focus on public and private financings, mergers & acquisitions, corporate reorganizations and related-party transactions. She has acted for issuers, selling shareholders, independent committees of boards of directors and investment dealers in a variety of debt and equity capital market transactions.

Keough, Loyola G. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3429 keoughl@bennettjones.com Mr. Keough is a partner in the firm's Regulatory/Environmental Department.

He has particular experience in oil, gas, electricity, LNG, rates, facilities and environmental matters. His clients include utilities, project proponents, pipelines, producers, buyers, shippers and financial institutions.

Kraus, Brent W. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3071 krausb@bennettjones.com Mr. Kraus is Co-head of the firm's Corporate Department and focuses on M&A and capital market transactions involving clients in the upstream and midstream energy and oilfield services industries. He also advises with respect to corporate governance, special situations and shareholder activism. He acts for strategic acquirors and financial investors, local management teams and investment dealers.

Krawchuk, Leanne C. Dentons Canada LLP (780) 423-7198 leanne.krawchuk@dentons.com Ms. Krawchuk advises mining producers in Canada on corporate/commercial, construction and procurement, corporate finance and securities, mergers & acquisitions, and other legal matters, including the negotiation of supply agreements with electricity producers. She advises on royalties, price reviews, dedication and unitization agreements and assignments, and transfers of mining interests.

Kyte, Kevin Stikeman Elliott LLP (514) 397-3346 kkyte@stikeman.com Mr. Kyte's energy practice focuses primarily on domestic and international mergers & acquisitions and regulatory issues in business and financing transactions. His recent work includes: representation of a Canadian public company in its wind power projects in Québec, including joint-venture agreements, review of RFPs issued by Hydro-Québec, negotiations with governmental entities and financing.

Langen, Dennis P. Stikeman Elliott LLP (403) 266-9074 dlangen@stikeman.com Mr. Langen is a partner in the Energy Group where his practice focuses on the regulation of energy development and energy infrastructure. He has significant experience with the regulation of oil and gas facilities, power facilities, oil and gas development, energy export and import, and the economic regulation of pipelines and public utilities.

Langlois, Martin Stikeman Elliott LLP (416) 869-5672 mlanglois@stikeman.com Mr. Langlois is a partner practising corporate and securities law, and a former Co-head of the Mergers & Acquisitions and Private Equity Groups. He focuses on domestic and cross-border mergers and acquisitions (including leveraged buyouts), securities and corporate finance transactions, as well as corporate governance and other commercial matters.

Legge, Dion J. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-9438 dion.legge@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Legge practises tax law and advises on domestic and international tax planning with a focus on corporate reorganizations, M&A, financings, privateequity investments and resource taxation. He also advises on tax-planning issues related to international structures for Canadian-based multinational businesses, on foreign investments in Canada and on structuring crossborder M&A and divestitures.

Lenz, QC, Kenneth T. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3317 lenzk@bennettjones.com Mr. Lenz is the Co-head of the firm's Litigation Department and has significant experience in special situations involving corporate and shareholder disputes, class proceedings, claims against directors and officers and managing corporate reorganization and the realization of assets. He is also widely recognized as an expert in corporate insolvency issues.

Lewis, QC, Gregory D. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (604) 641-4923 greg.lewis@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Lewis, who is the leader of the firm's Canadian infrastructure practice, focuses on commercial transactions and financings in energy, infrastructure and other sectors. His experience includes hydro, co-generation and LNG projects and public-private partnerships.

Litton, KayLynn G. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (403) 267-8192 kaylynn.litton@nortonrosefulbright.com Ms. Litton is a partner in the Calgary office and practises primarily in the energy area. She regularly assists clients on a broad range of corporate and commercial matters, including domestic and international acquisitions and divestitures, joint-venture projects, midstream contracts, corporate reorganizations, Aboriginal consultation and general contractual matters.

Lyons, Catherine A. Goodmans LLP (416) 597-4183 clyons@goodmans.ca Ms. Lyons counsels private- and public-sector clients in planning and environmental law. She focuses on permitting, allocation of environmental risks and costs and social licence matters for energy clients such as Brookfield Asset Management, Enwave, Ontario Power Generation, Atlantic Power, Recurrent Energy and SkyPower.

Macaulay, David J. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3479 macaulayd@bennettjones.com Mr. Macaulay represents domestic and international developers of commercial energy projects, with an emphasis on structuring power projects, pipeline and mining joint ventures, and oil & gas projects in Canada, Australia and Mexico. He is Co-head of the firm's Power and Renewable Energy practice group.

MacKay-Dunn, QC, R. Hector FARRIS LLP (604) 661-9307 hmackay-dunn@farris.com Mr. MacKay-Dunn has over 30 years of practice experience providing legal advice to high-growth public and private companies over a broad range of industry sectors including energy, mining, life sciences, health, and technology, advising on corporate domestic and cross-border public and private securities offerings, mergers and acquisitions and international partnering and corporate governance.

MacWilliam, Alexander G. Dentons Canada LLP (403) 268-7090 alex.macwilliam@dentons.com Mr. MacWilliam is Canada lead for the global Environment and Natural Resources, and Climate Change Strategies groups. He regularly advises Canadian and international clients on all legal issues relating to the environment, including regulatory approvals, compliance, contaminated land, climate change, transportation of dangerous goods and development of internal environmental practices and systems.

Maguire, Patrick T. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3184 maguirep@bennettjones.com Mr. Maguire acts for energy companies on a range of transactions, both in Canada and internationally, including purchases, sales, joint ventures and other co-ownership vehicles, energy commodity transportation, sales and related transactions and related energy project financings. He is also Managing Partner of the firm's Calgary office.

Manning, Lewis L. Lawson Lundell LLP (403) 781-9458 lmanning@lawsonlundell.com Mr. Manning's practice focuses on energy regulatory matters in the electric and oil & gas sectors - including rates, toll design, energy price-setting plans, cost of capital, facilities approvals, transmission and distribution access, and operating issues before the AUC, AER and NEB. He serves as counsel on energy matters before the Alberta Court of Appeal, SCC and private arbitrations.

Mark, Alan H. Goodmans LLP (416) 597-4264 amark@goodmans.ca Mr. Mark's practice focuses on electricity law/regulation, corporate/commercial litigation, restructuring, insolvency and class actions. In the electricity sector, he represents industry participants before the Ontario Energy Board, arbitral tribunals and the courts, including the Supreme Court of Canada.

He has expertise with the legislative and regulatory framework of the Ontario energy market.

Massé, David Stikeman Elliott LLP (514) 397-3685 dmasse@stikeman.com Mr. Massé specializes in M&A, securities and corporate finance, with a focus on the mining and energy sectors. He is member of the Mining Group and has significant experience acting for mining companies, issuers, sponsors, underwriters and financial institutions in connection with M&A, financings, joint ventures and mining development projects in Canada and abroad.

McInerney, Thomas W. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-4484 mcinerneyt@bennettjones.com Mr. McInerney advises clients in the energy sector on a broad range of domestic and international commercial transactions. He has considerable experience in energy-based acquisitions and divestitures, with a particular expertise in energy project development involving oil sands, pipelines, electrical power transmission and generation including solar, wind and biomass renewable energy projects.

Mercury, John M. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-4493 mercuryj@bennettjones.com Mr. Mercury, head of the firm's Private Equity practice group, focuses on mergers, acquisitions and corporate finance transactions, primarily on behalf of US and Canadian private-equity investors. He also plays a strategic role at the firm as a Vice-Chairman, overseeing key clients and industries.

Miller, Keith F. Stikeman Elliott LLP (403) 266-9055 kmiller@stikeman.com Mr. Miller is a partner in the Energy Group, acting in both power and oil & gas regulatory matters. His practice focuses primarily on the Alberta electric transmission system and competitive markets, and public utility and energy regulation. He has extensive hearing experience before the National Energy Board, the Alberta Utilities Commission and the Alberta Energy Regulator.

Moch, Darcy D. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3390 mochd@bennettjones.com Mr. Moch's tax practice focuses on corporate M&A, reorganizations and financings, in-bound and out-bound investments and personal and succession matters. He is the past Chair of the CBA's National Tax Subsection, a past Co-chair of the CBA-CPA Joint Committee, a past Governor of the Canadian Tax Foundation and a past Director and President of the Canadian Petroleum Tax Society.

Mohamed, Munaf Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-4456 mohamedm@bennettjones.com Mr. Mohamed maintains a national litigation practice and regularly appears as counsel across the country. He has extensive experience in large-scale, complex fraud and energy disputes including multi-month trials involving claims related to oil & gas infrastructure, reserves misstatements, design, construction and failure of pipelines and inadequate disclosure claims in energy-related transactions.

Mongeau, Éric Stikeman Elliott LLP (514) 397-3043 emongeau@stikeman.com Mr. Mongeau's practice of general commercial litigation focuses, amongst others, on the energy sector. His recent mandates include representing Churchill Falls Hydro power plant in a motion to obtain a judgment on the interpretation of the renewal terms of a long-term PPA, and IPPs in arbitration proceedings in connection to the renewal conditions of their long-term PPAs with a public utility.

Morency, Claude Dentons Canada LLP (514) 878-8870 claude.morency@dentons.com Mr. Morency is Managing Partner of Dentons' Montréal office. His practice focuses on corporate, commercial and construction litigation. He has extensive knowledge and experience in managing and conducting large-scale litigation before arbitral or judicial courts, and has experience defending parties involved in investigation processes, as well as in statutory criminal matters.

Munro, Shawn M. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3481 munros@bennettjones.com Mr. Munro advises clients on regulatory, environmental and Aboriginal issues for energy developments, including major oil, gas and electricity projects, and resource conflicts between energy producers. He also advises on agricultural projects of various kinds. He is Co-chair of Bennett Jones' Energy & Oil & Gas Industry Team and past Chair of its Environmental and Aboriginal Practice Groups.

Murphy, Timothy J. McMillan LLP (416) 865-7908 tim.murphy@mcmillan.ca Mr. Murphy's practice focuses on transactions comprising a public component and involving project finance, infrastructure, energy and construction law.

He acts for authorities, concession companies and lenders in structuring P3 arrangements. His public-sector experience includes serving as Chief of Staff to Canada's Prime Minister, Chief of Staff to Canada's Finance Minister and as an Ontario MPP.

Naffin, Daron K. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3668 naffind@bennettjones.com With a practice focused on energy, environmental and regulatory law, municipal planning as well as expropriation and surface rights, Mr. Naffin acts for energy companies, municipalities and utilities. He has experience with matters regarding all aspects of energy facility applications and is involved in matters concerning reclamation, remediation, contaminated sites and Alberta power projects.

Nawata, Denise FARRIS LLP (604) 661-1746 dnawata@farris.com Ms. Nawata is a partner in Farris LLP's Securities and Corporate Finance, M&A and Mining & Energy practice groups. She consistently represents clients in cross-border M&A and various financings.

Negenman, Paul M. Lawson Lundell LLP (403) 218-7542 pnegenman@lawsonlundell.com Mr. Negenman advises on the drafting and negotiating of agreements for the acquisition and divestiture of oil & gas assets, and in relation to upstream and mid-stream joint-venture agreements, leases and royalty agreements.

He also provides advice relating to day-to-day disputes and issues with jointventure participants, royalty owners, fee simple owners of oil & gas properties and ARO disputes.

Nigro, Mario Stikeman Elliott LLP (416) 869-6810 mnigro@stikeman.com Mr. Nigro is a partner in the Mergers & Acquisitions and Private Equity & Venture Capital Groups. His practice focuses on business law, including reorganizations. He also has extensive experience working with private-equity and venture-capital firms on numerous acquisitions and dispositions. He has worked on numerous Canadian private-equity fund transactions for leading private-equity firms.

Nixon, Christopher W. Stikeman Elliott LLP (403) 266-9017 cnixon@stikeman.com Mr. Nixon is a partner in the Corporate Group and Head of the China Group.

His practice focuses on business law, with an emphasis on mergers and acquisitions, corporate finance, joint ventures, corporate reorganizations and corporate governance.

O'Leary, Dean A. FARRIS LLP (604) 661-9316 doleary@farris.com Mr. O'Leary's practice focuses on commercial transactions in a variety of industry sectors including energy and infrastructure. His experience includes reorganizations, acquisitions and divestitures, power supply arrangements, power project financing and development and power project-related commercial and real estate matters, including expropriations.

Olynyk, John M. Lawson Lundell LLP (403) 781-9472 jolynyk@lawsonlundell.com Mr. Olynyk advises oil sands developers, renewable energy developers, railways, mining and forestry companies, utilities and clients on environmental and regulatory matters and on Indigenous law matters, including consultations with Indigenous groups, negotiation of cooperation protocols and impact benefit agreements, ESTMA reporting requirements and related commercial and property tax matters.

Osler, William S. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3426 oslerw@bennettjones.com Mr. Osler's practice includes securities law and M&A, commercial transactions and corporate governance, with a particular focus on the energy sector. He has significant experience in IPOs and other public offerings for issuers and underwriters, as well as Canadian and international take-over bids and plans of arrangement, corporate reorganizations, divestitures, joint ventures and partnerships.

Paul, Sacha R. Thompson Dorfman Sweatman LLP (204) 934-2571 srp@tdslaw.com Mr. Paul practises primarily in the areas of Indigenous law and civil litigation with an emphasis on business development on Indigenous territory. He is a member of the Manitoba, Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories Law Societies. He has taught at the University of Manitoba Law School in the past.

Perry, Chrysten E. Stikeman Elliott LLP (403) 266-9010 cperry@stikeman.com Ms. Perry is Managing Partner of the Calgary office and Co-head of the Energy Group. She has over 30 years' experience practising corporate, commercial and mergers and acquisitions law related to oil and gas projects, spanning several industry sectors including conventional petroleum and natural gas, LNG, NGLs, heavy oil, shale and coal-bed methane.

Peterson, Darrell R. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3316 petersond@bennettjones.com Mr. Peterson's practice focuses principally on transactions for natural resource industry participants, including companies engaged in oil and gas exploration and production, midstream activities, upgrading and refining, and oilfield services. He has significant experience in mergers, acquisitions and divestitures; equity and debt financings; and private-equity investments.

Piasta, John E. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3333 piastaj@bennettjones.com Mr. Piasta is Co-head of Corporate Finance and M&A at Bennett Jones and his practice focuses on securities law, commercial transactions, corporate finance and M&A. He acts for issuers and agents/underwriters on private and public debt and equity offerings, including cross-border financings, and in connection with domestic and cross-border M&A transactions.

Prete, Jana Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-4478 pretej@bennettjones.com Ms. Prete, a partner in the firm's Energy practice, advises clients on corporate commercial law, mergers & acquisitions, joint ventures and energy-related matters, including conventional and non-conventional oil & gas, electricity and wind.

She negotiates and drafts asset and share purchase and sale agreements, jointventure agreements, project agreements, and other industry-specific agreements.

Pritchard, Andrew Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (613) 780-8607 andrew.pritchard@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Pritchard practises corporate and commercial law with an emphasis on energy-related projects including real estate, land use and development and regulatory matters. He has extensive experience in acquisitions, dispositions, financings and development of energy projects, including the structuring of ownership and management projects.

Rautenberg, L. Alan Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-2067 rautenberga@bennettjones.com Mr. Rautenberg provides tax planning advice for domestic and cross-border investment, mergers & acquisitions, debt & equity financing, reorganizations and securities offerings. He acts for public corporations, large, closely held companies and private-equity funds.

Reid, David A. Cox & Palmer (902) 491-4131 dreid@coxandpalmer.com Mr. Reid provides corporate, commercial and regulatory advice to major oil & gas projects, exploration and production companies, government and renewable energy projects including wind and tidal generation. His experience includes acquisitions of energy service companies in Atlantic Canada and Alberta, negotiation of service agreements and the development of the Play Fairway Analysis for offshore Nova Scotia.

Richer La Flèche, Erik Stikeman Elliott LLP (514) 397-3109 ericherlafleche@stikeman.com Mr. Richer La Flèche is a partner and key contact of the Project Development & Finance, First Nations, India and Japan practice groups. His practice extends to infrastructure, mining and natural resources, and electricity in Canada and abroad. He has advised First Nations in Québec on wind power projects and mining, and regularly represents sponsors, governments and lenders in major projects.

Richmond, Mike McMillan LLP (416) 865-7832 mike.richmond@mcmillan.ca As Co-chair of McMillan's Energy Group, Mr. Richmond has supported the development and operation of hundreds of renewable, co-gen, storage and distributed power projects. Clients benefit from his unique combination of commercial expertise and deep regulatory and policy background, having served as Director of Toronto Hydro, Senior Advisor to the Energy Minister and Member of the National Energy Board.

Riley, Y. Beth Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3096 rileyb@bennettjones.com Ms. Riley provides strategic competition and foreign investment advice to Canadian and foreign clients (including SOEs) in the context of mergers, strategic alliances, commercial transactions and unilateral conduct, in addition to compliance matters, with a wealth of experience in the energy industry. She also provides corporate & securities law advice, including M&A and commercial transactions.

Rimer, Philip M. Dentons Canada LLP (613) 783-9634 philip.rimer@dentons.com Mr. Rimer leads the Ottawa office of Dentons' Real Estate, Project Development, and Banking and Finance practice groups. He represents national and international clients, who include institutional stakeholders (including pension funds, banks and public-sector entities) involved in commercial real estate and infrastructure projects.

Rosenberg, Sheryl A. Thompson Dorfman Sweatman LLP (204) 934-2312 sar@tdslaw.com Ms. Rosenberg practises primarily in the area of environmental law. She provides clients with advice concerning environmental approvals and licensing, mining and mine rehabilitation, natural resource development, regulatory compliance, contaminated sites and litigation of environmental matters.

She has provided advice to Manitoba Hydro's Keeyask Generating Station and Hudbay's Lalor Mine.

Roth, Bernard J. Dentons Canada LLP (403) 268-6888 bernard.roth@dentons.com Mr. Roth is a lead member of Dentons' Energy group. His practice includes the regulation of infrastructure, including environmental assessment processes, and all required environmental and regulatory approvals. He has significant expertise in utility regulation, including in appeals or judicial review applications to courts from regulatory decisions, as well as tolls/tariff and rates matters.

Roth, Jason D. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-2070 rothj@bennettjones.com Mr. Roth is head of the firm's Capital Projects Industry Group. He advises on infrastructure development projects and represents owners/developers and contractors in relation to domestic and international infrastructure, LNG, power, electrical transmission, pipeline, natural gas processing and other projects.

Roth, Robert R. Dentons Canada LLP (780) 423-7228 robert.roth@dentons.com Mr. Roth advises clients in a diverse range of sectors with mergers and acquisitions, project development (including P3s), corporate finance, corporate structuring and governance and commercial transactions. His practice is particularly focused on planning, structuring and implementing transactions; drafting complex commercial agreements; and advising boards on matters of governance and policy.

Ruby, Peter D. Goodmans LLP (416) 597-4184 pruby@goodmans.ca Mr. Ruby's practice focuses on energy-related proceedings before courts, including the SCC, arbitration of energy players' private disputes, matters before the OEB and other provincial regulators regarding generation, transmission and distribution issues. Has acted for the Canadian Electricity Association, represented electricity utilities and renewable energy developers and acts as an arbitrator and mediator.

Shapiro, Elliot Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (514) 847-4516 elliot.shapiro@nortonrosefulbright.com As Co-chair of Norton Rose Fulbright's Canadian Corporate Finance and Securities team, Mr. Shapiro's transaction-oriented and cross-border practice focuses on corporate and securities law, public and private M&A, Board advisory, governance and disclosure, and private-equity and venture-capital transactions. He also works on commercial licensing, technology transfer and collaboration arrangements.

Sides, Tom A. Dentons Canada LLP (780) 423-7138 tom.sides@dentons.com Mr. Sides is a partner and chair of the National Technology Transactions Law Group. His practice focuses extensively on technology, intellectual property, privacy and related commercial legal issues for clients in the energy, financial institution, health, forestry, information technology and telecommunications industry sectors.

Simard, Chris D. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-4485 simardc@bennettjones.com Mr. Simard is Co-head of the firm's Restructuring and Insolvency group.

His practice encompasses all areas of restructuring and bankruptcy, as well as energy litigation. He acts for creditors, debtors, court-appointed monitors, receivers and trustees and has conducted energy litigation on behalf of upstream producers, midstream companies and various other stakeholders in the energy industry.

Singer, Jeffrey Stikeman Elliott LLP (416) 869-5656 jsinger@stikeman.com Mr. Singer is Toronto's Managing Partner and a member of the firm's Executive Committee and Partnership Board. His market-leading practice focuses on domestic and international mergers and acquisitions, capital markets and private-equity related transactions. He is a published author, lecturer at various conferences and law schools and recipient of the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal.

Skelton, Christopher R. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3309 skeltonc@bennettjones.com Mr. Skelton is a partner in Bennett Jones' Calgary office. He is a member of the firm's Oil & Gas and Private Equity groups, and Co-chair of its Commercial Transactions Practice Group. His practice relates primarily to commercial transactions, with a focus on private investments and acquisitions, and project joint ventures.

Smith, QC, Lawrence E. (Laurie) Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3315 smithl@bennettjones.com Mr. Smith acts for utilities, pipeline/LNG/offshore projects before federal/ provincial regulators and has appeared before federal/provincial appellate courts and the SCC. He is former counsel to the National Energy Board; a former federal ministerial policy advisor; and has testified as an expert witness in a NAFTA Chapter 11 arbitration and before the California Energy Commission.

Sonshine, Aaron E. Bennett Jones LLP (416) 777-6448 sonshinea@bennettjones.com Mr. Sonshine practises corporate and securities law with particular emphasis on corporate finance, M&A, private equity and corporate governance matters.

He has substantial cross-border and domestic experience in the mining and power & utilities sectors, among others. He is a member of the Ontario Bar Association, the Canadian Bar Association and the PDAC.

Spector, Charles R. Dentons Canada LLP (514) 878-8847 charles.spector@dentons.com Mr. Spector leads the Dentons national Corporate Law practice group. His practice covers a wide range of commercial transactions focusing primarily on public and private corporate and project financing, takeovers, and mergers and acquisitions. He represents clients in certain key industries including energy, oil and gas, pulp and paper and mining.

Spitznagel, QC, Perry Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3153 spitznagelp@bennettjones.com Mr. Spitznagel is Vice-Chairman of Bennett Jones and former Managing Partner of the Calgary office. He has extensive national and cross-border experience in a broad range of corporate matters and has acted for clients in some of the largest transactions in Canada, including many of Canada's and North America's largest national and cross-border mergers.

Sproule, James T. McKercher LLP (306) 664-1322 j.sproule@mckercher.ca Mr. Sproule practises corporate commercial law with a focus on corporate governance and commercial real estate financings, natural resources law and securities law. His experience includes incorporations, organization and governance, small business advice, asset and share purchase acquisitions, securities offerings using exemptions or prospectus, partnership agreements and commercial real estate issues.

Squibb, Bradley G. Stikeman Elliott LLP (403) 266-9079 bsquibb@stikeman.com Mr. Squibb is a partner in the Corporate Group. His practice focuses on securities, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, corporate governance and securities regulatory compliance matters.

Stefaniuk, John D. Thompson Dorfman Sweatman LLP (204) 934-2597 jds@tdslaw.com Mr. Stefaniuk engages in a broad practice in energy, mining, natural resources and environmental law, property and project development, and government relations. He has particular experience in resource development, permitting and licensing, power sales, wind farms, regulatory approvals, agreements with government, mineral tenure, Indigenous consultation, negotiation, closure and rehabilitation.

Stenger, Geoff Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3642 stengerg@bennettjones.com Mr. Stenger's practice is focused on infrastructure projects, including in the oil & gas, industrial, transmission, renewable, pipeline, LNG, and government infrastructure industries, both in Canada and internationally. His experience includes assistance on a variety of EPC, EPCM, DB(FM), OEM supply and JV agreements as well as on RFP, lien and performance security (LC, PCG, bonds) matters.

Story, Craig A. Stikeman Elliott LLP (403) 266-9098 cstory@stikeman.com Mr. Story is a partner in the Corporate Group. His practice focuses on corporate, securities and M&A law, with an emphasis on private-equity and venture-capital funds (both fund formation and portfolio investments and dispositions), and including mergers and acquisitions, public and private capital markets offerings and corporate governance.

Stuber, Ron Dentons Canada LLP (604) 443-7129 ron.stuber@dentons.com Mr. Stuber is the National Co-lead of Dentons' Renewable Energy team.His practice focuses on the development and financing of projects and major commercial transactions, particularly in the energy and infrastructure sectors. He has extensive international experience advising proponents, lenders and others involved in major projects and transactions.

Sutcliffe, James E. McMillan LLP (604) 893-2317 james.sutcliffe@mcmillan.ca Mr. Sutcliffe has extensive experience in debt financing relating to infrastructure projects, acting for Canadian banks, foreign financial institutions, and Canadian and US law firms and corporations. He has advised on numerous loan transactions, including construction and term real estate deals; acquisition, operating and term loan deals; syndicated loan transactions; and asset-based loans.

Tarnowsky, QC, Gordon Dentons Canada LLP (403) 268-3024 gord.tarnowsky@dentons.com Mr. Tarnowsky is Co-lead of Dentons' Litigation and Dispute Resolution group.

His practice focuses on the resolution of corporate, commercial and energy industry disputes. He has served as counsel in numerous domestic and international arbitrations, and in the private and judicial mediation of commercial disputes.

Thackray, QC, Michael A. Dentons Canada LLP (604) 622-5165 michael.thackray@dentons.com Mr. Thackray is a partner in the Firm's Energy law group. He is recognized as a leading energy practitioner with extensive knowledge in all aspects of energy law and energy litigation. With more than 30 years' experience, he has been qualified as an expert before the courts in the United States and Alberta, and has provided expert opinion reports and evidence at trial.

Truswell, Jon C. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3097 truswellj@bennettjones.com Mr. Truswell's practice focuses primarily on domestic, cross-border and international mergers and acquisitions, public & private equity and debt financings, reporting issuer compliance, shareholder activism and critical situations, and restructurings and corporate governance.

Turcotte, Maxime Stikeman Elliott LLP (514) 397-2421 mturcotte@stikeman.com Mr. Turcotte's energy practice focuses on advising clients in the context of the development of energy projects, project finance and M&A and other monetization opportunities. He also has extensive experience in the area of renewable energy, in particular on wind power and hydro projects, infrastructure and utilities.

Vogel, Grant Dentons Canada LLP (780) 423-7272 grant.vogel@dentons.com Mr. Vogel works extensively in the areas of financial services, acquisitions, dispositions and development of real estate as well as general corporate commercial matters. He advises mortgage lenders, banks, asset-based lenders, owners and developers of real estate, and publicly traded and privately owned oil field service businesses in domestic and cross-border transactions.

Warrier, Vivek T.A. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3040 warrierv@bennettjones.com Mr. Warrier advises on infrastructure project development and private M&A in the energy industry. His practice encompasses the entire PNG and power value chain, from upstream and midstream developments to energy marketing. He is engaged on projects at the forefront of emerging trends in Canadian energy, including LNG/LPG export facilities, petrochemical developments and renewables projects.

Warsaba, QC, Patricia J.F. McKercher LLP (306) 565-6509 p.warsaba@mckercher.ca Ms. Warsaba is a senior commercial and corporate partner in the Regina office. She has a broad range of experience in handling and advising on resource-based matters relating to alternative energy sources including wind and solar developments. She also has a special emphasis in the agri-foods industry and other agricultural enterprises.

Webb, Ian D. Lawson Lundell LLP (604) 631-9117 iwebb@lawsonlundell.com Mr. Webb advises governments, public utilities, power marketers, biofuel and alternative energy producers on energy regulation, hearings and commercial transactions. He acts for the largest electric utility in BC and one of the largest district energy utilities in Canada. He also advises municipalities on issues related to pipeline companies placing their infrastructure under city roads.

Wiazowski, Peter J. Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP (514) 847-6047 peter.wiazowski@nortonrosefulbright.com Mr. Wiazowski practises corporate finance and securities law, focusing on cross-border debt capital markets and banking. As a liability management expert, he represents borrowers and lenders, and issuers and underwriters, in secured loans, debt offerings, debt tender offers and strategic refinancings, as well as debt finance solutions for M&A, asset portfolio optimization and project finance.

Willis, Peter A. McMillan LLP (416) 865-7210 peter.willis@mcmillan.ca Co-chair of the firm's Infrastructure and Energy Group, Mr. Willis advises clients on matters relating to corporate finance with an emphasis on project finance, and public-private and structured finance. His practice is increasingly devoted to advising consortia, arrangers, lenders and other P3 participants; and assisting developers and equity participants involved in renewable energy projects.

Yorke-Slader, QC, Blair C. Bennett Jones LLP (403) 298-3291 yorkesladerb@bennettjones.com Recognized by Benchmark Canada as Canada's 2019 Trial Lawyer of the Year, Mr. Yorke-Slader is a leading practitioner in high-stakes corporate and commercial dispute resolution with an active trial and appellate business and energy litigation and arbitration practice. He is a Fellow of the American College of Trial Lawyers and the International Academy of Trial Lawyers.

Zacher, Glenn Stikeman Elliott LLP (416) 869-5688 gzacher@stikeman.com Mr. Zacher is a partner in the Litigation & Dispute Resolution Group and Co-head of the Energy Group. His practice focuses on complex commercial litigation and class actions and on energy regulatory law. He has appeared before all levels of provincial courts and the Supreme Court of Canada, and has conducted arbitrations and acted as counsel before various administrative tribunals.

Zalmanowitz, QC, Barry Dentons Canada LLP (780) 423-7344 barry.zalmanowitz@dentons.com Mr. Zalmanowitz represents clients in in all aspects of the Competition Act.

He also represents clients in compliance with the Investment Canada Act and establishes competition and antitrust compliance programs and policies. His industry experience includes agriculture, oil and gas, restructured electricity, oil and gas service, pipeline, retail and airlines.

Zych, Kevin J. Bennett Jones LLP (416) 777-5738 zychk@bennettjones.com Mr. Zych focuses on loan workouts and judicially supervised restructurings under the CCAA and CBCA and has led client engagement teams on Tervita, Bellatrix, Connacher Oil, Lone Pine Resources, Sino Forest, Nortel, Sanjel, Nelson Education, Algoma Steel, Quicksilver Resources, Toys R Us, Ainsworth Lumber, Smurfit-Stone, Trident Resources, NCSG Crane, US Steel, and Concordia Healthcare.

Thursday, September 12, 2019
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Saturday, September 14, 2019 – Page B18

SHEILA AUSTIN

We are deeply saddened to announce the death of Sheila Austin (née Toban) in Toronto on September 10, 2019, at the age of 87, after a long life lived with generosity, empathy and respect for all people. Sheila was born in Vancouver, B.C. on August 11, 1932, the third of four daughters of Harry and Mona Toban. She earned a Bachelor of Social Work from the University of British Columbia and then an MSW from Boston University before returning to Vancouver to practise as a psychiatric social worker. She put her career aside to raise her three daughters, during which time she was an active volunteer, specializing in the development of school libraries.

Later, she returned to social work, at Riverview and St. Vincent hospitals, making a difference in many lives. In 1980, Sheila realized what had been a dream since listening to Hawaii Calls on the radio as a child, and moved to Honolulu for a decade, where she became a student of Hawaiian culture and language, in addition to continuing her social work practice. Eventually, she moved back to Vancouver to be closer to her aging father, and was honoured with the Woman of Valour award in 1997 for her service to the Jewish community. Her later years saw the blossoming of her astounding talents as a chocolate maker and cake decorator; her birthday cakes for her precious grandchildren were works of art. Sheila was predeceased by her parents and her sisters Rosalie and Sandra.

She leaves her sister Phyllis; her daughters Edie, Shari and Barbara (Trevor); her ex-husband Jack Austin; grandchildren Max, Annalisa, Gabriel and Isaac, Aaron and Sophie, and Daniel and Alexander; and many relatives and friends. Our deepest gratitude to caregivers Karen, Yemme and the team at the Baycrest palliative care ward. Funeral services were held in Toronto.

Donations in Sheila's memory may be made to Kids Help Phone or the charity of your choice.

CHRISTINE MARCELLE BIGGS (née Fisher)

Born January 1, 1968 passed away peacefully on September 8, 2019 surrounded by family and friends after a courageous battle with pancreatic cancer.

Loving mother to Benjamin, devoted wife to Edward (Ted); she is also survived by parents Julian and Jean Fisher (nee Abraham), sister Julie Mascarin (nee Fisher) and husband Thomas, brother John Fisher and wife Catherine (nee Minns). Mother-in-law Diane Biggs (nee Daniels) and husband William Biggs (deceased) and sister-in-law Tracey Biggs-Pearce.

She was loved and will be remembered by nieces and nephews: Mikayla, Jessica, Crystal, Melanie, Justin and Shawn.

She lived her life with boundless love, energy, grace and gratitude.

She had a passion for every new challenge from motherhood, to sailing, skiing, scuba, to new career opportunities. A natural athlete, and devoted mentor, she accomplished all with equal ease.

Chris faced this last challenge with astounding grit, humour and courage. Determined and loving to the very last she was a beautiful soul taken from us far too soon.

A Prayer Service will be held on Monday, September 16th at 11 a.m.

at the Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Ave. W. (2 stop lights west of Yonge St.), Toronto. Reception to follow. The family has requested that in lieu of flowers that donations be made to the Terry Fox Foundation and Pancreatic Cancer Canada.

MARY JACQUELINE BRISBY (née Hume)

Jackie Brisby passed away peacefully at home on Thursday, September 12, 2019 with her daughters by her side.

Jackie grew up in Vancouver, BC where she attended the University of British Columbia and studied life sciences. She later married James Brisby and moved to Toronto.

She was predeceased by her parents, Evelyn and Phil, her husband, Jim, her brother Philip and her sister Mary Bea. She will be dearly missed by her daughters, Sally Elliott and Susan, sisters Nancy and Jane (Don), brother Tony (Ruth), the McCarles families, numerous nieces and nephews and dear friend, John Bark.

Jackie loved nature, reading, playing bridge, flower arranging and tennis and especially enjoyed spending time with her friends. She also volunteered with a number of charitable organizations, her favorite of which was mentoring teens with personal and family challenges.

Jackie would want to thank her friends and the staff at the Balmoral Club for their kindness, care and compassion.

A private ceremony was held to honour Jackie's life.

In lieu of flowers, please consider donations to Covenant House of Canada. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

WALTER BAILLIE CARTER

Born in Toronto, Ontario on July 24, 1923. Loving husband of the late Joan Carter (nee Hassett); devoted father to Susan (Jeff) and John, and proud grandfather to Rebecca. He peacefully passed away on September 2, 2019 at the Palliative Care Unit at Sunnybrook Hospital. Professor Carter had a long and distinguished academic career in philosophy beginning at Queen's University in 1952. One of the highlights of his career was being awarded a Canada Council Senior Fellowship which allowed him to undertake research at Oxford University in 1962 - 63.

In 1965, he was a part of the first group of full time faculty members appointed to Atkinson College, York University where he spent the rest of his academic career. He loved university life and was very committed to the early York University goals of providing accessibility to higher education.

To this end he undertook many roles including chairman of the Philosophy Department at Atkinson College, a member of the Senate, and, participant in many other committees at the University.

Above all he loved to teach and engage with his students. At home, he loved to listen to classical music or read a murder mystery with a good glass of scotch.

Our thanks to the care workers who cared for him at home and the doctors and nurses at Sunnybrook.

A private cremation was held.

In lieu of flowers, donations in memory of Walter would be greatly appreciated by his family to York University (http://www.giving.yorku.ca/ inmemory) in support of the York University Retirees Association Mature Student Bursary.

MARIE GENEVIEVE CESCHI

Marie Genevieve Ceschi (Mimi) passed away peacefully with her beloved husband of 68 years holding her hand. Her beautiful smile will be missed by many, especially by her love, Emmi and her four daughters, Marguerite (Michael), Isabelle (Michael), Theresa (Gordon), Annie (Bill); her six grandchildren, Tegan, Nicole, Emilie, Crey, Pippa, Cheyanne and her great-granddaughter, Nina.

Our family would like to express our deepest gratitude to the staff of Crofton Manor and DeltaView for all the loving care and support they provided Mimi throughout her journey over the last number of years.

A Funeral Mass will be held on Thursday, September 19, 2019 11:00 a.m. at St. John the Apostle Parish, 5457 Trafalgar Street, Vancouver, B.C.

CAROL LYNN COOK (née Coventry)

Born June 11, 1941, in Toronto, died September 7, 2019, in Luxembourg. It is with great sadness that the family of Carol Cook announces her passing following a long battle with cancer.

She died peacefully and comfortably with her children and husband by her side.

Cherished mother to Craig and Christy, loving Gran to Matilda, Calum, Sebastian, and Finn, beloved sister to Alicia and Nancy, and devoted wife of fifty-seven years to her husband, David.

Following her career as a nurse in Toronto, she worked happily until retirement as a librarian at the American International School in Luxembourg. In addition to her passion for books and love of crosswords, Carol was a global traveller and general lover of life. She was full of grace and determination in the face of adversity. Her strength and enthusiasm for all she enjoyed was an inspiration. Carol will be dearly missed by her family and her many friends.

GEORGE JOSEPH CORMACK

Passed away peacefully on Wednesday, September 11, 2019 at the age of 89, with his daughter Cathy, brother David and sisterin-law Bev at his side. Loving husband of Joan (Dimma) for over 65 years, George was a totally devoted father to his children Michael (deceased), Cathy (Don) and Mary (deceased), as well as a caring brother to his sister Betty and brothers Walter (deceased) and David (Bev).

For over 50 years, George played a major role in Canadian real estate, helping grow Royal LePage to the foremost real estate company in the country. A graduate of St. Michael's College School in Toronto, George began his long real estate career in sales with A.E.

LePage, serving with diligence and dedication in a variety of roles, ultimately as President of the Residential Division. In 1986, he became President and CEO of Royal LePage.

From the beginning, George brought enthusiasm and determination to work every day. He strived to deliver the best level of service to the public, while establishing an exciting and rewarding environment for thousands who worked with the company. As the Canadian marketplace grew, his experience and drive contributed to rapid growth and expansion, including the introduction of many industry leading firsts. George served on several industry governing bodies, including serving as the inaugural Chairman of the Real Estate Council of Ontario.

A frequent fisherman at the Franklin Club and occasional golfer, George contributed to his community as First President of the Givens Daly Foundation for the Basilian Fathers, as a Board member of St. Joseph's Hospital, as President of St. Michael's School Alumni Association and as a Knight of Magistral Grace of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.

George was forever striving to provide the best for his family.

Many enjoyable summers were spent swimming and boating at cottages on Lake Simcoe and Lake Muskoka, and at family events throughout the year at the Granite Club in Toronto. George and the family loved travelling to many destinations across Canada, the United States, Europe and the Caribbean Islands. Spending Christmas and March Break at the family home in Florida was an annual tradition.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home, A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville) on Sunday, September 15th from 4:00 to 7:00 p.m. Funeral mass at Holy Rosary Church, 354 St. Clair Avenue West on Monday, September 16th at 10:00 a.m.

If desired, the family would appreciate donations to the Providence Heathcare Foundation. Condolences may be forwarded through www.

humphreymiles.com.

DR. GERALD PETER CRANSTON

On Wednesday, September 4, 2019, Dr. Peter Cranston, a much loved and respected family physician for over 48 years passed peacefully at home. A graduate of medicine from Queen's University, 1954. He deeply loved his family first, patients and the game of golf.

Dear husband of the late June Cranston (nee Day), devoted father of Christine Duffy (Michael), Peter (Gundi), Robert and Michael (Karen) and his brother Bob.

Son of the late Frederick and Geraldine Cranston, and brother to the late Larry and Don. Beloved grandfather of Jennifer, Michael and Kelly, Lisa, Lori and Tom, Taylor and Robbie, Samantha and Madeline. Great-grandparent to Andrew, Brendan, Carter and Reese. Uncle of many nieces and nephews.

Celebration service at the Church of the Ascension (33 Overland Dr., North York) at 11:00 a.m. on Monday, September 16. Reception to follow at the Church. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Church of the Ascension. Particular thanks to Dr. Jennifer Arvenitis and her team from the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care for her compassionate and skilled care.

MARGARET ALICE CUNNINGHAM

Died June 23, 2019 at North Bay Regional Health Centre as the result of a fall.

Her absence is deeply felt by daughter Chantal Phillips, her partner Arja Vainio-Mattila and grandchildren Astra and Felix; her son Julian, his partner Marie MacCormack and grandchildren Ella, Seamus and Flurina (Damian) and great-grandson Juri. Mourned by her sisters Ethne (John), Gwynn (Ewart), stepdaughter Liza, stepson Harry and partner Kari, stepdaughter Brenda, brother-in-law John, extended family members Rusty and Patsy, as well as her many nieces, nephews, co-workers and friends.

Pre-deceased by her parents, her brother Grif (Rusty) and sister Jocelyn (Garnet) and 5 partners: Albert Bowron, Norman Phillips, Otto Beck, George Griffiths and Jack Smaller.

Born June 17, 1926 at Aneroid, Saskatchewan to WWI veteran and Chiropractor Laurence D. Cunningham and U of T graduate and Dietician Gwladys Cunningham (nee Griffiths), who were both passionate pacifists and vegetarians. The growing family fled the depressionera prairies in 1930 to join the extended Griffiths family in St.

Catharines. After graduating U of T in 1949 and marrying Albert they lived and worked in England, Vancouver and several small towns in western Ontario before settling in Toronto, where she met Norman, the love of her life.

She followed him to Ottawa, after his unexpected passing Margaret and her two children lived with her parents in St. Catharines.

New relationships took her to Vancouver, and finally back to Toronto in 1982, where she spent the rest of her life and many happy years with Jack.

Her jobs included teaching, promoting women's equality nationally and within the Government of Ontario, and managing both a large residential co-op and the office of Feature Factory, Julian's company. Travels with partners, children and close friend including Imla took her to England, Ireland, Wales, Italy, France, Switzerland, Mexico, Crete, the Caribbean, Finland, all across Canada and the US.

Our Mother was many things; An economist, pioneering feminist, talented administrator, romantic, avid reader, copious and clear writer, socialist, seasoned traveller, enthusiastic gardener, the family historian, restorer of pine Canadiana and a great conversationalist. She was also a patient and caring mother who bounced back from many setbacks with the help of friends and family. Our Mother loved a dinner party, she loved a glass of red wine and she loved to laugh.

She honoured her ancestors, lived her values and passed those values on to her children and grandchildren; To this day we carry J.S. Woodsworth's Secular Grace wherever we go.

We are grateful to the Canadian health care system for the many extra years of life that Margaret received; eyes that kept reading, a heart that kept pumping and hips that kept her moving in to her 90's. A special thanks to all those in the co-op who helped her daily. A celebration of Margaret's life will be held at the Toronto Heliconian Club on Saturday, October 26th from 3-5.

CORNELIUS PIETER de VRIES

Cornelius Pieter de Vries ("Peter" or "Kees") passed away peacefully on September 12, 2019 in his 93rd year. Peter is survived by his wife and partner of 60 years, Trudy (nee Kroon); his three children, Caroline (Bela), John (Cassandra), and Justin (Nicola); and his six grandchildren, Henriette, Quincy, Hayley, Nikolas, Jacqueline and Jessica. Peter is survived by two of his five brothers, Karel (the Netherlands) and Han (France) and numerous nieces and nephews.

Peter was born, as he liked to say, above sea level in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. He was 13 when the Nazis invaded the Netherlands and spent the next five years making life as difficult as he could for the Nazis, including leading a school protest that resulted in his permanent suspension from school. After the war, he finished off his schooling in Switzerland before immigrating to Canada in 1951. He caught a ride on a re-fitted Liberty Ship and found himself iced-in in St. John's harbour before making his way to Montreal (t was a cold start to what would be a warm welcome from his adopted country). Peter liked to consider himself a "late-day pioneer" and took full advantage of the many opportunities a young country offered. He lived in Montreal, Grandview, Bathurst, and Vancouver before settling in Toronto where he met his future bride, Trudy, a young nurse (herself a recent immigrant from the Netherlands) in the Dutch delicatessen. Peter was generous man, with a sparking sense of humour and wit. His strict Calvinist upbringing served him well, as he worked hard and strove to get ahead. He was a successful businessman who was generous to his employees and his community. He put his family first and enjoyed spending time at the cottage on Georgian Bay for five decades. He lived by his motto, which he repeated often, that a "life of moderation" was the key to a successful and happy one. He led a varied and full life and his sunny, optimistic disposition served him well. May he rest in peace. Special thanks to Anabelle Ganal and Val Fernandez for their wonderful care, as well as the staff at Sunnybrook Hospital.

Condolences may be found at http://www.mountpleantgroup.com.

Donations in his memory may be sent to the Fred Victor Mission or the City of Toronto Tree Foundation.

PETER GORDON DUNDERDALE

Mr. Peter Gordon Dunderdale died peacefully with his son by his side at the Ross Memorial Hospital in Lindsay, Ontario on September 9, 2019 at the age of 73.

Peter was born on March 1, 1947 in Liverpool, England to Evelyn and Peter Dunderdale. Having moved to Canada with Susan and the kids, Peter continued his long and successful career in the pharmaceutical industry. Peter was an avid supporter of Liverpool Football Club and spent many, MANY happy hours watching their games. He was rightfully chuffed when they won the Champions League this year! Peter was a member of the Burlington Rotary Club which he enjoyed very much. He also volunteered his time to many individuals in need of support.

He leaves behind his daughter, Claire (James, grandson Rhys); his son, Ewan (Breia, granddaughter Isla); sister, Jennifer Sheridan; brothers, Adrian and Scott; and his ex-wife, Beverly John, a beloved and longtime close friend whose support and kindness has been invaluable, especially in recent months.

Thank you to Dr. Spears and the incredible nursing staff at St.

Mike's Hospital, Dr. Hirte and Dr.Craigie at Juravinski Cancer Centre and the Palliative team at Ross Memorial for your care.

Celebration of life will be held at a later date. You'll Never Walk Alone, Dad.

LILY FIELDING (nee Kivi)

Lily Fielding (nee Kivi) passed away peacefully on a beautiful Sunday morning at her home on Long Lake, September 8, 2019.

She was surrounded by her loving family and friends, as well as her dedicated team of caregivers, nurses and physicians.

Beloved wife of Clifford Fielding (predeceased) of Sudbury.

Predeceased by both her loving daughter, Brenda Wallace (Jamie) and son, Malcolm James "Jim" Fielding (Shirley, predeceased). Predeceased by her parents, Susanna and John Kivi. Predeceased by her sister Violet "Vi" Koski (predeceased by Toivo). Devoted grandmother to Norinne Perdue, predeceased, (Gerry), Murray Fielding (Debbie), Craig Fielding (Katriina), Jeffrey Wallace (Sarah), Kristen Wallace (Dan Park), and Gordon Wallace (Andrea Drager). Cherished greatgrandmother of Jason, Cameron, Angela Perdue; John and Katherine Wallace; Brendan and David Wallace Park. Sadly missed by her son-in-law, Jamie Wallace (Maureen Ofield); her grandsonin-law, Gerry Perdue (Gaye Fielding); and her many nieces and nephews.

Lily lived a humble but distinguished 103 years, partnered for 68 years with the love of her life, Cliff Fielding. She valued family above all else. The smiles she gave when visiting with her greatgrandchildren could brighten the darkest days. Among her favourite interests was gardening and she valued her membership in the Sudbury Horticultural Society.

She had a talent with orchids and drew great pleasure watching the hummingbirds that were drawn to her colourful flower gardens. Lily's magnificent pet peacocks were a delight to all visitors, particularly children. Lily was an avid bridge player to the end of her life. She looked forward to her weekly club as well as trips to the farm, where she played bridge nonstop with her nieces, nephews, and friends.

Throughout her life, Lily has been proud of her Finnish heritage and her Sudbury community. Inspired by her roots and her Northern Ontario upbringing, her most notable lifetime achievement beyond her family, was perhaps the creation of Kivi Park. Lily's memory will live on with the beautiful outdoor park that she left for all to enjoy.

Funeral Visitation in the Jackson and Barnard Funeral Home, 233 Larch Street, Sudbury. Friends may call 5 p.m. - 9 p.m. Sunday.

Funeral Service in the Church of the Epiphany, 85 Larch Street, Sudbury Monday, September 16, 2019 at 11 a.m. Interment in the family plot at the Civic Memorial Cemetery, Sudbury.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Clifford and Lily Fielding Foundation - Kivi Park would be appreciated.

For donations and messages of condolence, http://www.lougheed.org.

LINDA GRAYSON

1947 - 2019

Linda died on September 11, 2019. Linda held important positions at the Ontario Legislature, the Toronto District School Board, and Ryerson University. She is survived by her husband, Jack Granatstein; her son, Kyle (Denise); granddaughter, Elle; mother, Mary Forrest; brother, Brian Forrest; and sister, Patricia Castellarin (Glenn).

Cremation has occurred. At Linda's request, there was no service. In lieu of flowers, donations to a charity of choice will be gratefully acknowledged.

MARK GLEN ELLWOOD GREGORY

It is with great sadness to announce the passing of Mark Glen Ellwood Gregory at the age of 45. He passed away peacefully surrounded by family and friends on September 11, 2019.

Mark is survived by his wife of 17 years, Kristen; their three sons, Bennett (13), Cooper (11), and Hewitt (9); his parents, Glen and Ruth Ann Gregory; sister, Sheri Burn; brother-in-law, Scott Burn; in-laws, Harry and Annemarie Klassen; brother in-law, Brent Klassen; sisters-in-law, Kathleen Klassen and Val Steinmann; his nephews, Kieran, Nathan, Joel, Carter and Kaelen; and his nieces, Lauren and Allison.

Mark was born in Woodstock, Ontario on June 28, 1974 and attended Huron Park Secondary School. He graduated from McMaster University with a degree in Commerce. He married the love of his life on October 19, 2002 and in 2005, 2007, and 2010 welcomed three beautiful boys who were the most important thing in his life.

Being diagnosed in 2002 with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis he realized how to live life to the fullest and appreciate everything he had. He was a rare combination of someone who had a love of life and a firm understanding of what was important - the simplicity of living a life with those you love.

Mark loved his Collingwood winter weekends snowboarding followed by fireside chats with friends and family. Skiing in Whistler with his family and his annual boys ski trip were always highlights. Summer fun was equally loved with family summer road trips, wake surfing with his boys and best buds and an end of day swim at sunset rock at his beloved cottage on Skeleton Lake. He cherished his ongoing renovation projects with Kristen, Sunday football with Cooper, late night chats with Bennett and fishing alongside Hewitt and his dad. He was an unapologetic Denver Broncos fan, avid fantasy football player and devote Kid Rock follower. He was one of the kindest, silliest, easiest going guys you could know.

He is gone far too soon but will never be forgotten. His smile is way too big to go away. And for that we are thankful.

"If it looks good, you'll see it. If it sounds right, you'll feel it. If it's marketed right, you'll buy it. But...if it's real, you'll feel it." - Kid Rock "Let's rock on." - Mark Gregory, at the end.

A visitation will be held on Wednesday, September 18th from 4-7 p.m.

at the Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Avenue West (2 lights west of Yonge St.)

A funeral service will be held on Friday, September 20th at 3 p.m. at Christ Church Deer Park, 1570 Yonge Street (at Heath Street) with a reception to follow at the Toronto Cricket Club, 141 Wilson Avenue at 5 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations to support primary sclerosing cholangitis research at Toronto General Hospital would be appreciated by the family.

Please visit http://www.tgwhf.ca/tribute or call 416-603-5300.

MARION ELSWYTH HALL

On Wednesday, August 28, 2019, Marion passed away peacefully in Toronto. Marion was predeceased by her beloved husband, Bill and cherished daughter, Carolyn, as well as her brother, Trevor Eyton earlier this year. She is survived by and her loss is grieved by the surviving members of the Hall and Eyton families, including her son, John (Alina); brother, Tony (June); son-in-law, Danny Price; brother-in-law, Bert (Anne-Marie); much adored grandchildren, Stuart, Marek, and Kiera; and by her many loving nieces and nephews, on the Hall side, Nina, Nathalie and Lisa, and on the Eyton side Debbie, Sarah, Adam, Susie, and Chris.

Although her last few years were difficult as she struggled with Parkinson's disease, Marion led a very active professional and social life.

Born in Quebec City in 1931, she was educated at Quebec High School, Jarvis Collegiate, and the Ontario College of Art. She was initially highly successful in a commercial art career, but found her true vocation as an art teacher in Toronto secondary high schools. In retirement, she and Bill continued to create beautiful paintings and sculptures at their home in Toronto, cottage at Go Home Lake and winter home in Green Valley, Arizona. Always positive, always friendly, always creative, Marion made many lifelong friends along the way and indeed described them as her extended family.

Marion will be celebrated at a Memorial Service to take place at Belmont House at 11 a.m. on Saturday, October 5th. Special thanks to the attentive staff at Belmont House, and especially to Cameron Lutley, for the loving care they provided to Marion during the last years of her life.

MARK WILLIAM HAYWARD

Age 48 of Toronto and formerly of Halifax, Mark passed away on Wednesday, September 11, 2019 in Toronto. He was the beloved son of William and Mary (Sullivan) Hayward of Halifax.

Surviving are his dear wife and friend, Janel Fisher, his loving sisters Anne Cairns (Michael), Maureen Hayward of Halifax, and his much loved nephews Patrick and Will Cairns.

Mark was a graduate of Saint Mary's University. He lived and worked in Toronto for 18 years as a bicycle messenger, union official, and hospital administrator.

He loved riding his bike and traveled the world before settling in Toronto. He enjoyed life and had many friends in Toronto, Halifax, and around the world. Mark was a leader in the global bike messenger community and spent time travelling to many countries to organize and participate in bicycle messenger races. He was one of the people who came up with the motto of the Toronto Bike Messenger Association "You Never Ride Alone".

His loss is felt around the world where he built a legacy for his passion in community organizing and improving the lives of working people. Mark touched many people's lives and helped so many people over the years, he was known to be the most trustworthy and dependable of friends. He was the kind of person the world couldn't afford to lose.

A celebration of Mark's life will be held on Saturday, October 5, 2019 from 2:00 to 4:00 p.m.

at JA Snow Funeral Home, 339 Lacewood Drive in Halifax.

Memorial gifts may be made in Mark's name to Canadian Cancer Society, the Toronto Humane Society, or any group supporting worker's rights.

PAUL MICHAEL KAVANAGH

January 2, 1928 September 11, 2019 Paul Michael Kavanagh, aged 91, died peacefully at his Toronto home on September 11, 2019. He was born in Ottawa, Ontario, on January 2, 1928 to the late Alfred Byron Kavanagh and Monica Margaret Kavanagh (nee McEvoy).

With an undergraduate degree from the University of Toronto and a PhD in Geology from Princeton University, he was a mainstay of Canadian mining exploration for nearly 40 years, with senior positions at Kerr Addison, Rio Algom, Newmont and Barrick.

He served as president of the Geological Association of Canada in 1975-1976, and was a recipient of the Past Presidents' Gold Medal awarded by the CIM in 1972.

Grampa is survived by his devoted wife, Marcia; his loving children, Janet (Gordon) Webb of Chattanooga, Tennessee, Ted (Toni) Kavanagh of Pelham, New York, and Gerret (Heather) Kavanagh of Thornhill; also survived by his nine cherished grandchildren, Alex (Xi), Barth, Caroline (Alex), Will, Peter, Julia, Patrick (Caitlin), Andrew, and Timothy; and by his two greatgrandchildren, Siqi and Sixian. He was predeceased by his brother, John and is survived by his sisters, Anne (Garry) Guzzo of Ottawa, Sheila Serafini of Calgary; and sister-in-law, Lorraine Kavanagh of Ottawa who, along with many cousins, nieces, and nephews, are greatly saddened by his passing.

Paul's long exploration career took him to most corners of the globe, and he filled in many of the gaps with Marcia over the course of their nearly 46-year marriage.

He devoted many hours during his retirement to giving talks at assisted living facilities in Toronto, and playing bridge and cribbage with the residents. He maintained his good health and good spirits over the years by regular application of very dry martinis.

A memorial service is planned in due course. In lieu of flowers, donations to the St. Michael's Hospital Foundation or the Good Shepherd Ministries would be most appreciated.

LEE KEMP

Passed away peacefully at The Village of Tansley Woods in Burlington on September 11, 2019 at the age of 93. Predeceased by his wife, Betty. Loving father of Rosalind Kemp Gleave and her partner, Doug Stultz, and Ted Kemp and his wife, Pamela Corbiell-Kemp. Loving Papa of Christopher Gleave and his wife, Charlene, Trevor Gleave, Becca Kemp and her partner, Steven Hamagami, Beverly Kemp, and Great-Grandfather of Breanna Gleave and Benjamin Gleave.

Dear brother of Patricia Lalonde (deceased).

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter "Neweduk-Erin Mills" Chapel, 1981 Dundas St. W., Mississauga, (just east of Erin Mills Pkwy), on Sunday, September 15, 2019 from 10 a.m. until the time of the Funeral Service in the Chapel at 11 a.m. If desired, donations appreciated to a charity of your choice.

ANGELA JANE McCUMBER

June 4, 1946 September 4, 2019 Passed away peacefully at her home, Riverwood in Peterborough, Ontario surrounded by close family.

Angela was a strong creative woman, wife, mother, sister, aunt, and grandmother who had a life well lived, sustained by the love of family, friends, animals and art. Her love and memory will be carried and honoured by her husband David, son Alex and all those who knew her. A private service will be held at Little Lake Cemetery. Remember Angela through your love for others and reverence for nature, her spirit is with us always.

JAMES ARTHUR METCALFE P.Eng.

July 12, 1944 September 6, 2019 Jim Metcalfe, who loved and lived life to the fullest, passed away surrounded by his children, and his wife Valerie, soulmate, confidant and best friend for close to 20 years.

Jim was the very proud father of Beth Steklac (Ivo), Douglas (Pam Levine), Andrew (PaddiAnne Crossin) and Jeff (Jorda Miller); stepchildren, Micheal Fountain (Lara Thacker) and Dana Fountain (Julia Prime); his 12 loved grandchildren, Joshua, Katie, Spencer, Jacob, Henry, Charles, Abigail, Sydney, Lyla, Wilfred, Sylvan and Gloria.

Throughout his life, Jim enjoyed his passions including golfing at Bigwin Island, travelling to more than 70 countries, hiking, boating, gardening and mentoring.

Jim was born in Bozeman, Montana, and raised in Toronto, Ontario, home to the Metcalfe family since 1849 when his great-great-grandfather, James Arthur, MP, immigrated from Yorkshire, England.

Jim attended Fairmeadow Public School and York Mills Collegiate where his passion for sports led to winning Athlete of the Year awards. He earned a degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Toronto in 1966 followed by a Master's Degree from Purdue University.

Jim's 42-year career in consulting engineering included serving as President and CEO of Cansult Limited, and later CEO of the Middle East operations of AECOM.

He served as Strategic Advisor for the Gulf Region to TORYS LLP of Toronto and held senior positions on numerous boards and groups including the Young Presidents' Association, Canada Arab Business Council, Accreditation Canada, Innovation Advisory Board of George Brown College, and Crystal Fountains.

A Celebration of Life will be held in Jim's honour for his family, friends and colleagues in October.

Contributions in Jim's name may be made to the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, the Yonge Street Mission or Engineers Without Borders Canada.

MARY PRESTON MOORE (nee Rust)

It is with great sadness the family of Mary P Moore announce her passing on September 5, 2019, in her 97th year. Predeceased by husband, Frank Moore (1968).

Survived by sons, Bill (Mary) and Tim; granddaughters, Meghan (Mike) and Kate; nephew, James Rust; niece, Anne Kirkpatrick; and granddog, Torrie.

Born in Stratford, Mary graduated from the Toronto General Hospital School of Nursing in 1945 and the University of Toronto Public Health program in 1947. She worked in various roles of public health in Toronto until 1969. She returned to Stratford and worked at the Stratford Nursing School division of Conestoga College until her retirement in 1988. In her retirement, she dedicated 25 years to the Sunnybrook Volunteer program including a term as president.

A Celebration of Mary's Life will be held at the McDougall & Brown Funeral Home "Scarborough Chapel", 2900 Kingston Rd. (west of McCowan Rd.) on Thursday, September 19, 2019 from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m.

Expressions of sympathy in Mary's memory can be made to Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre or the Ontario SPCA. Online condolences may be left at http://www.mcdbrownscarb.ca

EVA MENDEL MILLER

100, of Calgary, passed away peacefully at 2:30 a.m., September 5th, with her family by her side. She leaves behind her three daughters: Susan Bixby (Chris), Linda Crawford (Dale) and Deborah Miller (Jay Winans). She also leaves six grandchildren: Benjamin (Jennifer), Miriam (Eric), Joshua (Jillian), Jonathan (Shannon), Andrew (Nina) and Elizabeth, nine great-grandchildren, and her very dear friends.

She was born to Frederick S and Claire Mendel on March 11, 1919 in the town of Recklinghausen, Germany. The family later moved to Berlin, but fled the country in 1933, the year Hitler came to power. As Jews, they kept one step ahead of German annexation, fleeing to Poland, then Hungary and Vienna, and finally settling in Saskatoon in 1940.

Throughout her life, Eva was devoted to visual beauty. She studied painting with some of the leading artists of her day, including Hans Hoffman, George Grosz and Goodridge Roberts. Eva was an accomplished oil painter and watercolorist, and in later years concentrated on collage.

Her works have been exhibited in solo and group exhibitions in France and Canada since the early 1940s. Eva was a gifted colorist, and her brilliant color harmonies grace many homes and galleries. Eva's artistic talent even led to one of her family's closest escapes from the Nazis: she forged their passports to remove all traces of their Jewish heritage.

Eva inspired her father to begin his collection of modern paintings, including both European expressionists like Emile Nolde and George Grosz and Canadian artists like Emily Carr and Lauren Harris. She advised him on the purchases which eventually formed the nucleus of the Mendel Gallery, for many years Saskatoon's premier cultural institution.

After moving to Canada, Eva showed her gratitude to her adoptive country by doing intelligence work in Ottawa. She was commended by the Royal Canadian Navy for decoding a message to a German prisoner of war, which pinpointed the location of the German battle cruiser the Graf Spee.

The ship was scuttled soon afterward.

She married her husband, the late doctor of tropical medicine Max Miller, in 1947. She traveled with him and her growing family all over the world, from India to Africa to Australia to her favorite city, New Orleans, before moving to Calgary. While other American and Canadian expatriates socialized in their tight, well-defined groups, Eva immersed herself fearlessly in local culture.

Eva had an unparalleled love of life and its small moments of joy. She passed on that appreciation, as well as the gifts of music, poetry, and visual arts, to her three daughters. Her lust for life never flagged. She may have been happiest the last 10 years of her long life, when she lived at Garrison Green Senior Center. She woke up every morning inspired by the color harmonies she had thought of during the night, which she turned into beautiful collages.

Her studio was always full of tiny bits of coloured paper, threatening to take over the whole apartment. Her daughters would clean the piles of paper up, and then they would miraculously reappear.

Eva's gratitude for the richness of her existence was palpable, especially later in her life. Shortly before her death, she said: "Life is fantastically beautiful. I'm overly happy. It's indecent to be this happy." Every day, she shared that thankfulness with whomever she encountered. She was quietly compassionate to those in need; her loved ones only found out about her many acts of kindness much later, when others praised her for her warmth and generosity.

Eva was attuned to the mysterious in life, to the unspoken, to the world of the imagination. A few weeks before she died, she said: "I don't know if this is a dream or real, but whatever it is, it is wonderful".

WILLIAM JOHNSTON MULOCK "Bill"

In Ottawa on September 8, 2019 in his 99th year. Beloved husband of Mary Elizabeth (nee Harrison) for 71 years. Formidable father to daughter Kathy Gillespie and son Frank (Linda). Proud grandfather to Meredith (Patrick Glinski) and Ian Gillespie, Caroline and Courtney Mulock. Greatgrandfather to Georgia and William Glinski. Bill practised with the Mulock law firm in Toronto before moving to Ottawa to act as President of the Young Liberals of Canada and subsequently served as Secretary at Defence Construction Canada. Bill was a consummate gentleman, always kind, understanding, wise, and humble. A special thank you to Dr. McKay and Dr. Lane at the Montfort Hospital for the compassionate care he received at the end of his life and to his terrific home caregivers who looked after him so well over the years.

A private family funeral will be held. In lieu of flowers, in memoriam donations to the Montfort Hospital Foundation (http://www.hopitalmontfort.com/en/ foundation) would be appreciated.

DOROTHY NEWMAN

At almost 101 years young, "Nana" spent her last evening sipping an excellent Martini and inquiring with sincere interest about the routines, dreams and goals of her grandchildren and great-grandchildren. More remarkable is that each progeny responded with enthusiastic detail waiting for the usual loving acknowledgement and praise.

This extraordinary matriarch hailed from Cleveland, Ohio and arrived in Toronto to spin a fancy dance of 68 years with her beloved Jack. An impressive dress code steered her through a glorious life filled with travel, theatre, golf, charity work, baseball games and lifelong friends. Predeceased by her wonderful Jack and adored son David. Dorothy is survived by her son, Fred (Elaine); and daughter, Ahava Spillman (Zelig); eight grandchildren; and eight great- grandchildren.

Memorial contributions may be made to the Jack and Dorothy Endowment Fund c/o Baycrest Foundation 416-785-2875.

CHARLES PERRAULT

1922 - 2019

Charles passed away peacefully in Sherbrooke August 31, 2019, one month before his 97th birthday. Upon his return from Europe after the war, he earned a master's degree in metallurgical engineering from McGill University, then worked for Alcan, Sorel Steel, and Quebec Iron and Titanium before becoming President of Casavant Frères, organ builders. In 1966, he was a member of the Bélanger Commission on Taxation. He founded the Conseil du Patronat in 1969, then Perconsult, his own consulting company specializing in labor relations. He sat on several corporate boards, including Bell Northern, Molson, Abitibi Consolidated and SNC. He was appointed Member of the Order of Canada in 1987.

Charles had a lifelong passion for history, economics and foreign affairs. He was a fan of classical music and jazz, and played the saxophone and the clarinet. He skied and sailed into his 80s. We can still hear him exhorting his crew to "hold her tight" confronting a gust on Lake Nominingue. Jogging kept him fit till late in life.

His family and friends recognize the importance he placed on honesty, integrity, rigor and generosity. That is the legacy he left his children and loved ones.

He leaves his partner Colette , his first wife Lucette (Benington), his sister Charlotte, his children Raymond (Elizabeth Trueman), Jean, Jacques (Michelyne Tremblay), Gabrielle and Suzanne (David Rago), the children of Cécile Rousseau: Paule, Michel (Lisa Petrucci), Constance and André, his grandchildren Martin, Jean-David and Andrew, and many relatives and friends.

A memorial will be held on Sunday October 20th at 5 p.m. in Tanna Schulich Hall of the Schulich School of Music, McGill University, 527 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal. His family would like to thank the intensive care staff of CHUS Fleurimont, particularly Dr.Marc-André Leclair, Marc, Vincent and the team, as well as the staff of floor 6a (Orthopedics) for their professionalism and extraordinary kindness. Gifts to the hospital would be appreciated.

JOHN WILLIAM RATHBONE "Bill"

Age 67, passed away peacefully on Tuesday September 3, 2019, at Sunnybrook Hospital in Toronto, surrounded by friends and family. He was born April 23, 1952 to John and Ilene Rathbone, the second of two children. He was a graduate (1971) of Sir Wilfrid Laurier C.I. and graduated with a B.Sc.

in Physiology and Pharmacology from the University of Western Ontario in 1975. Bill worked as a sales representative in Toronto for Xerox, Yellow Pages, and Royal Lepage, where he displayed his exceptional sociability, charisma, and sense of humour. Bill loved movies, cars, skiing, and spending time with his friends and family. He is survived by his children, John, Daniel, and Elizabeth, his sister Sharon, his grandchildren, Jack and Isla, and his nieces and nephews. Bill will be put to rest in a private burial, with a public memorial to take place in the future.

GEORGE SCHRAMM

On Wednesday, September 11, 2019 in Mississauga, in his 94th year. George was reunited with his loving wife Elsie. A devoted father to Gary and Sonja, and Diana and John Russell.

Cherished grandfather of Jennifer, Michael, Christine and Emily, and greatly missed by his greatgrandchildren Braxton, Brooklyn, Sutton, Gabrielle, Evangeline, Waverly and Winslowe. George cherished the many great times and memories shared with his family, friends and colleagues. His business career included custom home construction, Real Estate including a term as President of The Mississauga Real Estate Board. George had a strong passion for golf which drove him to his final career as managing partner in the acquisition and operation of Hidden Lake and Lowville Golf Clubs.

George was also a very accomplished player highlighted by Club Champion awards at Brampton Golf Club and Greystone Golf Club.

George had a keen interest in Thoroughbred Horse Racing and held ownership shares in multiple stakes winners Sweet Briar Too, Eighty Nine Red and stakes placed Eminent Force. With his dedication to family and friends he was an inspiration to all who knew him, he will be greatly missed.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter "Peel" Chapel, 2180 Hurontario Street, Mississauga (Hwy. 10 North of the Q.E.W.) from 6-9pm on Monday, September 16, 2019. A private family interment will follow. In memory of George, memorial donations may be made to CNIB or Long Run Thoroughbred Retirement Society.

Online condolences available through http://www.turnerporter.ca

HUGUETTE SCHWARTZ (née Rajotte)

In Montréal on September 7, 2019.

She leaves behind her husband Georges Schwartz, her daughters Annabel and Nathalie (Charles Décarie), her grandchildren Delphine and Romain, her sister Andrée, her nieces and nephews, as well as many friends and colleagues.

Visitation will be held on : Thursday, September 12th from 4:00 pm to 8:00 p.m.

Friday, September 13th from 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m.

at Centre Funéraire Côte-Des-Neiges 4525 Côte-des-Neiges Road Montréal QC H3V 1E7 (514) 342-8000 Warm thanks to the 6th floor team at St. Mary's Hospital who went out of their way to make her comfortable with such exceptional care.

Contributions in her memory may be made to St. Mary's Hospital Foundation.

Incredibly gifted for languages, passionate about architecture, Huguette Rajotte Schwartz possessed several qualities which led her to become one of Montréal's foremost tourist guides. An excellent communicator in five languages, she helped thousands of visitors and tourists discover her beloved city through her much appreciated tours.

Loving wife, mother and grandmother, supremely elegant and original with a remarkable wit, she was curious and always ahead of her time. She was the first Montrealer to drive a scooter, the first francophone to sing in a Ukrainian choir, and her in-depth knowledge of jazz music and musicians led her to co-found the Emanon Jazz Society, a group of passionate connoisseurs which left its indelible mark on Montréal's music scene in the 1950s.

Her versatility was put to use during Expo 67 when she headed the Québec Pavillion's team of hostesses. Her functions led her to meet numerous heads of state (including French President Charles de Gaulle just before his infamous "Vive le Québec libre !"

speech at Montréal's City Hall) and eventually to become General Secretary of the prestigious France-Canada Association.

Her passing leaves an unfillable void.

MICHAEL SHENSTONE CM

It is with great sadness that the family of Michael Shenstone announces that this devoted husband, father and retired Canadian diplomat died peacefully on September 9, 2019, in Toronto.

He was 91.

Born in Toronto in 1928 to Allen and Molly Shenstone, Michael spent most of his childhood in Princeton, N.J., where his Toronto-born father was a lifelong professor of physics at Princeton University. He attended Ottawa's Ashbury College during the war, then studied history and modern languages at Trinity College in the University of Toronto. It was at Trinity that he met the ever-sparkling Susan Burgess, a fellow member of the class of '49, who would soon become his wife and much-valued partner in his long career with the Canadian foreign service. (Michael died a few hours after their 68th wedding anniversary.)

After receiving an MA from Cambridge University and marrying Susan, Michael joined the Department of External Affairs in 1952, and was soon sent to Lebanon, first to learn Arabic and then take up a post at the Canadian embassy in Beirut. It was the start of a distinguished career that saw him become one of External Affairs's foremost experts in Arab and Middle Eastern issues, at a time when such issues were becoming of paramount importance.

Michael and Susan's three children, Thomas, Barbara and Mary, enjoyed peripatetic lives as the family moved from Beirut, to Ottawa, to Cairo, to Washington, back to Ottawa and on to London and Geneva.

Michael's first ambassadorial posting came in 1973, as Ambassador to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, in Geneva and Helsinki. In 1974 he was appointed Canada's first resident ambassador to Saudi Arabia.

Back in Ottawa in the late 1970s, Michael played a significant role in the "Canadian Caper" that saw the rescue of six American diplomats during the hostage crisis of the 1979 Iranian Revolution. As DirectorGeneral of African and Middle Eastern Affairs at the time, Michael was intimately involved as the key point of contact in Ottawa for Ken Taylor, the Canadian ambassador in Tehran who spearheaded the top-secret operation.

Michael later served as Assistant Deputy Minister of Political and International Security Affairs, and then, in 1985, he and Susan embarked on their final - and endlessly fascinating - overseas posting, in Vienna, where Michael served for five years as Ambassador to Austria, Head of Delegation to the talks on Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions in Europe and Permanent Representative to the United Nations's agencies in Vienna. In 1992 he retired from the Department of External Affairs after 39 years. Among his many postretirement activities, he co-founded and chaired an Ottawa-based humanrights organization, Action Canada for Population and Development.

He was appointed a Member of the Order of Canada in 2002.

A truly dedicated public servant, Michael was blessed with a rigorous intellect, a wide-ranging curiosity, a lively sense of humour and a passion for books, history, language and, of course, current affairs. He was perhaps never happier than when sailing on the Annapolis Basin at the ancestral family cottage in Smith's Cove, N.S.

Michael leaves his beloved wife Susan, his cherished children Thomas (Brenda), Barbara (Belinda) and Mary (Christopher) and four grandchildren of whom he was immensely proud, Amy and Leith Shenstone and Sarah and Claire Shenstone-Harris. He will also be much missed by his cousins and legions of friends, in Canada and around the world.

The family would like to thank Michael's personal support workers, Tashi Lhamo and Dawa Kyizom, for their care and tender devotion, and the long-term-care staff at Meighen Manor in Toronto.

An informal memorial service will be held at a later date. If desired, donations in Michael's memory may be made to Trinity College or the charity of your choice.

DOUGLAS HECTOR MACDONALD SMITH

1964 - 2019

The Death of Douglas Hector MacDonald Smith has occurred at his home in Sydney, Australia. He was the eldest son of Stuart Allen Smith and the late Valerie, (Poaps), Smith. He is survived by his son Lachlan, and Lachlan's mother, Terry Bursey (Ian), his father and step-mother Brenda Conboy, his sister Rachel Alexander, (Doug), brothers Matthew, (Rose), Adam, (Tascha), and numerous nieces and nephews, but above all, by Emily Wells, a childhood friend who, after many years, became the centre of his life.

Born in Ottawa and raised in Fredericton, he graduated in Geology from the University of New Brunswick.

As a geologist, he worked all over northern Canada, Alaska, and the Canadian Arctic. The explorer in him took him to the western deserts of Australia, and finally to Papua New Guinea. It was there he found a new family, and the search for gold was enriched by a love of the native people of the area. That love was returned by the people of Enga province, and especially, the Puman Aiyel and Yokorin tribes among whom he was known as "a man who greets people well." As a spontaneous gesture of affection and acceptance, a traditional two day village funeral has been held in Crown Ridge PNG.

Interment will be in Keswick New Brunswick at a later date and a portion of his ashes will return to Papua New Guinea at the request of the community.

HEATHER MIOKO SUTHERLAND

Mom, Grand, Grandy, Dr.

Sutherland: Heather lived a remarkable life, one that she forged for herself with determination and grit. She died May 28, 2019 in Vancouver. Born April 24, 1937 in Hamilton, Ontario, her early teen years were spent in Guyana with her missionary parents, Rev. BiF Andrew and Margaret Sutherland. Returning to Canada she was the epitome of a 1950s era teenager: Class Valedictorian; Cheerleader; and Prom Queen.

By 28, she was married to Hal Irwin with 3 children in tow, Drew Irwin (Laurie), Heather-Anne Irwin (Scott Russell), and Caitlyn Irwin (Caius St. George) and had been teaching for 10 years. With a divorce in the works, she started University while teaching full time and soldiered on through to earning a Doctorate of Education from University of Toronto in 1986.

Heather's work took her from being an innovative classroom teacher to developing ESL and Multicultural programs at the North York Board of Education, to working in Washington, DC as a consultant to the World Bank, United Nations, and US Agency for International Development She worked in over 25 different countries on 5 continents and made close and fast friends everywhere. She pioneered an e-commerce reading classes business in the tech boom.

Upon retirement at 70, she moved back to Canada where she concentrated on molding her grandchildren, whether that be taking Andrew and Julia Irwin to concerts, traveling with Matthew, Allie and Patrick Russell or going to museums with Magnus and Fraser St. George.

Heather was a very spiritual person, which included 25 years of activist involvement at Holy Trinity Church in Toronto, All Souls Unitarian Church in Washington, DC and within the Wiccan Reclaiming Community. In recent years she had to trade her swing dancing shoes for a wheelchair and lived at the fabulous Cavell Gardens in Vancouver.

Heather lived her life with joy, purpose and compassion - and pushed us all to be better and reach farther. A feminist superwoman doing it all, impeccably, with grace and gratitude. A Memorial Service will be held at The Church of the Holy Trinity, 19 Trinity Square, Toronto M5G 1B1, on Saturday, September 21, 2019 at 3 p.m.

SHIRLEY ANNE TAIT

1930 - 2019

Shirley Anne (Flemington) Tait died on August 30 as she had hoped she could, peacefully and at home in the care of the children who loved her, almost a year after she'd decided to accept palliative care. She remained gracious, patient, supportive and good fun throughout.

Shirl was married for nearly 67 years to Don Tait, who died this January as he helped care for her in their apartment. They were the devoted parents of Karen, David (Darlene Gunther) and Richard (Suzanne Bullock), grandparents of Sean and Ally Crighton (Karen, Iain Crighton parents), and greatgrandparents of RoseHarmony, born to Ally this July 1st. Shirl's dear brother Peter Flemington (Jean) lives in Toronto, and her sister-inlaw Patricia (Bob MacDonald, deceased) lives in Dartmouth, N.S. Her many nieces, nephews and cousins remained so important to Shirl, and made her feel loved in return.

Shirley Flemington was raised in Toronto, born there to Carl and Jessie (Jamer) Flemington, who'd come f r o m New Brunswick. She attended Forest Hill Collegiate and St.

Columba United Church. Shirl was close to her many uncles, aunts and cousins, and a lifelong sadness was the loss of her uncle Allen Flemington, killed in action with the RCAF in April 1943.

Shirl enrolled in Mount Allison University in Sackville, N.B., in 1947, played varsity basketball in her first two years, and was elected secretary and then president of the Women's Council in her final two. Her senior yearbook cites "her calm efficiency, gay personality and friendly charm" - plus "excellent marks."

Shirl returned early to campus in the fall of 1950 to prepare a welcome for arriving "Freshettes" and just as she was leaving a dining hall, in came an acquaintance who'd also returned early: Don Tait of Dartmouth, N.S., who'd come back for an extra year to add a B.Ed. to his BA. Don loved recounting how in that moment he simply thought, "There she is." They graduated together in 1951.

Don warned Shirl his school teacher's pay would be paltry, and it meant the world to him she'd replied, "What difference would it make if we have to live in a tent?" Don decided the navy offered better prospects, and they wed in Toronto in August 1952.

Shirl moved her navy family through seven postings and 12 homes, including in England. Karen was born at Annapolis Royal, N.S.; David in Victoria, B.C.; and Richard back in Dartmouth, N.S. Don left the navy in 1974 in Ottawa for Revenue Canada Taxation and retired in 1983. Their best times after that included trips to Scotland and quiet Augusts at the cottage.

Shirl's main joys were time with her children and grandchildren, volunteer work with literacy, tai chi and book club with dear friend Marilyn Sylvester, and just being with her dearest friend, Don. They were good, quiet, kind people who were a world of their own but always welcoming, and now they are together again and for always.

The family is deeply grateful to the Champlain LHIN and Carefor, whose skilled and kind staff made Shirl's choice possible. No service at Shirl and Don's request. A joint interment will be at Beechwood Cemetery in Ottawa this fall. In lieu of flowers, their family encourages donations to wherever they may help others.

In Loving Memory

DONALD MILLS M.A.Sc., Ph.D., P.Eng July 10, 1932

September 15, 2018 "How do I love thee?

Let me count the ways.

I love thee to the depth and breadth and height My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight For the ends of Being and ideal Grace" Thankful for our life together, my love! So much joy. until we meet again. Brenda Spencer DOUGLAS LORNE TURNER

In memory of our father, Douglas Lorne Turner, who passed away September 8, 2019 at the age of 91. He is survived by his wife, Lois Rae Turner (nee Jenkins), his daughters Anne and Mary, and daughter-in-law, Antje. His son Brian pre-deceased him.

Dad was the youngest of six children born to Bert and Edythe Turner, both of whom emigrated from England. Directly out of high school he joined the RCAF, initially as a technician, but ultimately moving to officer training to become a navigator. One of his early postings was to CFB Summerside in PEI where he met and married our mother, and where Anne was born. His career moved him all around Canada, and to England to fly on exchange with the RAF at Tangmere. On his return to Canada he and his pilot partner made the first Trans Canada flight for the CF100. Mary was born in Alberta while he was with the Fighter Training Squadron at CFB Cold Lake. Brian was born in Toronto while he was studying at the Canadian Forces Staff College. Later he commanded CFB Armstrong, one of the Pinetree Line radar bases. He retired with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and, ready for his next challenge, undertook a second career with the Ontario Housing Corporation.

There he was very involved in the acquisition of the lands for the planned Seaton community in Pickering.

In his true retirement he became a disciple of Tai Chai both as a student and as a teacher, no doubt contributing to the wonderful health he enjoyed right up until the end. Golf was a lifelong passion, as was wine. But above all, he was a voracious reader, studying a number of international newspapers each day, and ordering endless books from the Toronto Public Library on his well-used iPad. Dad and Mum also enjoyed long walks in the local park system until Mum fell and broke her hip recently. At this time, Dad embarked on his third career, that of devoted care-giver, seeing her through recovery, mobility issues and memory loss.

While we understand it is hard for family and friends not to have an opportunity to come together, we are respecting his express wish for no ceremony whatsoever, and in lieu of flowers, for donations to be made to The Salvation Army. He will always be in our thoughts, and perhaps one evening, as you sip a nice glass of wine, he'll be in yours.

We know he would enjoy that.

DAVID CHRISTOPHER N. VALDO

Sadly, we had to let a very brave soul leave us after a four month valiant struggle at Royal University Hospital in Saskatoon, on July 18, 2019.

David, the loving son of Anne and Terry (d. 2001), awesome brother of Kristin and brother-inlaw of Kelly and proud uncle of Madison Schulkowsky.

A Celebration of David's life will be held in Toronto on Saturday, September 21, 2019 at St. George's-on-the-Hill, Dundas Street West at Royal York Road, Toronto at 12:30 p.m. All those who were blessed to know David are encouraged to join us.

David made many friends at St.George's, Addus and Dramaways during his short life. A donation in David's memory to one of these organizations would be appreciated by his family, instead of flowers.

Dear David, the "nightmare" is over. Love you forever. Peace be with you always.

PATRICIA MARILYN VARTY

Patricia Marilyn Varty (nee Knechtel) passed away at Muskoka Shores, Gravenhurst on September 10, 2019 in her 86th year. Beloved wife of the late Robert Varty. Loving mother of Paul, Michael (Catherine) and Valerie (Gerry) Bird. Cherished grandmother of Robert (Olivia), Heather, Andre, Daniel, Claire and Pauline.

A Celebration of Patricia's life will be held on Saturday, September 28, 2019 from 1-4 p.m. at 1323 Carlsmount Rd., Bracebridge.Memorial donations would be appreciated to Alzheimer's Society of Ontario or Aspen Valley Wildlife Sanctuary (Rosseau, ON).

Messages of condolence can be made at: http://www.reynoldsfuneral.com

LEOPOLD WEILINGER "Leo"

August 22, 1931 August 26, 2019 After 88 years of a life well lived, Leo passed away peacefully at the Margaret Bahen Hospice in Newmarket following a brief but courageous battle with cancer.

His wife and daughter were with him in his final hours.

Leo was born in Vienna and immigrated to Canada in 1952 with his new bride Inge and his mother-in-law to create a new life. A patternmaker by trade, Leo began work as soon as he arrived in Toronto, and it wasn't long before he started his own business and a lifelong calling to entrepreneurship. While Leo considered his family to be his greatest achievement, he was very proud of his business, Vienna Furniture, which flourished over the years of his ownership.

There were several secondary businesses along the way, and many of Leo's customers became his lifelong friends.

Whether it was with family, friends or in business, there was always a heartfelt smile, a great deal of trust, generosity and a commitment to do everything in the best way he could.

He had an incredible work ethic, but also found time in between to pursue his many interests. Leo was a talented musician, playing his keyboard into his final days. He loved the outdoors, the cottage, boating, gardening, their years in Florida, and had a passion for building, creating and restoring.

Leo liked to finish what he started, and only had one recurring wish that everything goes well! Leo leaves behind Inge, his partner in life for 68 years; daughter, Janis; granddaughter, Stephanie (Mathew) Urbanski; son, Gary (Monique); grandson, Nicholas (Kristyn); granddaughter, Caroline (Peter) Grant; and greatgrandchildren, Thomas and Lillian. Leo shared many stories in his final days and there were many laughs and just as many tears in saying goodbye to our Pa and Opa. We will miss him.

In keeping with Leo's wishes, he did not want a funeral, but did want to acknowledge the caring and dedication of his Oncology team at Southlake Newmarket, the in-home nursing care (Robert), and the caregivers and volunteers at the Margaret Bahen Hospice. In lieu of flowers, any donation made in his memory to the Hospice would be greatly appreciated: http://www.myhospice.ca/ support-my-hospice/


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FORGED BY FIRE
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ZANDER SHERMAN'S GREATGRANDFATHER CO-FOUNDED DOFASCO, THE COMPANY THAT BUILT STEELTOWN. HE AND HIS BROTHER LIVED IN A FAIRYTALE HOUSE, WITH EVERYTHING MONEY COULD BUY.
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By ZANDER SHERMAN
  
  

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Friday, August 30, 2019 – Page P27

THEN THEIR HOUSE BURNED DOWN , AND SO DID EVERYTHING ELSE.

PART I

EXTRACTION

Have you heard of us?

We made the steel in your refrigerator. We also made the steel in your car, bicycle, office building and washing machine. The steel in your home. The steel in your workplace. In Hamilton, Ontario--Steeltown--you may have seen our name on a park or street sign.

Or maybe you've heard of Dofasco, the company my great-grandfather and great-great-uncle built, and over which my grandfather presided. It's that factory across the Skyway bridge, the one billowing smoke and fire. That's us, killing the ozone layer. But also employing a city! The city that built the middle class.

We're basically the Carnegies of Canada.

Have you heard?

It's my brother. It's my mother too. All of us, really--the whole Sherman family. Today, we're more like the Kennedys than the Carnegies: more cursed than blessed. It started in 1994, when my grandfather died.

Neither one of his sons succeeded him. (My father, Jamie, worked at Dofasco for a summer; my Uncle Frank put in 20 years, but never became president.)

My grandfather's estate--a mansion, cars, an island, stock--has since evaporated. My father's half was halved in 2002, when my parents split up and our house burned down. (The power was out, and the backup generator sparked. The insurance company called it an "act of God.") In 2006, Dofasco was acquired in a hostile takeover. Then it was the 2008 recession, and whatever money we had left was nearly gone. My brother, Joshua, didn't take kindly to the news and tried to sue us. We don't talk to him anymore.

Along with my brother, my two cousins and I are the Sherman family's fourth generation. They live in the city, and I live in cottage country, three hours and a million miles north. People say I'm like my grandfather: cold on the outside, molten within. Not that it matters. At this point, the only trace of Dofasco left in our family is in my steely-eyed stare. I've seen our fortunes change, our lives go up in smoke. I've seen my brother lose his mind, my family lose everything.

Have you?

None of this was supposed to happen. We were Shermans: No substance in the world was stronger than us. We were the family that went everywhere, did everything. Joshua and I had seen six of the seven wonders by the time we were teenagers. We wrote stories, played piano, made puns in Latin. And our house! Its creation, like its destruction, was a supernatural event: built with no expense spared, no detail overlooked. The architect wanted to keep it for himself, but my father, with his powers of persuasion, was able to convince him to sell it to us. It was the perfect house, my father said. And we were the perfect family.

At night, our mother would read to Joshua and me--tales of adventure, bravery and knights in shining armour. But it was our father's stories that stayed with us. He told us about all the places named after us, the crowds that would part whenever he and his brother passed. "We were princes of Hamilton," he would say, which meant Joshua and I were what? Dukes? Lords?

To us, that seemed more incredible than any fable.

Money. Success. Fame. We had been born into a family where all the things people spent their lives pursuing were already ours.

Wealth makes you feel invincible--like nothing can hurt you, nothing can pierce your skin. But all wealth does is shield you from adversity. It keeps you trapped in a fantasy, where nothing bad can happen. Then the money runs out, and there isn't anything to protect you from the world except your own constitution.

That's when you realize you're not made of steel, but dirt. And this dirt has been extracted, assembled and mixed together. It will be subjected to various processes: hammered, beaten. Some members of your family will make it out of that fire and be stronger than before. Others never will.

PART II

FORMATION

Steel is in my blood. My great-greatgrandfather operated a steel foundry in New York State. His sons, Clifton (C.W.) and Frank (F.A.), worked in the Chicago, Pittsburgh and Buffalo steel industry. By 1914, my forebears had moved to Canada to start their own castings company. The Dominion Steel Castings Co. Ltd.--eventually known as Dofasco--was capitalized at $6 million in 1917. A labour studies professor at McMaster University, Robert Storey, estimates that "the majority" of the assessment--some $100 million in today's money--went to my family.

But my great-great-uncle and great-grandfather weren't like other bosses. As one former employee recalled, "The Shermans worked right out on the floor with the men.

They were even bumming cigarettes off the guys." It was the beginning of the "Dofasco Way," a corporate philosophy that prioritized hiring immigrants and the family members of current employees over skilled workers, and shared a percentage of the company's annual profits with its workforce. In this way, Dofasco kept an "open," or non-unionized, shop, eventually reflected by its iconic slogan: "Our product is steel.

Our strength is people." (One hundred and seven years later, Dofasco remains non-unionized.)

In 1937, Dofasco hosted the first of what became known as "the world's largest Christmas party," attended by tens of thousands of workers, their families and friends. (C.W. and F.A. handed out presents.) In 1939, F.A.'s son--my grandfather--joined the company from Queen's University. Born in 1916, Frank Jr., or F.H., was a young metallurgist. He was tasked with creating and developing Dofasco's armaments department.

Under his guidance, Dofasco made armour plate, a new material used to protect Canadian soldiers during the Second World War. (Though Dofasco steel was used in tanks, the Sherman tank is not named after us.)

My grandfather soon turned to other projects. One was the introduction of a process called basic oxygen steelmaking. Historically, steel was created in open hearths, a time-consuming and labour-intensive method. In 1952, Austrian engineers commercialized a new technique that involved spraying oxygen over molten iron, creating a higher-quality product in less time. (The same amount of steel that took more than six hours to make in an open hearth could now be made in under 30 minutes.) Dofasco produced North America's first batch of oxygen steel in 1954. By the time Austrian president Franz Jonas visited Dofasco a decade later, oxygen-based steelmaking had been adopted worldwide.

Dofasco continued to grow steadily, expanding its campus and reclaiming land from the waters of Hamilton Harbour. In 1958, a 681-foot freighter ship was christened in my great-grandfather's honour. The F.A.

Sherman became the flagship of the company's fleet, with an iron ore capacity of 22,000 tons. (Today, 30% of all cargo-carrying ships that pass under the Burlington Canal Lift Bridge are destined for Dofasco.)

In 1959, my grandfather was promoted from executive vice-president to president, becoming the third Sherman to run the company.

Workers treated the succession of F.H. as if he were one of their own. After all, in the "Dofasco family," everyone was equal, and the promotion of a new CEO was applauded just like the promotion of a line worker.

This unique culture separated Dofasco from other manufacturers, especially its hometown rival, Stelco.

Founded around the same time as Dofasco, Stelco received similar contracts and employed roughly twice the workforce. Unlike Dofasco, Stelco was unionized--which was widely considered a prerequisite for success. But Stelco was behind in other ways. It was late in switching to basic oxygen steelmaking and began to lose its competitive edge. Eventually, Dofasco became the more innovative and successful company, largely because of its people-first approach.

In time, our family became as ubiquitous as the product we made: There was Sherman Avenue, Sherman Falls, Sherman Mine, Sherman Lodge. (Sherman Falls is located on an estate that once belonged to my forebears, known as Shermanor Farm.) Eventually, Dofasco opened the F.H. Sherman Recreation and Learning Centre, a 150-acre park in Hamilton. According to Tim Bouquet and Byron Ousey, whose book, Cold Steel, chronicles the takeover of Dofasco, the complex featured seven baseball diamonds, two NHLsized skating rinks, a soccer field, a driving range, an 18-hole mini-putt course, a double gymnasium, tennis courts, six training rooms and "facilities to accommodate the 45 separate clubs that fall under the recreational umbrella."

When prime minister Pierre Trudeau visited Dofasco in 1974, he was presented with a pair of cufflinks made of iron ore from the Sherman Mine. By then, my family wielded significant influence in both business and politics: C.W. had advised Mackenzie King during the Second World War, and my grandfather sat on the board of the Bank of Nova Scotia. In 1978, my grandfather received an honorary doctorate of law from Hamilton's McMaster University. In 1986, he was recognized with an engineering award for introducing oxygen-based steelmaking to North America. And in 1992--two years after retiring, at age 74--he was inducted into the Canadian Business Hall of Fame.

If the leadership of Dofasco was going to pass to another Sherman, it would have been my uncle. The first son of F.H. and Catharine, my grandmother, he was the third Frank Sherman in a row. He joined Dofasco shortly after graduating from Michigan Technological University in 1970. He held a number of positions, including general manager, and director of business and process quality systems. But in 1992, he left to pursue various entrepreneurial endeavours.

My father's path was more circuitous. He worked

in the company's hot-rolled steel sales department for the summer of 1968, before attending Humber College that fall. He was supposed to study public relations and then get a longer-term job at Dofasco. He and my uncle would have been like F.A. and C.W.--an introvert-extrovert duo that appealed to the masses.

But after stumbling into the wrong classroom, he switched to media arts and graduated in 1971. The following year, he met my mother, Sharon. (He had gone into a bookstore where she worked, searching for Walden, my mother's favourite book.)

In 1973, my parents bought a 100-acre farm near Bancroft, Ontario, and moved out of the city. For the rest of the 1970s, they lived a Thoreauvian life, raising their own livestock and going "back to the land."

My father had become interested in glass-blowing, an ancient craft that involves heating glass to molten temperatures. (My grandfather was a photographer and patron of the arts. As disappointed as he may have been that neither of his sons followed in his footsteps, he seemed to appreciate the parallels between steelmaking and glass-blowing.) My brother, Joshua, was born in 1983. When my mother was still pregnant with me, in 1986, our family moved to Muskoka.

You should have seen our house! A two-storey Craftsman at the end of a road, at the top of a hill, leaves canopying the driveway, like something out of a fairy tale. At the top, there were gardens, a basketball court and six acres of Muskoka bush that backed onto a nature conservancy. Inside, a set of stained glass doors led from the dining area into the living room, which was filled with plush furniture. Above the fireplace hung a painting of my grandfather's thoroughbred racehorse, and in the corner was a built-in story nook, where we kept albums filled with photos of all the trips we'd taken: Europe, Africa, the Middle East.

Neither of my parents worked at a conventional job. After Joshua and I were born, my mother homeschooled us around the kitchen table. For most of the 1990s, my father reproduced ancient glass artifacts for the Royal Ontario Museum. He was one of Muskoka's most successful artists, but we didn't depend on his income. It was my grandfather we counted on: In 1986, he helped my father buy our house. That same year, he paid for the construction of my father's glass-blowing studio, a cathedralesque, 1,500-square-foot building with stained glass windows. There were more gifts on special occasions: cash, cars, jewellery.

The money bought us freedom, and with it, we went travelling, sometimes vanishing for months at a time.

We'd rent an RV and drive to the American Southwest, a place that inspired my father's art and many of our homeschooling lessons. We would learn geography as we wound down the interstate, glean history from our guidebooks, count the number of KOAs with swimming pools. My mother was our teacher, and our father was our entertainer, driver and guide. As we hunkered down in our bunk beds each night, he would tell us about the distant land, shrouded in smoke, where he and his brother were princes and their father was king.

The stories might have stayed that way--sweet nothings, thoughts to think before bed--had we not seen my grandfather's world first-hand. In July and August, we'd boat across Lake Joseph to my grandfather's private island. And on December 25, we'd make the six-hour round trip from Muskoka to Hamilton. Christmas was my grandfather's favourite day, and he would hire a design team to make his house look movie-perfect.

The outside would be wrapped in a giant bow. Inside, there were maids and a cook. (When my grandfather became infirm, his staff grew to include a live-in nurse.)

Looking back, that's when my brother must have begun to truly believe what should have always remained a fiction: that we weren't like other families, even ones who had accomplished great things. That at a molecular level, we were somehow better. Stronger. Unbreakable.

PART III

SUBJECTION

In 1988, Dofasco purchased Algoma Steel in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. The $560-million deal was supposed to turn Dofasco into Canada's largest steelmaker. (It had often been the most profitable; now it would employ the largest workforce too.) Two years later, in 1990, the economy tanked. Demand plummeted, and Dofasco had to return Algoma to its owners, writing off $700 million. Soon after, Dofasco initiated a restructuring program that aimed to cut costs and reduce spending--otherwise known as the beginning of the end.

By the time my grandfather retired in 1990, Dofasco was in crisis. Over the next three years, it would lose $900 million. Stelco was struggling too: In 1991, it relocated its Toronto headquarters to Hamilton to cut costs, and the following year it laid off 800 workers.

Its share price slipped to less than $1, giving Stelco a market value barely equal to its land and equipment.

My grandfather died in 1994, at age 78. On his deathbed, the story goes, he made a prediction: The days of companies like Dofasco were over, and men like him, his father and his uncle were a dying breed. A new generation was coming to Steeltown, and they didn't care about parks and street signs. They wanted their names etched into history.

My father and uncle inherited my grandfather's estate. They split everything in half and liquidated what they didn't want. That included the family cottage, which sold for $625,000. (Today, it's worth as much as $5 million.) At the urging of investment advisers, my father also sold his Dofasco shares, which made up the vast majority of my grandfather's portfolio. At the time, the shares were worth less than $20 apiece. Ten years later, they reached an all-time high of more than $72.

By the early 2000s, European companies had started looking at Dofasco as a way to break into the North American automotive market. One was Luxembourgbased Arcelor. As Cold Steel author Bouquet told me: "Dofasco very much didn't want to be taken over by Arcelor. I'm not entirely sure they wanted to be taken over by anybody." Dofasco was then one of the world's most successful steel companies and had rebuffed countless outsiders.

Arcelor knew Dofasco's board would never sell.

So it appealed directly to shareholders with a hostile bid that traded cash for loyalty. The shareholders accepted, and in March 2006, Arcelor bought the company for $5.6 billion. Three months later, an Indian firm called Mittal Steel, owned by Lakshmi Mittal, the world's 91st richest man, according to Forbes, bought Arcelor for US$34 billion. ArcelorMittal is now the world's largest steel and mining company. My grandfather's prophecy had come true.

In the middle of the Dofasco sale, my parents got divorced. Four years earlier, in 2002, my father had moved out of our fairy-tale home and into town, occupying a house that was supposed to be a renovation project. Not long after, Joshua, then 23, moved into my father's basement. The two of them were on one team, and my mother and I were on the other.

Then came the fire. On September 10, 2002, a windstorm blew through Muskoka, ripping up trees and tearing down hydro lines. My mother was in the middle of making dinner, and I needed the computer to do my homework, so we decided to start the generator.

That had always been my father's job. I stepped outside--the sky dark, the wind howling--and crossed the driveway to the woodshed. The instructions were printed on the front: Prime the primer, choke the choke. How hard could it be? I pulled the cord, and the generator roared to life. I returned to the house,

flipped on the breaker and went back to my homework. When I was finished, I walked down the hall to my mom's bedroom. I was watching TV when I heard her scream into the phone: "Fire, fire, fire!"

I ran to the kitchen and grabbed the small, white fire extinguisher above the refrigerator. I didn't even know I knew where it was. I ran through the front door and saw the whole woodshed engulfed--a fireball 10 feet across and 15 feet tall. My mother appeared beside me.

She had dragged over the garden hose and was thumbing the nozzle at the fire.

I went back into the house and called my father.

"The house is on fire," I said.

"I'll be right there," he said.

My mother and I waited at the bottom of the driveway. We had our dog, but not the cat. The cat was gone.

By the time my father arrived, the fire had travelled from the woodshed to a corner of the house. The roof was smouldering. He ran through the south entrance, closest to the living room, where we kept the photos. A minute later, he was back, carrying a stack of albums.

He dumped it on the lawn, turned around, and went back in for more. He ended up saving dozens of them.

By the time the first fire truck appeared, half the house was engulfed. I couldn't watch. I climbed the hill and sat, the heat still needling the backs of my hands. A few minutes later, my mother joined me. Someone had given her a blanket, which she gave to me.

We looked at the scene below us.

"We're going to rebuild," she said. "Rebuild the house, rebuild everything."

And we did: We built over the ashes of our home. It took months, cost the insurance company $900,000, and led to a civil lawsuit. Just before the fire, Muskoka had installed mandatory 911 signs, and our house--which straddled two townships--wasn't in the system.

Then the first fire truck had mechanical problems, and the second, according to my father, had no water. By the time the third truck arrived, it was too late.

When the new house was finished, it looked just like the old one. But it was still just my mother and me.

PART IV

FORGED

Shortly after the fire, Joshua moved to Vancouver Island, and in 2006, he enrolled in a two-year program at Selkirk College, in Nelson, B.C. (I never attended university, choosing to stay home with my mother.)

According to the terms of our parents' divorce, our father was released from spousal support in exchange for giving our mother the house, but he paid for Joshua's tuition, rent and incidentals. Then the 2008 recession happened. He kept writing cheques into 2010 before sending my brother and I each a letter: "At the current rate," he wrote, "there will be zero [Dofasco] money left in less than 10 years."

To Joshua, the end of our father's financial support was a betrayal of his paternal role: His job had been to provide, while our mother nurtured. That's what parents did. And of all parents, ours should have been capable of doing their jobs. If they weren't--if we were now poor, as our father seemed to be saying--it was an undoing of everything Joshua had come to believe.

Not long after, our phone rang. "Someone blew crack smoke in my face," my brother said. "I need to come home."

My brother moved back in with my mother and me.

Within days, he was lashing out. He would catch us in the middle of a conversation and accuse us of conspiring against him. Or I would be in the office and a shadow would fall beneath the door. He seemed to know whenever our father was on the phone.

"You're not allowed to talk to him," he would say. "I forbid you from telling him anything about me!"

Two months after moving home, in October 2010, Joshua was diagnosed with "drug-induced psychosis," a brief loss of contact with reality. But there was nothing temporary about his condition. That winter, he accused our mother of pushing our maternal grandmother into a snowbank and then tried to blackmail her into giving him money. Our father, he told us, was a murderer. (The victim was a reporter who had allegedly tried to investigate our house fire.)

He began making written appeals, telling people he was "the single inheritor of a fortune." This fortune, he said, came from the sale of Dofasco to Arcelor. "Police have been unresponsive and I have no monies for a lawyer," he wrote. He signed his name and then added a postscript: "My grandfather owned (C.E.O.) Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ont. I am worth millions."

We tried everything to save Joshua. In a last-ditch move, my mother sent him to the National Outdoor Leadership School, an elite wilderness program in the United States. To do this, she took out a $10,000 loan, which Joshua promised to pay back. He didn't. A few years later, the debt had grown to $50,000. Other attempts to help him were just as futile and prone to backfire. If we called him, he said we were harassing him. If we didn't, it meant we didn't care.

A year into his illness, Joshua showed up at our father's house. He said he'd been "denied my rightful inheritance," which he was now going to collect, one way or another. My father called me, and I showed up, putting my body between my father and brother.

The molten thing inside me spilled over, and I screamed at Joshua to back away. "I mean it!"

I snapped. "I have a weapon on me, and I'm not afraid to use it!"

"I've never seen you act like this," he said, suddenly tender.

"Yeah, well. Get used to it."

A few minutes later, we managed to get Joshua into the car. He sat in the back seat, and our father and I drove the car back to Joshua's apartment. (I kept my backpack, which had a hunting knife, at my feet.) He didn't take his sunglasses off and cursed at us the whole way there. As my brother was climbing out of the car, our father tried to give him $100.

"I don't want your f---ing money," Joshua snapped.

My father and brother haven't spoken since. In 2014, Joshua moved back to B.C., where he lived in a religious commune, then a homeless shelter, then a tent. He's been in and out of hospitals, on and off medication. He won't talk to me or see me. Sometimes, he'll phone our mother and tell her what a terrible parent she's been.

The last time they saw each other, she dropped off a birthday cake and a few presents. "Don't you get it?" he screamed. "I never want to see you again."

When I ask our parents how they've dealt with this, our mother smiles sadly and then leaves the room in tears. Our father stares off into space. No one knows what to say, where to begin. But there's no time to reflect. Our mother is fighting off tax arrears, credit card debt, the $50,000 loan. At 65, she's facing the prospect of having to work for the first time in 46 years.

Because she never paid into a pension plan, there's nothing for her to collect. Our father, nearly 70 now, is fixing up his house, getting ready for the day he'll have to sell. Sometimes I think we'll all end up like Joshua.

Four people with no name, nothing.

PART VI

STEEL

One recent summer's day, I drove from cottage country to Hamilton. I hadn't been back to the city since 2012, when my father, uncle, cousins and more than 150 employees gathered on Dofasco's front lawn to celebrate its 100th birthday. A letter from the prime minister was read out loud, and a time capsule containing various Dofasco artifacts was set aside to be buried, with instructions to be opened in 2037.

The whole time I was there, I kept wondering what had become of my family. Twenty-five years earlier, we were made of steel. How had we gone from that to where we were now? Where would we be when the capsule was opened? If my father or uncle had succeeded my grandfather as the next Dofasco president, would any of the same things have happened? You weren't supposed to think like that, but with so many things lost, how could you not?

On this latest trip, I wanted to see more of the company. At Dofasco headquarters, Marie Verdun, the company's manager of corporate affairs, was waiting for me. We took an elevator to the executive floor, where she pointed out the Group of Seven paintings Dofasco had purchased during my grandfather's tenure. Then she retrieved my great-grandfather's top hat and a silver cigar box that belonged to my great-greatuncle. These and other things were in a closet Verdun affectionately called the "Dofasco archive."

We walked to the main boardroom, where portraits of C.W., F.A., and F.H. still preside over meetings. There was also a large antique clock. The company's Italian workers had given it to C.W. in 1937, as a symbol of Dofasco's commitment to hiring immigrants. It stayed in the boardroom until 2005, when someone contacted my father to see if he wanted it.

With rumours of a takeover swirling, no one knew what would become of the clock--whether it would be sold or auctioned off. My father agreed to take it to Muskoka. He says it worked perfectly until around the day the company was sold in March 2006, when it suddenly stopped ticking. Now it was back where it belonged and seemed to be working fine.

My grandfather's old office is occupied by Dofasco's current CEO, Sean Donnelly. He and I stood in the doorway, talking business. Dofasco remains one of ArcelorMittal's most profitable mills. But its future, like my family's, is uncertain. Trade wars, new environmental laws and obsolescence are constant threats.

The company has had bad years (such as 2015, when it lost US$8 billion), and many have said the industry itself is dying.

After we finished at the main office, we suited up in safety gear and drove across the street. The bright light faded away as we entered one of the plants, where men in tiny booths moved cranes and lifted ladles of molten steel. Verdun told workers we met that I was Frank Sherman's grandson. "Your family has meant so much to us," Sanjay Sagar, an engineer, told me.

When the tour was over, I drove up Hamilton Mountain, taking Sherman Access and Upper Sherman. In a park overlooking the city, I saw everything my family had built. It all looked so arduous--the product of such pain and punishment. But that's steel for you. It's created by the injuries inflicted upon it. The harder you hammer, the stronger it gets. And when it finally can't take any more, steel is recycled. I could just barely see a pile of it from where I stood: a mountain of shiny scrap, waiting to be turned into something new.

PART VI

AFTERWORD

This story was originally planned for the September 2018 issue. As I was writing it--and after the photos had been taken--my mother ended her own life.

I'm publishing this story now, a year later, as an act of moving forward. Writing is what has provided me meaning, earned me an income and made my mother proud. "Just keep going," she would say. My father and I get together every week and are getting by as best we can. If you see my brother, tell him he is loved.

Thursday, September 12, 2019
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Ontario Proud and the rise of third-party cash
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What began as a scrappy, partisan web page became a formidable vehicle for Tory support. But behind Ontario Proud's homespun façade, there is big money and ties to professional party fundraisers
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By ROBYN DOOLITTLE, GREG MCARTHUR
  
  

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Saturday, September 14, 2019 – Page A12

By the summer of 2017, Jeff Ballingall had hit the internet marketing sweet spot. His creation, a Facebook page called Ontario Proud, had built a loyal following of tens of thousands of users by tapping into two seemingly unrelated emotions: a fondness for sentimental images of Ontario landmarks, and rising anger with the provincial Liberal government, led by then-premier Kathleen Wynne.

What started as a lark in 2016 had turned into serious digital sway: an anti-Liberal meme machine that regularly pilloried Ms. Wynne and her cabinet for rising hydro rates and the province's debt.

One year after launching his project, Mr. Ballingall incorporated Ontario Proud. He had become an official political influencer and the next stop on his journey was to get paid.

It started with small donations from like-minded Facebook followers, but by Aug. 2, 2017, he had attracted some real money. On that day, Mr. Ballingall sent an e-mail to Robert Faissal, a Toronto-based entrepreneur and a much sought-after Progressive Conservative donor. "I understand you're expecting to hear from me," Mr. Ballingall wrote. The two met in a parkette at Toronto's luxury Four Seasons hotel, which led to Mr. Faissal cutting Ontario Proud a $10,000 cheque.

As for how Mr. Ballingall knew that Mr.

Faissal was "expecting" him to reach out, Mr. Ballingall says he can't recall. For his part, Mr. Faissal says he is certain who connected them: Alykhan Velshi, a wellknown conservative political operative who was, at the time, chief of staff to the then-leader of Ontario's Progressive Conservatives, Patrick Brown.

Election regulators have tried to discourage groups such as Ontario Proud from functioning as an end run for political parties skirting the caps on how much money they can accept - and Mr. Faissal says he was vaguely aware of these issues when he says he received a phone call from Mr. Velshi about Mr. Ballingall's project.

"I told Alykhan 'as long as it's legal,' " Mr.

Faisal said. "He's like, 'Yep, it's absolutely legal.' " (When asked about Mr. Faissal's account, Mr. Velshi called it "totally untrue," but also acknowledged having met Mr.

Faissal and telling "anyone who would listen" that Ontario Proud was the best thing to happen to the Tories.)

Whatever role Mr. Velshi played in the donation, if any, the suggestion that it was legal is correct - and that's because his payment was made in a regulatory vacuum, one that all advocacy groups such as Ontario Proud have used to their advantage in the months leading up to the federal election campaign announced this week.

When Prime Minister Justin Trudeau asked the Governor-General to dissolve Parliament on Wednesday, kick-starting Canada's 43rd general election campaign, the political parties officially began their push to secure the most seats in the House of Commons. But for other kinds of parties - known officially in law as third-party political advertisers - the campaign merely marks the continuation of a persuasion war they have been waging for months and months.

Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of special purpose groups, all created to denigrate either Conservative Leader Andrew Scheer or Mr. Trudeau, the heads of the two parties favoured to win the race.

Some groups, such as the anti-Scheer Engage Canada, which is primarily funded by labour unions, rely on traditional media, such as television advertising. Others, such as Ontario Proud - which has inspired a national version, Canada Proud, and sister "Proud" organizations in almost every province - depend more on organic, digital messaging. Ontario Proud and its affiliates have set their sights squarely on the federal campaign and Mr. Trudeau, using a combination of brash messaging, embarrassing photographs and pithy one-liners - "Trudeau is bananas" - to raise doubts about the Liberal Leader.

Regardless of form, these groups all have one thing in common: When they started fundraising and designing their attacks in 2017, 2018 and the beginning of this year, they did so under a cover of secrecy that Canada's election law, as well as some provincial rules, affords them.

Canada's campaign-finance rules, as well as Ontario's, prohibit third-party groups from colluding with candidates and political parties to "circumvent" donation limits. But those laws only apply to a specified period of time - federally, it's about two-and-a-half months - before an election campaign is announced. Which means that, for the many months and years leading up to that point, such groups are effectively unregulated and free to raise as much money as they want, however they want.

It's one of the many "troublesome" holes in the rules that was highlighted by Greg Essensa, Ontario's Chief Electoral Officer, three years ago when he warned legislators about a rising wave of third-party influence.

"In contrast to parties and candidates, which are subject to limits," third-party advertisers have the power to raise an unlimited amount of money, Mr. Essensa told the provincial standing committee on general government in 2016.

Canadians, in general, regard their political battles as much more genteel than those fought in the United States, where super PACs - political action committees that advocate on behalf of certain individuals, parties or policies - raise and spend vast amounts of unregulated money to destroy the reputations of candidates they oppose.

But Mr. Essensa warned Ontario legislators that, left unchecked, the province could go down a similar road.

Among Mr. Essensa's long list of concerns is how the law largely allows thirdparty advertisers to hide the identities of their funders - so long as they accept those funds outside the statutory reporting period, which for Ontario is six months before the writs are issued. Mr. Faissal's donation is a case in point: He cut his cheque about 10 months before the provincial election, which means Ontario Proud had no obligation to disclose it to the regulator. Had Mr.

Faissal not acknowledged to The Globe and Mail that he offered up this money, no one but Ontario Proud would know he was a major donor.

During the six-month period when Ontario Proud was required to disclose the contributions it received, it recorded about $489,000 in donations, the majority of which came from home builders and construction companies, corporations that are barred from donating to political parties.

As for how much Ontario Proud raised during the previous 20 months of its existence - and who contributed the funds - that remains a mystery. Mr. Essensa called on legislators to force disclosure of all donors regardless of timing.

For its part, Ontario Proud says it is not beholden to any particular political party and has gone so far as to issue libel notices to social-media commentators who suggest otherwise. "Whenever there's a regulated period, we comply with the letter and the spirit of the law," Ryan O'Connor, a director of Ontario Proud and its lawyer, said in an interview with The Globe.

A review of Ontario Proud's history paints a web of links to the Tories. A significant amount of the cash it raised in 2018 was collected by professional fundraisers who, months before, courted donors for the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party.

Mr. Ballingall, too, is deeply enmeshed in conservative circles, both personally and financially: He worked in Ottawa for a former Conservative defence minister; his private company, Mobilize Media, was contracted in 2017 to help two federal Conservative leadership campaigns; and the Ontario PC Party paid Mobilize $67,800 for social-media services around that time as well.

These same issues of overlap between political advertisers and political parties swirl around union-backed, anti-Conservative groups as well. One of them, Engage Canada - which was founded by prominent former Liberal and New Democratic strategists - blanketed the airwaves with ads in the spring during the NBA playoffs - all of them broadcast, incidentally, before the federal disclosure period kicked in on June 30, allowing its funders and the exact cost of the ads to remain a secret. (Industry experts estimated that Engage's primetime television ads, which portrayed Mr.

Scheer as a pliable, bobblehead doll, would have cost between $45,000 and $75,000.)

As of the publication of this story, Engage Canada had still not registered as a thirdparty advertiser with Elections Canada.

And it's not just regulators who are concerned. Even one of the third-party advertisers agreed that this regulatory black hole is a problem.

Taylor Scollon, the co-founder of the progressive third-party political advertiser North99, pointed out that Canadian elections have disclosure rules, and limits, in order to restrict the amount of influence powerful and well-resourced organizations can have on public opinion. But those rules do not reflect the reality of campaigns that last 365 days a year, he said.

"If the campaign is every day - if we now have permanent campaigns - then we should apply the same reasoning and require disclosure during non-election periods," Mr. Scollon said.

Back in 2016, however, when Mr. Essensa gave his public warning to Ontario lawmakers about what he saw on the horizon, Ontario Proud and North99 were not on anyone's radar. Although Mr. Essensa did not single out a specific third party, he was likely referring to the group that paved the way for such players - an advocacy group that the Tories have long said unfairly targeted their leaders until they were compelled to fight back: The Working Families Coalition.

The birth of the Canadian-style political action committee was on the left of the political spectrum.

It was 1998, and Mike Harris, Ontario's Progressive Conservative premier at the time, had effectively used wedge politics to create enemies of organized labour groups, who he said were bankrupting the province at the expense of hard-working Ontario taxpayers. The Harris government had repealed labour laws, making it more difficult for trade unions to become certified.

So when the union leaders who represent electricians, pipefitters, and iron workers and others arrived in Kingston for the annual meeting of the Building Trades Council - an umbrella organization of trade unions - they vowed to turn the tables. They passed a resolution to push back with their own form of messaging, one that would inform the public about what they say was the damage wrought not by them, but by the Harris government.

At first they called it the Building Ontario Campaign, and it launched in time for the 1999 Ontario election. But they barely made a dent and the Harris government was re-elected with a slightly smaller majority government. The council, however, saw room for improvement and impact if only they could make their ads more effective.

"The big mistake that we made was that we did not hire professionals, pollsters and communications strategists and so on," said Patrick Dillon, the Building Trades president at the time and one of the founders of Working Families.

They interviewed political operatives across the political spectrum and settled on two with close ties to the Liberals, Mr.

Dillon said. Don Guy - who would go on to run the Ontario Liberal Party's coming 2003 campaign - would conduct the group's opinion polls through his company Pollara; Marcel Wieder - a well-known political consultant once profiled in this newspaper under the headline "The DirtyTricks Man" - was the strategist.

Other labour groups alienated by the Harris government, such as teachers and nurses, jumped on board. Thus was born the Working Families Coalition, an innocuous-sounding title designed to mask what its detractors argue is a dark mission - scuffing up the images of Progressive Conservative leaders.

That campaign made its debut on April 1, 2003, about six months before the next provincial election, and targeted Mr. Harris's successor, then-premier Ernie Eves.

Working Families produced a full-page newspaper ad, published in The Globe, prominently displaying a photograph of a smirking Mr. Eves in a tuxedo and bow tie, his hair slicked back. The bold text below the photo read: "Ernie Thinks He Can Fool You," a play on the date April 1. The ad got a lot of attention, but Working Families was only getting started.

Over the next three provincial elections, the group would repeatedly dip into its deep war chest, buy airtime and ratchet up the caricaturing of conservative leaders as heartless Bay Street puppets.

After electoral losses in 2003 and 2007, the Progressive Conservatives had had enough and the party formally asked Mr.

Essensa to investigate what it alleged was co-ordination between Working Families and the Liberal Party.

One of the pieces of evidence they pointed to was the dual roles of Mr. Guy, who was the Liberal campaign director in 2003, 2007 and 2011, and whose firm, Pollara, was retained by Working Families.

The subsequent investigation, conducted with assistance from Bay Street firm Torys LLP, found that although Mr. Guy's ties to the party and Working Families were "grounds for concern," there was insufficient evidence that the Liberal Party was controlling the coalition and, therefore, there was no violation of the anti-collusion provisions.

Although that finding was Mr. Essensa's to wear, he did not appear happy about it.

His testimony in 2016 to the standing committee made it clear that he was frustrated with the outcome, and although he didn't identify Working Families by name, he said the legal bar for proving collusion was too high.

"I will leave it to the lawyers to tell you how hard it is to prove there is direct evidence of this sort of control," he said before legislators. But he said those who raise concerns about strategists playing for two teams - a political party and a third-party advertiser - have a point. Such close affiliation "undermines confidence in the electoral process. The public can plainly see that candidates and organizations that claim to be non-partisan are able to actively co-ordinate their advertising."

As a last gasp, the Progressive Conservatives tried to get the courts to intervene and overturn Mr. Essensa's ruling, but the case was dismissed at Divisional Court and the Ontario Court of Appeal. Working Families ran more ads during the 2014 campaign, which the PCs lost again, and there was no reason to believe anything would change.

But in a high-rise office building in downtown Toronto, there was a restless conservative operative, working for one of the country's premier public-affairs and crisis-communications companies.

Jeff Ballingall had followed the wellworn path of a young conservative ideologue: As a teenager, he volunteered for the local Canadian Alliance candidate in his hometown of Sarnia, Ont., a workingclass city of about 70,000 in the southwestern part of the province.

After graduating from the University of Western Ontario, he worked as a political staffer, first for Conservative defence minister Gordon O'Connor in Ottawa and, later, a right-leaning Toronto city councillor.

He had a brief stint at the short-lived Sun News television network before finally landing where so many young, ambitious conservative strategists before him had found a home: Navigator Ltd., the publicrelations company founded by wellknown Tory spin master Jaime Watt.

But it was at Navigator where Mr. Ballingall decided to shake things up.

For years, he had been brainstorming about how a conservative third-party advertiser in Canada might work. When a friend had some success with an Albertacentric Facebook page, Mr. Ballingall sought and obtained his blessing in early 2016 to launch an Ontario equivalent - calling it Ontario Proud.

As he fiddled with the page, he applied another lesson he learned at Navigator: Whenever Navigator was trying to disseminate a message on behalf of one of its corporate clients, those messages didn't stick - especially when the message was coming directly from the corporation. Audiences were skeptical of a corporation advocating for itself.

"But if you can talk about it in a different way, and from a different messenger, they're more receptive," he said.

In August, 2016, he left Navigator and devoted himself full-time to his creation.

At some point in 2016, then-Ontario premier Kathleen Wynne was being driven to an event when she pulled out her tablet to take the pulse of social media. That's when, she says, she discovered a Facebook page that seemed to have some traction.

"It seemed like this bright, cheery thing," she said in an interview. "Ontario Proud? I'm a proud Ontarian. What is this?" "This" was going to make her re-election prospects even worse.

Ontario Proud had hit a mark that everyone in the eyeball-attraction business is striving for: engagement. Mr. Ballingall's posts about Ontario roadside attractions and some of its famous citizens - Shania Twain, John Candy, the Friendly Giant struck a chord. But most important, they were shared widely, which allowed Mr. Ballingall to collect all sorts of data about his followers and their interests. One of the first Ontario Proud posts to go viral was a photo of Webers, the burger joint north of Toronto in cottage country where diners eat in refurbished train cars. Like many of Mr. Ballingall's posts, the Webers meme urged readers to spread the nostalgia: "Share if you know where this magical burger place is." Eighty thousand people reposted the photo on their Facebook page, thereby introducing their friends to Ontario Proud.

But there was a whole other side to Ontario Proud.

Ontario Proud took a hard line on certain ideological issues, such as military intervention ("share if you believe Canada should still bomb ISIS") and immigration policy ("criminals and terrorists will prey on our generosity"). But its hardest line was reserved for Ms. Wynne.

It referred to Ms. Wynne as a "clown," a "scumbag" and "corrupt." Just like Working Families spoofed Ernie Eves on April 1, Ontario Proud used the date to target Ms.

Wynne and her minister of energy at the time, Glenn Thibeault, but with the insult dial cranked up a notch. A photo of the two Liberals was captioned: "Happy April - here are some fools." On one occasion, which Mr. Ballingall says he now regrets, Ontario Proud went after Ms. Wynne's appearance, comparing her spectacled look to that of the late Orville Redenbacher, the iconic popcorn maker: "What's the worst part of grocery shopping in Ontario? Seeing the premier's face in the snack aisle."

In an interview earlier this year with Ms.

Wynne at her office in the Ontario Legislature, where she now sits as a Liberal MPP after her government was handily defeated in the 2018 provincial election, she says she's not willing to give too much credit to Mr. Ballingall for her downfall. Her party had governed for 15 years and voters were clearly ready for a change.

But where she will acknowledge Ontario Proud's impact was on how voters perceived her. "I don't think I realized that this guy was going to be as potent as he was," she said. Throughout the campaign, she said she heard a familiar refrain from her candidates when they described a day of door knocking: empathy for the local candidate, but an unspecified dislike of Ms.

Wynne. When the Liberals attempted to drill down on what it was about Ms. Wynne that turned them off, the answers were vague, she said.

"I think it was that Ontario Proud, and whatever other forces were out there, were successful at making me the lightning rod for whatever anger [voters] had," she said.

That opinion is, perhaps, one of the only things that Mr. Ballingall and the former Liberal leader agree upon.

At a speaking event in April, convened by Toronto's Empire Club, Mr. Ballingall boasted about how Ontario Proud made Ms. Wynne "socially unacceptable" to voters. And if people are offended by his language and name-calling, he said in an interview, they can point their finger in the direction of Working Families, one of the many motivators for creating his own right-wing, third-party advertiser.

Working Families is a common theme in any discussion with Mr. Ballingall about his brainchild. Asked to defend some of the insults Ontario Proud has hurled at Ms.

Wynne, he pivots to the attacks endured by Progressive Conservative leaders for more than a decade by Working Families. He also revels in what he says is his underdog status - explaining that while Working Families can effortlessly turn to its deep pool of member-donated cash to fund its ads, he only relies on hustle, his knack for crafting concise, highly consumed content and his ability to persuade a disparate group of individuals and companies to support him financially.

But Mr. Ballingall is not quite as handicapped as he portrays himself. For one, he has had help from professional fundraisers who, up until 2017, worked directly for Ontario's Progressive Conservative Party.

That year, the same year that Ms. Wynne's government banned union and corporate donations to political parties, the Ontario PCs parted ways with two of the party's top in-house fundraisers: Mariana Di Rezze and Sharon Flashford, both of whom have cultivated relationships with some of Ontario's wealthiest citizens and amassed thick Rolodexes of potential donors.

Both women went on to raise money for Ontario Proud under the banner of their new fundraising company, RevGen Professional Fundraisers.

It was in 2018, around the same time Mr.

Ballingall turned to RevGen, that he says Ontario Proud raised "big money." Ontario Proud's three largest donations were: $50,000 from Nashville Developments, which lists well-known builders Silvio DeGasperis and Jack Eisenberger as two of its officers and directors; $50,000 from Merit Ontario, an association of non-unionized contractors that has lobbied the provincial government to allow its members greater access to bid on public-sector projects; and $100,000 from Mattamy Homes, the colossal home builder whose billionaire founder, Peter Gilgan, has made headlines for his outsized philanthropy across the province.

All in all, during the six-month period that Ontario Proud is required to disclose donors, it raised $489,000. But this was not entirely the doing of RevGen, Mr. Ballingall says. "They helped," he said. He also says he never co-ordinated with the fundraisers when they were directly employed by the PC fund and, what's more, he didn't even know them before they left the employment of the party.

Ms. Di Rezze and Ms. Flashford declined to respond to questions about how RevGen - which has been contracted to raise money for the PC Party - came to work for Ontario Proud. But, in a statement, they said that their company does not share information between clients. "All clients' donor data is the exclusive property of the client and is not used for any other purpose."

Mr. Ballingall had other money-making tools at his disposal. As a publisher of content that people like to read and share, Ontario Proud can also disseminate messages for businesses and industries - for a fee. In the media business, such advertisements are known as "sponsored content," and are usually labelled as such to ensure readers don't confuse an article that has been bought and paid for as a piece of journalism. Ontario Proud has published sponsored content, none of it labelled.

For example, in May, 2018, Ontario Proud posted a video titled: "Wynne's Attack Dogs Get Special Deals." The minute-and-a-half-long clip, which has been viewed nearly 90,000 times, criticized a Liberal plan to create a government-led agency to deliver home care to seniors.

It was not unusual for Ontario Proud to attack a big, expensive government program, but the message was actually paid for by Grosso McCarthy, a public-affairs and strategy company that specializes in health-care policy. Ontario Proud charged the company $7,000 and disclosed it in its filings to Elections Ontario.

In an interview, Francesca Grosso, one of the principals of Grosso McCarthy, said that her company did not consider the transaction to be a donation in the typical sense - rather, it was a payment for the creation of the video.

Mr. Ballingall told her the production of the video would cost about $6,000, and that Ontario Proud would charge an additional $1,000 to post the content and boost the ad through Facebook. "He was adamant that the amount would need to be disclosed given the way the rules were written, and I appreciated his interest in transparency," she said.

"I thought this was a bargain, given that the cost of media buys and production costs are usually through the roof," she said.

As for who else has paid Mr. Ballingall to post tailored messages, he won't specify.

When asked about the number of pro-Canadian oil posts, he acknowledged that he has "received support from the Canadian energy industry." Mr. Ballingall estimated that less than 1 per cent of Ontario Proud's posts are sponsored content, and he said that the group would never post material that was not in keeping with its core principles.

Then there is the matter of how Mr. Ballingall, himself, gets paid.

On paper, Ontario Proud is a not-forprofit corporation. (When the group's lawyer, Mr. O'Connor, was called to testify before the House of Commons ethics committee, he described Ontario Proud in his prepared remarks as "predominantly" non-profit. Asked to clarify this in an interview, he said Ontario Proud is strictly nonprofit and explained, "I may have, frankly, misspoke.") But just because Ontario Proud is prohibited from turning a profit doesn't mean its vendors are. And one of Ontario Proud's frequently used vendors is Mobilize Media, Mr. Ballingall's company.

Mr. Ballingall will not disclose how much Mobilize has made from Ontario Proud and public records only offer a glimpse of what Mobilize charges. When Ontario Proud was starting to peak in 2017, records show that the PC Party hired Mobilize for "advertising/communications/ media" work. Mr. Ballingall was also hired by both Tony Clement and Lisa Raitt during the federal leadership race at respective price tags of $3,500 and $28,406.05.

When asked whether he used Ontario Proud's wide audience to help those clients, Mr. Ballingall said that when he took those contracts, Ontario Proud was not yet registered with any regulators as a thirdparty advertiser. "Would we work on a campaign now? No."

Mr. Ballingall has also leveraged his success into a job as the chief marketing officer of The Post Millennial, a digital news website with a distinct populist bent. Ontario Proud regularly disseminates Post Millennial stories through its Facebook and Twitter pages.

Throughout their interview with The Globe, Mr. Ballingall and Mr. O'Connor repeatedly stressed that Ontario Proud prides itself on its independence - and that, far from merely echoing the talking points of the PCs or federal Conservatives, it is pushing the parties in certain directions, too.

Recently, in a rare critique of the Ford government, Ontario Proud lived up to that assertion. On Twitter, Ontario Proud retweeted a Globe editorial that criticized the Ford government's lottery system for granting licences to entrepreneurs interested in opening retail cannabis stores.

"Another failure from the Ford government. Half-baked, timid policy doesn't serve their public or political interests," Ontario Proud wrote.

"We wouldn't want to be directed by a political party, even if it was legal," Mr.

O'Connor said. "We don't want to have that reputation."

WITH REPORTS FROM SUSAN KRASHINSKY ROBERTSON

Associated Graphic

Ontario Proud director Ryan O'Connor, left, walks with founder Jeff Ballingall in Toronto. Mr. Ballingall's company churned out anti-Liberal memes ahead of 2018's provincial election, targeting leader Kathleen Wynne as a 'clown,' 'scumbag' and 'corrupt.'

MARK BLINCH/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Entrepreneur and PC donor Robert Faissal, seen in 2011, cut Ontario Proud a cheque for $10,000.

DELLA ROLLINS/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Ontario Chief Electoral Officer Greg Essensa, seen in 2012, warned legislators about the rise of third-party influencers in 2016.

J.P. MOCZULSKI/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

As a not-for-profit, Ontario Proud and its principals cannot make money from its business. The same, however, cannot be said of its vendors, such as Mobilize Media, another of Jeff Ballingall's ventures.

MARK BLINCH/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Stressed in the suburbs: Once hubs of affordability, quiet neighbourhoods are now epicentres of debt
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By RACHELLE YOUNGLAI AND CHEN WANG
  
  

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Saturday, September 14, 2019 – Page B7

Navin Seepaul is a 29-year-old single dad who makes $30,000 a year as a barber. He owns a $1-million house in Brampton, a sprawling suburb northwest of Toronto.

Each month, the payments on his roughly $700,000 mortgage are $4,300. On top of that, he has $24,000 in credit-card debt.

"The more you work, the more you spend," says Mr. Seepaul. "'What is $1,500? What is $2,000? Let me just run this credit card here.' A lot of people do it."

To help pay the bills - even just the monthly interest charges are staggering - he rents out his basement to three or four students, and two truck drivers rent bedrooms on his second floor. At any given time, the young father has six vehicles parked on his property.

Welcome to the Canadian suburbs, circa 2019, where the country's debt problem is at its worst and where the dream of owning a home on a leafy street with a garage and a lush yard for the kids is, for many, a long way from reality.

Thanks to soaring real estate prices - driven to extremes through a combination of constrained supply, low interest rates and eager lenders - Canada's total household debt has hit a record $2.2-trillion. Canadian households are carrying debt equal to 177 per cent of annual disposable income.

But there's another number that should be more concerning: the debt service ratio. That's the percentage of after-tax income households must spend to pay the interest on their debts - not just the mortgage, but also car loans, credit cards and lines of credit.

The Globe and Mail asked Environics Analytics to pinpoint the 100 most financially stressed neighbourhoods in the country - census tracts with the highest debt service ratio. Nationwide, it sits at 8.4 per cent, according to Environics (which calculated the figure using data from Statistics Canada, the 2016 census, Equifax and the Bank of Canada, among other sources).

But in the 100 most maxed-out neighbourhoods, households are spending an average of 22 per cent of their after-tax income on interest. These areas are overwhelmingly suburban. Seventy-seven of them are in cities around Toronto (known for their 905 area code), including 34 in Brampton, 21 in Vaughan, 11 in Markham and five in Richmond Hill. Another 15 are on the fringes of Vancouver - places like Langley, Surrey, Coquitlam and Richmond. Two are in Calgary's northern outskirts and four are in Edmonton, clustered south of the highway that rings the city. (Just two are in a city's downtown core: one in Montreal and one in Vancouver.)

Housing affordability has long been considered an issue in the core of the biggest cities, with prospective buyers in Toronto and Vancouver bemoaning the fact that it now costs well more than $1-million to buy a detached house. The suburbs used to be the haven of affordability for families. That's no longer the case.

House prices in Brampton, for instance, have tripled over the past decade. Add in a host of other costs associated with suburban living, including commuting expenses, and you start to see more people like Mr. Seepaul, turning their homes into boarding houses just to make ends meet.

"Suburbs are debt-accumulation machines," says Roger Keil, a professor at York University who leads global research on suburbanization. "In order to pay for your mortgage, you need to have a job or two or three or four. In order to get to these jobs, you need to have a car. In order to buy a car, you need to have another debt. So you acquire multiple indebtedness across the spectrum."

There's long been talk that Canada is due for a debt reckoning, and insolvencies and mortgage defaults are already on the rise. If an economic slowdown is really on the way, these overextended neighbourhoods could become the first casualties.

With financial anxiety at such high levels, political parties are responding. In one of his first campaign announcements this week, Liberal Leader Justin Trudeau promised a foreign-buyers tax on vacant homes, and an enhanced first-time home buyers program - all designed to address the affordability crisis for middle-class Canadians. Meantime, Conservative Leader Andrew Scheer talks of tax cuts as a "plan to put more money in your pocket so you can get ahead." The New Democrats' "New Deal for People" vows to tackle "the suffocating pressure that people feel as costs keep tightening the family budget."

The 'burbs, after all, contain a healthy number of ridings key to winning the federal election in October.

If there is a debt crisis in Canada, Mr. Seepaul is living at its epicentre.

Brampton, a.k.a. Flower City, was once a farming town known for its many greenhouses. But as Toronto grew as a financial hub, so did Brampton, sprouting rows of detached houses connected by roads as wide as six lanes. It became a hub for immigrants, many from South Asia, and a place where Sikh temples are common and strip malls are packed with Indian grocers.

Today, Brampton epitomizes the suburban debtstress phenomenon by pretty much every measure.

Its population has increased twice as fast as Toronto's over the past decade, to nearly 600,000, making it the fourth-biggest city in Ontario, after Toronto, Ottawa and Mississauga.

All that growth has translated into an insatiable demand for homes. Forty-three per cent of Brampton's housing was built between 2001 and 2016, compared with 26 per cent across the Toronto area.

As rising house prices in Toronto sent people rushing to the suburbs, prices jumped in Brampton. The average selling price for a detached house in the city has tripled over the past decade, from $312,918 to $908,354. In Toronto, meanwhile, the cost of a detached home rose from $522,200 to $1.36-million.

It's making Brampton unaffordable, says Jas Takhar, a realtor whose work spans the Toronto region, including Brampton: "We have a saying in my office.

It's 'Drive till you qualify.' So you can't buy in Toronto, you can't buy in Brampton, you have to go to Hamilton, you have to go to Kitchener, you have to go to Durham."

It's telling that nearly 80 per cent of homeowners in Brampton have a mortgage, compared with 63 per cent in the Toronto region as a whole, making the area more vulnerable to interest-rate changes.

And the pressure built up when the Bank of Canada began hiking its key lending rate two years ago, to 1.75 per cent from 0.5 per cent. When you add in the principal to interest on loans, Canadians are now spending a record 14.9 per cent of their disposable income on debt repayments, according to Statscan.

Environics calculates Canadian households spent an additional $663 on interest payments in 2018, compared to the previous year.

The high cost of the suburbs extends beyond simple house prices, however. The median monthly shelter cost for homeowners - which includes mortgage payments, property taxes, heat, water, electricity and other municipal services (but not house insurance) - was $1,897 in Brampton, $1,827 in Vaughan and $1,814 in Richmond Hill, according to the most recent census data. That compared with $1,655 in the Toronto census metropolitan area.

Among the 34 Brampton neighbourhoods identified by Environics, the median monthly shelter cost for homeowners was nearly 30 per cent higher, at $2,132, according to the Globe's analysis of Environics and census data.

It's the same story in other suburban areas. In the two distressed neighbourhoods in Coquitlam, the median monthly shelter cost was $1,895 - 38 per cent higher than the Vancouver area's median of $1,376.

In the four census tracts on the outskirts of Edmonton, housing costs were $2,012, versus $1,536 in the city's census metropolitan area.

Even property taxes can be surprisingly burdensome. Since many bedroom communities have a limited corporate tax base, residential property taxes constitute the bulk of municipal revenue. In Brampton, 80 per cent of its property tax revenue comes from residents, versus 20 from commercial buildings such as offices. In contrast, Toronto's property tax revenue is 53 per cent residential and 47 per cent commercial.

"We don't have the same level of corporate taxes.

That may make it the perfect storm: high property taxes, higher interest rates, high car insurance," says Harkirat Singh, a Brampton city councillor who represents the northeast area with neighbourhoods with the highest debt service ratio. "They call it postal code discrimination."

The high cost of commuting is another killer.

About two-thirds of Brampton's work force drives out of the city for employment. It's the same in other 905 areas like Markham, Richmond Hill and Vaughan. In Richmond and Surrey, B.C., it's about half; in Coquitlam, the figure climbs to 75 per cent.

Owning a car is a pricey proposition - and not just because of loan payments, gas and maintenance.

Brampton, Vaughan and Richmond Hill have, on average, the highest car insurance rates in the country at $2,600 a year, due to a higher number of claims.

B.C. has the second highest rates with an average of $1,800 per year.

"When you have a lot more financial pressures like we do now, people are forced to make tougher choices," says Peter Miron, an economist and senior researcher with Environics. "How much am I saving if I sit in traffic in the car? I think everyone is well aware of that cost."

Meanwhile, even as expenses have risen in the suburbs, wages haven't. Part of the problem in Brampton, and in plenty of other suburbs, is that the majority of local jobs are on the lower end of the income spectrum. In Flower City, half the labour force is employed in manufacturing, wholesale trade, retail, transportation, food services and accommodation, and the median employment income was $31,399 in 2015, nearly $3,500 less than in Toronto.

To Benjamin Tal, deputy chief economist with CIBC, that suggests something's askew. "The fact that the debt-to-income ratio is rising very rapidly, or the stress is higher there, suggests that income is not as high as it should be to support home prices."

"It's not a question of how much debt you have," Mr. Miron says. "It's more a question of, how much debt do you have relative to your income?" Across the country in Edmonton, Stacy Lee and her partner, Peter Halladay, are struggling with the income side of the debt-service equation. In 2015, they OF AFTER-TAX INCOME ON INTEREST paid $415,000 for a 1,500-square-foot detached house, complete with white-railinged porch, in a new subdivision called Chappelle. The family moved there from a small community south of Edmonton because Ms. Lee wanted to raise their two children, now 8 and 6, in a culturally diverse neighbourhood close to a school.

So far, that future is still under construction. Excavators and big piles of dirt dot the subdivision and front yards are filled with mud, not grass. The school is nothing but an open field. Nonetheless, her subdivision is part of one of the city's fastest growing neighbourhoods, below the highway that surrounds the city.

It's also one of the four Edmonton-area neighbourhoods on the list of Canada's most financially stressed areas.

The Great Recession, followed by the oil crash, have taken their toll on the region. Ms. Lee, 38, has lost four jobs in sales and management since 2011.

Mr. Halladay, 48, a quality control inspector at a wellhead manufacturer, has had his hours cut three times since the 2008 meltdown.

Ms. Lee says she has been able to fully pay off their credit cards, lines of credit and other consumer debt four times, only to accumulate more. "There is a never-ending trail of recovery and indebtedness," she says.

Recently, she landed a full-time job with Canada

Post and started paying down their credit cards yet again. But when the transmission on her 14-year-old car failed, she had to buy a new one. "We just keep slipping back," she says. "Something will happen with his truck, or the kids got to go to camp, or school supplies are due."

With credit card payments and car loans of $1,188 a month, along with the monthly mortgage of $2,225, the couple's total debt payments will reach $40,956 this year. Of that, $14,000 is interest. Add in child care, groceries, gas and other expenses, and Ms. Lee expects to spend more than $82,000 this year - far outstripping their expected after-tax pay of $74,760.

"We are probably less than a paychecque away from being in trouble," says Ms. Lee, who is looking for a second job - any job - to bridge the gap. "I am $1,000 in the hole every month just to pay the bills, not to pay any debt."

The Lee-Halladays aren't alone. "What's driving [the higher debt-service ratio] is still people not having the same level of income," says Freida Richer, an insolvency trustee with Grant Thornton in Edmonton. "They were able to afford it when they had the income they had, but they no longer have that income."

So far, the country's economy is humming along, and the jobless rate is at a four-decade low. The Bank of Canada has kept interest rates steady this year, giving some homeowners a reprieve.

But the record level of debt makes the economy less resilient.

"The real test is when interest rates rise or when you have an economic shock like an increase in the unemployment rate - that is when you feel the pain," CIBC's Mr. Tal says. "Clearly, a higher level of debt is making the economy more sensitive to economic shocks, no question about it."

There are some early signs of stress. In Edmonton's southern suburb, insolvencies are spiking, according to the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions. In the first eight months of the year, foreclosure sales in the western city hit 385, according to Coldwell Banker, a real estate brokerage that specializes in foreclosures, putting it on track to outpace last year's figure.

The uptick in insolvencies and delinquencies isn't isolated to Edmonton. In the first quarter of this year, Ontario and B.C. showed their first "significant" rise in consumer debt delinquencies in five years, according to Equifax. "There is evidence that the delinquency trend is gaining upward momentum," says Bill Johnston, Equifax's vice-president of data and analytics. "We continue to see signs of increasing strain for Canadian borrowers."

Worried about household debt, the nation's bank regulator is forcing the big banks to hold more capital to guard against potential loan losses. At the same time, the banks are becoming increasingly stringent about loans, making it harder for customers to refinance and consolidate their debts. Others are seeing interest rates on their lines of credit or credit cards increase with no explanation.

"I can't go to my bank now and shift my Visa balance onto my line of credit," says Scott Terrio, manager of consumer insolvency for Hoyes, Michalos Licensed Insolvency Trustees in Ontario. "That is a big deal. It doesn't sound like much. But that's what people were doing for the last five years."

When people start running out of options, that's when you've got trouble coming, according to Mr.

Terrio, adding that insolvencies in Ontario are increasing at a pace not seen since 2009. "When those doors start to close," he says, "I think the next insolvency peak will blow 2009 away."

Even more worrisome is what will happen if a recession hits - a distinct possibility, given the brewing trade war between the U.S. and China. For people like Ms. Lee, losing a job could mean missing debt payments, which could lead to insolvency and foreclosure. More houses on the market would depress price and weaken the housing industry, triggering further job losses.

"It will make the recession deeper and longer," says mortgage broker Rob McLister, founder of Ratespy.com.

Those in debt-stressed neighbourhoods, however, don't need a recession to put them at risk. Any unexpected expense - a broken-down car, a leaky roof, a sudden illness - can put them over the edge.

"People are living with a very, very narrow margin," Mr. Tal says.

About 30 kilometres east of downtown Vancouver is a perfect illustration of how the debt crisis is reshaping the suburbs.

The neighbourhood, known as Burke Mountain or northeast Coquitlam - one of Environics' most stressed areas - is filled with freshly built rows of single-family homes, built on the last piece of land north of the Fraser River still available for housing.

Young families rushed to buy in, paying upwards of $1-million for detached houses, many of them with a basement suite ready to rent out. "That was their way of getting into the market," says Craig Hodge, a Coquitlam city councillor.

"Densification," in which parking lots, strip malls and low-rise buildings are turned into condos and apartments to jam in more people, is a well known phenomenon in downtown Toronto and Vancouver. Now it's happening in the suburbs, many of which are facing limits on sprawl.

In Coquitlam, the city is providing developers with incentives to turn low-density spaces into multiresidential properties. "Single-family detached is not selling that much anymore because of the cost," says Brent Asmundson, a city councillor with Coquitlam.

Today, 98 per cent of the housing under construction in Coquitlam is townhouses, duplexes, apartments or condos. Basement apartments or secondary units are increasing at an average rate of nearly 20 per cent a year.

"If someone has the choice of, I can either buy a $2-million single family house or I can get a unit in a four-plex for $800,000, that is open to a wider range of families," says Andrew Merrill, Coquitlam's manager of community planning.

In Brampton, the city is approving more building permits for apartments, and it's also pushing for more density around the three train stations that lead to downtown Toronto.

It is also coming to terms with the spike in renters and unsanctioned rental spaces. In 2015, it passed legislation requiring residents to obtain permits to lease their basement apartments or secondary units. The number of issued permits soared from 67 in 2015 to 1,263 last year. From January to May, the number hit 811, putting it on track to outpace the previous year.

Mr. Singh, the Brampton city councillor, says he is getting calls from constituents asking for more bus routes. "I know the people in the houses, and I am like, why public busing? I know these people - they are not going to take public busing," he says. "But it is to make it more attractive for people in the basement apartments."

Among the financially stressed neighbourhoods in Brampton, an analysis by Statscan suggests that more households were renting a part of their house in 2016 compared with 2011. The average number of people per household in those neighbourhoods is 4.2 people, compared with 3.5 across Brampton and 2.7 for the Toronto region, according to a Globe analysis of the data.

As in Coquitlam, Brampton planners and developers are pushing densification. "That accelerated with all sorts of financial pressures," says Brampton's city planner, Bob Bjerke. "If you think of suburbs being low-rise houses with parks, where everyone drives to everything - no, I don't think that is going to be the predominant way people live."

A few years ago, Brampton consulted with about 15,000 residents on the municipality's future. After four decades of ad hoc urban planning and momentous growth, city officials were looking for a different approach. The result was a vision for a future that included more jobs in the city, mini town centres throughout, and more public transit while still sustaining access to parks.

"In the future, we can't just see core cities and second-tier cities" like Brampton, says Larry Beasley, a former chief planner for Vancouver who helped Brampton develop the vision for the city. "This community has to change."

When asked if residents wanted to live in an apartment or townhouse instead of a detached house, Mr. Bjerke is confident they do: "There is an interest in what you can afford."

But 75 years of suburban living will be hard to change with condos and public transportation, and some don't want to give up, even in face of spiralling debt.

When Brampton homeowner Sandy Brar went to renew her mortgage earlier this year, her monthly mortgage payment jumped from $1,600 to $2,400.

"When I look at property taxes, when I look at the price of insurance for a car and my home , I would be saving money by moving out of Brampton," she says.

Now, Ms. Brar and her family are looking to sell their house in Brampton and find something more manageable. She's looking further afield - Milton, Oakville, maybe Burlington - in the hopes of holding on to the suburban dream.

Associated Graphic

'We don't have the same level of corporate taxes. That may make it the perfect storm: high property taxes, higher interest rates, high car insurance,' Brampton City Councillor Harkirat Singh says. The city is a prime example of the suburban debt-stress phenomenon.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

MURAT YÜKSELIR AND CHEN WANG / THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: ENVIRONICS ANALYTICS

Stacy Lee, seen at her home in Edmonton, and her partner paid $415,000 in 2015 for a detached home in a culturally diverse neighbourhood close to a school. Four years later, piles of dirt dot the subdivision and the school has not yet been built.

AMBER BRACKEN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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The conflict between safety and inclusion
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In school boards across Canada, more educators say they're being hurt on the job, according to data reviewed by The Globe and Mail. But there are gaps in data collection, and debates over the reasons for the rise in reports of violence. How do school boards keep teachers safe while ensuring an education for students with complex needs?
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By CAROLINE ALPHONSO
  
  

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Saturday, September 7, 2019 – Page A12

The words in the injury reports speak volumes: "I was repeatedly hit on the head, shoulders, chest and back," wrote an educator in Edmonton, describing an encounter with a violent student at school. A child "scratched both my arms and drew blood," wrote another.

A third indicates that a student was asked to follow a routine of going to the bathroom and then having a snack with classmates, but "verbally protested no and punched me in the jaw."

Biting. Kicking. Spitting. Scratching. Punching.

Blows to the head. Aggressive, often violent, reported incidents against educators are on the rise, a Globe and Mail survey of data from school boards across the country has found.

Educators at the Toronto District School Board, the country's largest school district, logged 3,831 reports of workplace violence over the past academic year, up from 1,894 reports in 2014-15. In Edmonton, the number of violent incidents against staff members involving students documented by Edmonton Public Schools more than doubled between the 2015-16 academic year and 2017-18. At the Surrey School District, the largest in B.C., the number of reported violent incidents by a student against a staff member climbed from 190 in 2008-09 to 1,642 in the 2017-18 school year.

New research by University of Ottawa professors Darcy Santor and Chris Bruckert confirms the troubling rise. In a paper released this month, the researchers say that while 7 per cent of educators in Ontario's schools reported being the target of physical violence by students in 2005, by 2017-18, the rate had increased to 54 per cent experiencing violence by physical force, which included being hit, kicked and bitten by students. It characterizes the rate of violence as "alarmingly high."

While the number of reported incidents is increasing, gaps in the data make it difficult to determine which types of incidents are most frequent, why they're occurring and the characteristics of the students involved. Statistics on violence instigated by students against educators is inconsistent across the country, and some boards and provinces don't even collect them.

But in interviews with The Globe, board administrators and educators cited a handful of factors, including mental-health issues, child poverty and the integration of special-needs students with complex behavioural issues into mainstream classrooms.

The result? Classrooms being repeatedly evacuated because of a disruptive child; staff on medical leave for prolonged periods after being physically hurt; families increasingly asked to pick up their children early or keep them home for an indefinite period because of behavioural issues; and other parents fearing for the safety of their own children.

The Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario describes violence in schools as one of the biggest issues facing its members. In Nova Scotia, one classroom was evacuated 12 times in a month, says Paul Wozney, president of the Nova Scotia Teachers Union, because of a disruptive child. The rest of the students were forced into another room to give the student a chance to calm down. Many teachers and school staff live in a heightened state of anxiety, he said, and it is not uncommon for them to be injured on the job and be fitted with bite-resistant sleeves and other protective equipment.

"At a time when we're starting to reduce the stigma around PTSD for first responders, for people that serve in the Canadian military ... I think we have a lot of road to travel in that regard as it pertains to teachers that suffer violence in the classroom," he says.

The Globe and Mail requested data on violent incidents in schools committed by students against educators from 21 boards across Canada, including the largest school board in each province, as well as the 10 provincial ministries of education. Fourteen school boards responded with data. Of those, seven boards provided specific numbers around reports of student-to-educator incidents, which showed a general increase. Five boards provided more general employee workplace-violence reports, which also showed an overall increase in incidents, the majority of which involved students. Two boards provided all incidents of violence, but did not separate student-to-staff events.

Some boards provided a decade worth of data, and others, such as the Anglophone South School District in New Brunswick and Winnipeg School Division, provided only one or two years of data.

Of the 10 provincial ministries of education, only Nova Scotia provided data on the issue - in the 2015-16 school year, there were 631 recorded incidents against an educator by a student, and the next year, there were 683, the vast majority occurring at the elementary-school level, the government says, characterizing it as a "mild" increase but also adding that "one is too many." The Ontario government, meanwhile, declined a Freedom of Information request, saying it doesn't collect information on violent incidents against educators. The ministries of education in Saskatchewan and Manitoba also say they don't collect the information or referred The Globe to their school boards. Both B.C.

and Alberta referred The Globe to their workers' compensation boards, both of which provided data around the increase in claims among staff in schools.

Even within a province, the data-gathering was inconsistent. The Globe requested violent incidents by students against educators from the 10 largest boards in Ontario, which represent roughly half the student population of the province.

The Halton District School Board in southwestern Ontario provided violent incidents reported by staff on forms titled "Employee Incident Report - Aggression." It shows that staff in elementary schools submitted 2,714 reports in the last academic year, up from 1,757 reports in 2014-15. The majority of incidents, the board says, would be studentrelated, but some may be caused by parents or coworkers, for example.

Meanwhile, the nearby Peel District School Board denied a Freedom of Information request asking for the total number of violent incidents by students against staff, responding that "no board record exists in the manner requested." A spokeswoman says a new reporting form being used this school year will allow the board to extract the data going forward.

New online reporting processes - as opposed to a pencil and paper form in the main office at school - may account for the increased number of reports on violence. In Edmonton, where the city's largest public board has seen a rise in the number of aggressive incidents reported (from 3,207 incidents in 2015-16 to 8,959 in the 2017-18 school year), staff may be documenting more incidents as they become familiar with the new system, the district says.

There are "huge information gaps" around the occurrence of workplace violence in general, says Peter Smith, a senior scientist at the Institute for Work & Health in Toronto. "But in particular," he says "in a high-risk sector such as education, there's a lot of information we don't know."

Female educators bear the brunt of the violence, says Dr. Smith, who co-authored a study released last year that looked at gender differences in injuries attributed to workplace violence in Ontario over 13 years. In it, he and his colleagues found that violent incidents are increasing exponentially for women in the education sector and that female educators were four to six times more likely than their male counterparts to experience assaults that required time off work.

The data is based on workers' compensation claims, but Dr. Smith acknowledges it does not tell the full story. Who are the perpetrators? Why is it occurring? What is the context in which it occurs, whether it is in the classroom or on the playground?

"Really, if we want to get serious about preventing violence, we need to know much more ... so we can have targeted intervention strategies to reduce it. If we don't have good surveillance, we don't know if we're reducing it or not," he says.

Several school-board administrators interviewed by The Globe suggested that the number of violent incidents in education are on the rise because unions are encouraging their members to report or because the new online reporting system makes the task easier. Even minor incidents, such as a student using foul language, are included, some say.

On the other side, union officials say the numbers don't paint an accurate picture because educators are sometimes discouraged by administrators to report incidents.

Mr. Wozney in Nova Scotia describes a system in crisis as it relates to supports for children with all sorts of needs. He says schools are dealing with "exploding" mental-health issues as early as the primary grades. The stresses that come with child poverty and a troubled home life also play out in the country's classrooms, he says.

"What's really interesting about it is that people

historically have viewed violence against teachers as sort of juvenile delinquents exhibiting criminal behaviour toward adults. And I think violence is no longer so simple or convenient," he says.

David Mastin, the former head of the Durham local of the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario, east of Toronto, and who now works at the provincial office, says school staff in Durham are exposed to violence at "unprecedented levels." Mr.

Mastin and several others contacted by The Globe cited the integration of children with complex needs into mainstream classrooms as one of the most significant reasons for the rise. Over the past few decades - and as a result of shifts in thinking combined with lobbying from parents and advocacy groups - schools began integrating more of these children in regular classrooms, rather than segregating them in separate schools or rooms. Teaching assistants are "nothing more than safety monitors now," Mr. Mastin says, as they attend to one crisis after another.

"We want and we believe in an inclusive model of education, because every single kid matters ... This can only work when there are proper supports for those kids," Mr. Mastin says.

Mr. Wozney says the struggle to balance the safety needs of educators with the wide-ranging needs of individual students is a growing challenge for schools.

"Yes, we want to see less teachers suffer harm. At the same time, we want to see kids get the supports that they need to thrive in school. Rather than struggle and melt down, we want those kids to be able to find their home within the public-education system and find a way to get what they need to go on to be productive and healthy students and citizens."

When Jen Hare worked in a special-education classroom in Barrie, Ont., she wore a Kevlar coat, gloves and a baseball hat lined with hard plastic.

One morning, one of her students, a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with autism, had been aggressive, but nothing she characterized as out of the ordinary.

She had planned to take him to the gym in the afternoon to work off some of his energy.

The boy, who weighed 280 pounds, had a tendency to attack those much smaller than him, and within seconds of entering the gymnasium, he raised his arms over his head and charged toward a little boy in the corner of the room.

Ms. Hare reacted swiftly. She ran between the two of them and grabbed her student by his sweatshirt, using all her strength to pull him back toward her. He shoved her against a wall and started hitting her on the top of her head and on her face.

An education assistant counted 45 hits before she ran for help, realizing Ms. Hare could not free herself. The incident caused multiple health issues for Ms. Hare, including the diagnosis of a traumatic brain injury (she believes the helmet reduced the severity). The repeated hits also ruptured her left eardrum and she suffered a stroke, which numbed her left side. She was off work for 18 months. Five years later, she still feels the effects: If she accidentally cuts her left hand with a knife when she's cooking, she won't feel the pain.

"Where do my rights end and a student's begin?" Ms. Hare asks. "He has a right to an education, but I have a right to safety and security."

The incident is an extreme case of the violence educators say they experience, but Dr. Bruckert, a criminology professor and co-author of the University of Ottawa research, says situations such as these demonstrate the need for more support within classrooms. "If we are going to have an integrated model, if we are going to have mainstreaming, we need to have the resources to support the kids in really meaningful ways. Then it can work. And only then," she says.

Educators are challenged by the complex needs that students have, and the medical expertise of behavioural therapists that families work with outside of school could help ease the burden on the system, says Bill MacGregor, the president of the Peel District School Board's principals' and viceprincipals' association. Mr. MacGregor suggests that perhaps schools should also become wellness centres, where school staff welcome communityhealth agencies into their buildings to support children.

Special-needs students have "every right to be in school," he says. "They deserve to be in a school.

And quite frankly, when their needs are serviced effectively, they add a richness to our learning in schools."

For her part, Ms. Hare, who returned to teaching for a short time after her 18-month leave before opting to take a job in the union office, does not want the education system to return to a time when special-needs children were excluded from schooling.

However, she agrees that the system is not designed to handle children with complex needs, and perhaps separate microschools providing therapies could be the answer.

"My injuries and the injuries that are reported in the media are not anomalies. This is happening everyday. We are seeing this on a broader scale," Ms.

Hare says. "Even with some intellectually average kids who are in difficult situations and escalate to violence. It's not just specific to kids with special needs. It is a problem that the system has over all." Shameela Shakeel and her eight year-old daughter, Yasmeen, play a game at home in Newmarket, Ont., on Aug. 13. Yasmeen has suffered from anxiety after multiple incidents in which a student with complex needs lost control in the classroom.

DEBORAH BAIC/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL Still, children with complex behaviours are often the first to be identified as the problem, a fact that frustrates Nicole Kaler, a mom in B.C. and a member of the advocacy group BCEdAccess. She agrees that schools need more support for special-needs students, but as the mother of a child with autism who had behavioural issues, she's angry that kids such as hers are characterized as violent by educators. The term "violent" criminalizes the behaviours of special-needs children, she says, who act out because they cannot communicate.

When her own daughter, Maya, who's now 18, started kindergarten, she was unable to speak and frequently hit, spit and behaved in ways others would regard as out of control.

Ms. Kaler asked Maya's private behaviour consultant to observe her daughter in the classroom one day (she says she's lucky because her school district in Surrey allowed its staff to take input from a private consultant).

The consultant recommended that every day, three children put their hand on her daughter's shoulder, and give Maya a high-five. Her daughter's aggressive behaviour stopped. After all, Ms. Kaler says, non-verbal did not mean her daughter was not social.

She fears that the lack of tolerance for children with complex needs, both from educators and from other parents, is code for moving toward a model of separating children.

"It's really ugly what people will say about children," Ms. Kaler says.

"We're labelling them as criminals, even if they're 5 or 6, and the bottom line is, it's a slow move of going back to an era of complete segregation and using a label to predetermine whether somebody will be a contributing member of society."

The lack of supports for kids with complex needs affects everyone, Shameela Shakeel says.

When her daughter's Grade 3 teacher went on leave after months of struggling to teach a classroom full of children that included one special-needs child with aggressive tendencies, she and other parents took matters into their own hands. Leading up to the teacher's departure last December, Ms. Shakeel tried to manage her own daughter's fear of being in the disruptive classroom. The student had hit the teacher and other students, Ms. Shakeel said, and on several occasions, the other children in the classroom were evacuated.

Ms. Shakeel did breathing exercises with her daughter each night and would lie with her in bed until she went to sleep. She also kept her daughter at home at times, just to ease the high level of anxiety.

Administrators at her daughter's school in Newmarket, Ont., didn't respond to parents' calls for a solution, she said, so she rallied them to stage a walkout. Their plan was to show up at the school at 1:15 p.m.

and sign their children out of class, protesting outside the main office and then on the sidewalk.

"It wasn't a walkout against that child. It was a walkout to say enough is enough: Our kids deserve better," Ms. Shakeel says.

The night before the protest, she received a call from administrators, pleading with her not to go ahead because it might jeopardize a plan for the student, who had specific needs. Ms. Shakeel reluctantly called it off. But she was convinced that if she and other parents had not made a fuss and expressed their frustrations, little would have changed. Eventually, the child was placed in a special school-board program at a different location.

Several of the school boards and government representatives contacted by The Globe said they were developing more pro-active approaches to dealing with violence. Nova Scotia is in its second year of a five-year plan to roll out more inclusive education supports in schools, including autism specialists and child and youth care practitioners.

It has also ordered an independent review of its efforts to improve inclusion supports. A spokeswoman for the Nova Scotia Ministry of Education said the initiatives would help "relieve some of the complexities teachers face in their classrooms with a focus on working with teachers to give our kids the best and safest learning experience possible."

At Edmonton Public Schools, the board takes safety "very, very seriously," training staff in non-violent crisis intervention and dispatching teams of behavioural experts to schools when a student displays repeated issues, says Brenda Gummer, director of inclusive learning.

At York Region District School Board, if there is a repeat incident involving a child, an intervention team made up of behaviour specialists and therapists will go into the school to help the class get settled. They could be there for hours, or even days, mapping out a strategy for the child to minimize negative behaviour.

Louise Sirisko, director of education at the board, said the majority of reported incidents at her board involves special-needs students. The hope is that the intervention team will help educators understand a student's triggers and avoid situations such as staff injuries and classroom evacuations.

Data provided by the York school district shows there has been an increase in the number of employee reports of workplace violence over the past five years from 1,026 in 2014-15 to more than 3,000 in 2018-19. The majority of incidents did not require medical treatment, according to the data provided to The Globe. The rise in incidents could reflect a new focus on reporting incidents, Ms. Sirisko says.

Still, she acknowledges that there is a concern around the issue of violence against educators. Last year, the board set up a committee to look at how it responds to incidents such as the one involving Ms.

Shakeel, she says.

"It is absolutely a fine balance. We have to be recognizing for the rest of the students that the episode might have been very, very scary. So we want to be making sure that our practices and our educators know what the triggers are ahead of time so that the incidents don't occur at all."

"It's not an easy science," Ms. Sirisko adds.

Associated Graphic

Nova Scotia Teachers Union president Paul Wozney says the problems caused by child poverty can spill out into the country's classrooms, with violent results.

DARREN CALABRESE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Teacher Jen Hare, seen at her home in Barrie, Ont., with her husband and their son on Aug. 20, was badly injured by a student with autism while working.

DEBORAH BAIC/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Nicole Kaler and her 18-year-old daughter, Maya, communicate using a tablet as they spend time together at their home in Surrey, B.C., on Aug. 19.

RAFAL GERSZAK/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Maya Kaler, right, along with Mia Beltrame, left, a privately hired behavioural interventionist, works on various activities including drawing, puzzle making and visual aids at her home in Surrey, on Aug. 19.

RAFAL GERSZAK/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Shameela Shakeel, seen with her daughter Yasmeen outside Yasmeen's school in Newmarket on Aug. 13, says that the lack of supports for kids with complex needs affects everyone.

DEBORAH BAIC/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The day she was beaten by a special-needs student, teacher Jen Hare was wearing this baseball hat lined with hard plastic, which she credits with reducing some of the severity of her injuries. Five years later, she still feels the incident's effects.

DEBORAH BAIC/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Water ways
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It's time to start planning your winter getaway. (Yes, already.) Find your perfect escape with Adam Bisby's ultimate guide to every island destination you can reach by direct flight
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By ADAM BISBY
  
  

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Saturday, September 14, 2019 – Page P8

Of all the sunny, sandy spots explored by millions of winter-weary Canadians each year, the islands of the Caribbean may well be the hottest - and not just in terms of temperature.

According to the Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO), Canadian visitor growth in the region outperformed that of all other nationalities in 2018, with the 3.9 million visits representing a 5.7-per-cent jump over the previous year. (Visits by Americans, by way of comparison, fell 6.3 per cent.)

The CTO attributed this growth to Canada's strong economy and an increase in the number of flights to the Caribbean.

Indeed, by the start of 2020, there will be direct air links from Canada to 16 of the organization's 22 island members, as well as to non-members Aruba, Bonaire, Cuba and Guadeloupe.

How to find the one that's right for you? Consider this your cheat sheet: Here's what to expect from every island destination you can reach by a direct flight from a major Canadian city.

1. ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA The lowdown: This Commonwealth country's two namesake islands are ringed by hundreds of sandy coves and bays that once sheltered buccaneers and British colonial frigates. Sun worshippers, yachties and honeymooners predominate on Antigua these days, with the glamorous town of English Harbour being home to Nelson's Dockyard, a Georgianstyle collection of naval buildings that became a World Heritage Site in 2016. Barbuda, meanwhile, is still recovering from the devastation wrought by Hurricane Maria in 2017.

Direct flights: Out of Toronto Pearson International Airport.

Where to stay: Antigua's plentiful accommodations range from luxurious, all-inclusive resorts - many of them adults-only - to quaint inns and inexpensive guest houses. On Barbuda, the upscale Barbuda Belle boutique hotel reopened in late 2018.

New and notable: The country's tourism authority recently unveiled an online honeymoon registry, which allows visiting newlyweds to request wedding gifts such as resort stays, spa treatments and romantic excursions.

2. ARUBA The lowdown: White-sand beaches, all-inclusive resorts galore and the ornate Dutch colonial architecture of Oranjestad have helped make Aruba the most visited island in the southern Caribbean. Shipwrecks draw scuba divers, steady breezes do likewise with windsurfers and kiteboarders, and dune-buggy drivers race through Arikok National Park.

Direct flights: Out of Toronto Pearson.

Where to stay: Luxurious private villas, dozens of all-inclusives and resorts from upscale brands such as Ritz-Carlton and Hyatt all vie for the attention of well-heeled travellers.

New and notable: The Renaissance Aruba Resort & Casino recently introduced a "Lover's Island Overnight" package that combines a stay on the resort's private island with various culinary indulgences.

3. BAHAMAS The lowdown: While this archipelago of more than 700 islands is spread over some 260,000 square kilometres, most of the vacation action takes place on Nassau, where mega-resorts such as Atlantis and Baha Mar offer everything from water parks to craft daiquiris. Hop on a smaller plane out of Nassau, however, and more adventurous and esoteric diversions await: diving into the blue holes of Andros, for instance, or kayaking among the 365 Exuma cays.

With regards to Hurricane Dorian, the CTO has stated that the greatest impact "is being felt in the northernmost islands of the Abacos and Grand Bahama," and that "most of the nation has been mostly unaffected." According to the Bahamas Ministry of Tourism, post-Dorian closings include all Bahamas Ferries sailings, Grand Bahama International Airport, the Abacos's Leonard Thompson International Airport, all hotels and resorts on the Abacos and Grand Bahama, and Grand Bahama's Freeport Harbour. Visitors are advised to contact properties and services directly for more information.

Direct flights: Out of Calgary, Montreal-Trudeau and Toronto Pearson.

Where to stay: Just about every conceivable type of lodging is available across the Bahamas. Of recent note is the multimilliondollar renovation of the Coral Sands Hotel on Harbour Island and the new, 30,000-square-foot Beach Club at the Grand Isle Resort & Spa on Great Exuma.

New and notable: The Royal Caribbean cruise line recently opened the first phase of "Perfect Day at CocoCay," a $250-million private island with what's said to be the tallest water slide in North America and the Caribbean's largest wave pool, among other superlative diversions.

4. BARBADOS The lowdown: The Platinum Coast's powdery beaches and turquoise waters meet afternoon tea and cricket in this wealthy Commonwealth country in the eastern Caribbean. The capital, Bridgetown, is also home to World Heritage-listed British colonial architecture and plenty of pulsating nightlife.

Direct flights: Out of MontrealTrudeau and Toronto Pearson.

Where to stay: Sandals Royal Barbados, ECO Lifestyle + Lodge, and the Abidah by Accra have all opened within the past two years.

Major renos have also taken place at the Fairmont Royal Pavilion, Sea Breeze Beach House, and both the House and Treasure Beach by Elegant Hotels.

New and notable: On Friday evenings, the Pelican Craft Center in Bridgetown has started hosting a night market featuring street vendors and live entertainment.

5. BONAIRE The lowdown: With its desert island feel, this Halifax-sized Dutch dependency is renowned for its world-class scuba diving and snorkelling, as well as excellent windsurfing on Lac Bay and kayaking among mangroves.

Direct flights: Out of Toronto Pearson.

Where to stay: There are dozens of resorts, rental apartments, boutique hotels and private villas on Bonaire. None of them are allinclusive.

New and notable: In 2017, the Buddy Dive Resort Bonaire became the first dive centre in the Caribbean to offer Global Underwater Explorers courses.

6. CAYMAN ISLANDS The lowdown: This western Caribbean British overseas territory comprises three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac and Little Cayman. The first is a major cruise-ship port and resort destination, with Seven Mile Beach being its most famous stretch of sand and Stingray City renowned for its namesake marine life. The pace slows down considerably on Cayman Brac and Little Cayman, both of which are reachable via Grand Cayman's Owen Roberts International Airport.

Direct flights: Out of Toronto 16 Pearson.

Where to stay: There are few allinclusives, with two new boutique properties - Beach Suites and Locale - continuing the trend on tony Grand Cayman.

New and notable: None other than Prince Charles reopened Owen Roberts International Airport's terminal building in late February after a multimillion-dollar expansion.

7. CUBA The lowdown: One of the most popular winter destinations among Canadians - and still mostly off-limits to Americans - the Caribbean's largest island is also its most culturally, naturally and geographically diverse. Indeed, there's more to Cuba than historic Havana and the resortlined sands of Varadero, Cayo Coco, Cayo Santa Maria and other beach-blessed regions, what with the country's nine World Heritage Sites comprising almost half of the Caribbean's total.

Direct flights: Available out of every international airport in Canada except Victoria.

Where to stay: Cuban lodging options seem to multiply and diversify by the week, with everything from all-inclusive resorts to rental apartments on offer. The latest openings include the upscale Iberostar Grand Hotel Packard and SO/ Paseo del Prado La Habana, both in Havana.

New and notable: Two Cayo Santa Maria resorts, La Salina Noreste and La Salina Suroeste, are slated to open in 2020.

8. CURACAO The lowdown: Alphabetically the third member of the southern Caribbean's "ABC Islands" - the other two being Aruba and Bonaire - Curacao offers an appealing mix of World Heritage-listed Dutch colonial architecture, top-notch diving and understated beaches.

Direct flights: Out of MontrealTrudeau and Toronto Pearson.

Where to stay: All-inclusives are the exception, not the rule, in Curacao, where the former Hilton hotel is in the midst of a US$15million renovation and is slated to reopen in December as the Dreams Curacao Resort, Spa & Casino.

New and notable: In February, the Curacao Tourism Development Foundation renewed an agreement with Airbnb to promote the island, which is home to more than 1,900 Airbnb listings.

9. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC The lowdown: With plentiful year-round golf, myriad beachrich regions and the New World's first cathedral, castle, monastery and fortress all located in capital Santo Domingo's Colonial Zone - a World Heritage Site - it's hardly surprising that the eastern half of the island of Hispaniola has become the Caribbean's most visited destination.

Direct flights: Available out of every international airport in Canada except Victoria, Gander, Nfld, and St. John's.

Where to stay: The Dominican leads the Caribbean charge when it comes to all-inclusives, which have proliferated in areas such as Punta Cana, Puerto Plata, Samana and La Romana.

New and notable: The US$100million Club Med Miches Playa Esmeralda, the French all-inclusive resort chain's largest Caribbean project in more than 40 years, is slated to open in late November on the country's relatively undeveloped northeast coast.

10. GUADELOUPE The lowdown: This overseas region of France, consisting of six inhabited islands, is a veritable idyll of sandy beaches, verdant peaks and gushing waterfalls.

Shaped like butterfly wings, the country's two main islands, Grande-Terre and Basse-Terre, are very different. The former, home to the glamorous capital, Pointeà-Pitre, and its international airport, is ringed by resorts. The latter, home to the country's eponymous national park, is capped by the iconic Soufrière volcano.

Direct flights: Out of MontrealTrudeau.

Where to stay: All-inclusive resorts are relatively rare here, with one notable exception: the recently renovated Club Med La Caravelle. Likewise, chain resorts are relatively few and far between, with smaller independent properties dominating the scene.

New and notable: Other recent Guadeloupean resort renos include La Toubana Hotel & Spa and the Arawak Beach Resort, both on the south coast of Grande-Terre.

11. GRENADA The lowdown: The country known as the "Spice Island" actually consists of Grenada and six smaller islands in the Lesser Antilles. Resorts and water sports abound around the capital, St. George, which is home to the famous Grand Anse Beach, a cruise ship pier and an esplanade.

More rural parishes, such as Saint David and Saint John, are given over to laid-back pursuits such as hiking and tours of nutmeg plantations.

Direct flights: Out of Toronto Pearson.

Where to stay: Grenada offers a pleasing mix of all-inclusives and à la carte accommodations, with new additions including the Silversands Grenada, the True Blue Bay Boutique Resort and the Mount Hartman Bay Estate.

New and notable: The 300-room, eight-restaurant Royalton Grenada is slated to open in December.

12. HAITI The lowdown: For Canadians who choose to pursue non-essential travel to Haiti - contrary to government advisories - the rewards of gorgeous beaches, picturesque waterfalls, verdant mountains and a lively, resilient culture may be worth the risks.

Direct flights: Out of MontrealTrudeau.

Where to stay: All-inclusive resorts line the sandy coast north of the capital, Port-au-Prince, which itself is home to upscale properties such as the Occidental Royal Oasis and the Marriott Port-auPrince. Luxury lodgings are also available in coastal areas such as Les Cayes, Cap-Haïtien and Jacmel.

New and notable: The National Historic Park and historic centre of Cap-Haïtien, a World Heritage Site, is reportedly benefiting from a $45-million grant from the International Development Association.

13. JAMAICA The lowdown: From spicy jerk cuisine and reggae music to endless beach-resort indulgences and hikes in Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park - now a World Heritage Site - the thirdlargest island in the Greater Antilles is incredibly varied, vibrant and easy on the eyes.

It should be noted that the Canadian government recommends visitors to Jamaica "exercise a high degree of caution due to the high level of violent crime."

Direct flights: Available out of every international airport in Canada except Victoria, Gander and Quebec City.

Where to stay: All-inclusives abound in major destinations such as Montego Bay, Ocho Rios and Negril, with the latter being notable for its clifftop boutique properties. Inland, you'll find family-run lodgings.

New and notable: Montego Bay's 120-room S Hotel Jamaica offers stylish suites, the scenic Sky Bar Lounge and a glass-enclosed infinity pool.

14. MARTINIQUE The lowdown: One more Gallic member of the Lesser Antilles, rugged-yet-sophisticated Martinique is renowned for its beaches, hiking, cuisine and rich Frenchinfluenced culture. Then there's the literal capper: Mount Pelée, the 1,397-metre dormant volcano that most recently erupted in 1932.

Direct flights: Out of MontrealTrudeau and Toronto Pearson.

Where to stay: Another eschewer of all-inclusives - save for the opulent Club Med Buccaneer's Creek - Martinique's lodgings are mostly independent and upscale.

New and notable: The Diamant Les Bains boutique hotel, which first opened in 1945, is slated to reopen in 2019 after a complete overhaul.

15. PUERTO RICO The lowdown: This unincorporated territory of the United States has bounced back from 2017's Hurricane Irma in impressive fashion. After all, not even a catastrophic storm can tarnish the appeal of shimmering whitesand beaches, dazzling coral reefs, the El Yunque tropical rain forest and atmospheric Old San Juan, which is home to both a National Historic Site and World Heritage Site.

Direct flights: Out of MontrealTrudeau and Toronto Pearson.

Where to stay: Accommodations tend to reflect Puerto Rico's Spanish and U.S. influences, ranging from major hotel and resort chains to the "paradores" network of family-owned inns.

Five hotel has added 26 stylish suites, two restaurants and a twolevel rooftop infinity pool to San Juan's lively Condado district.

16. ST. KITTS AND NEVIS The lowdown: Unlike those Caribbean countries with far-flung islands, a short and scenic ferry ride is all that separates St. Kitts from Nevis. That said, the two islands are breeds apart from each other: St. Kitts is home to an enormous cruise termina,l and the lively beach bars and resorts of Frigate Bay. Nevis, meanwhile, is a more tranquil option, with its highly walkable volcanic peak rising over lovely beaches and the country's compact colonial capital, Charlestown.

Direct flights: Out of Toronto Pearson.

Where to stay: While all-inclusive options are not unknown, the most enticing has to be the former sugar plantations that have been converted into luxurious hotels, such as Ottley's Plantation Inn and Relais & Chateaux's Montpelier Plantation & Beach.

New and notable: Air Canada recently added non-stop Tuesday flights to its Saturday service out of Toronto Pearson.

17. SAINT LUCIA The lowdown: Home to what is arguably the most iconic sight in the Caribbean - the dual volcanic spires known as the Pitons - Mother Nature has favoured Saint Lucia in many other ways.

There's Sulphur Springs, said to be "the world's only drive-in volcano," gorgeous Sault Falls, lush rain forests - the list goes on.

Man-made options aren't too shabby either, with many lavish resorts making the most of scenery that's shared with hundreds of thousands of cruise visitors each year.

Pearson.

Where to stay: All-inclusives and à la carte resorts exist in similar abundance, with the costs of rooms typically depending more on the calibre of views than on beach access.

New and notable: A world-class horse-racing track is slated to open in the town of Vieux Fort this December.

18. ST. MAARTEN/ ST. MARTIN The lowdown: Half-French and half-Dutch, this West Indies gem is home to dozens of white-sand beaches hosting water sports ranging from snorkeling and scuba diving to jet-skiing and parasailing. Inland adventures include hiking and treetop zip-lining, while urban pursuits range from gourmet dining to browsing the markets frequented by many of the million-plus cruise ship passengers who visit the island each year.

Direct flights: Out of MontrealTrudeau and Toronto Pearson.

Where to stay: The Dutch side of the island is home to dozens of all-inclusives, while the French side tends to offer more independent boutique properties.

New and notable: Slated to open on Feb. 1, 2020, the adults-only, 350-room Secrets St. Martin Resort & Spa will include swim-out suites and what is said to be the largest swimming pool in the Caribbean.

19. TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO The lowdown: The Caribbean's southernmost island country, Trinidad and Tobago are vastly different in some ways and pleasingly similar in others. Muchlarger Trinidad is covered with mangrove swamps and hilly rain forest - along with more than its share of unsightly heavy industry sands, palm trees and other typically Caribbean trappings. What the two islands share, however, seals the deal: world-class birdwatching and diving, gorgeous waterfall hikes, buzzing nightlife and mouth-watering curries.

Direct flights: Out of Toronto Pearson.

Where to stay: All-inclusive options are reserved for Tobago, with Trinidad offering chain options such as Crowne Plaza, Hyatt and Hilton. Smaller guest houses are also widely available on both islands.

New and notable: Tobago's reefs are home to dozens of coral species, with one spot off Speyside said to include the world's largest brain coral.

20. TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS The lowdown: Most Canadian visitors to this British overseas territory in the northern West Indies arrive on the small, but bustling island of Providenciales (a.k.a. Provo). This should please many of them, as Provo is home to Grace Bay, which is widely regarded as one of the world's best beaches. Sands as sublime as these deserve digs to match and, thankfully, Provo delivers.

Direct flights: Out of MontrealTrudeau and Toronto Pearson.

Where to stay: All-inclusive resorts are the exception across the Turks and Caicos, where intimate boutique hotels and resorts provide both upscale accommodations and delicious inhouse restaurants that on Provo can be toured via shuttle bus.

New and notable: Recent additions to Provo's high-end lodging scene include the Beach Enclave North Shore and the Shore Club. Over on less-travelled South Caicos, the Sailrock Resort opened its doors in January.

Associated Graphic

1. Nelson's Dockyard in English Harbour, Antigua. 2. The Renaissance Aruba Resort and Casino. 3. The Grand Isle Re Cayman's newest boutique hotels. 7. Havana. 8. Curacao's capital, Willemstad, is famous for its World Heritage-listed Dutch co Toubana Hotel and Spa on the south coast of Grande-Terre. 11. The Silversands Grenada is a new addition on the island. 12. Marriott hotel, in San Juan's Condado district, has a two-level rooftop infinity pool. 16. St. Kitts and Nevis. 17. St ISTOCK (ST. LUCIA, TOBAGO, MARTINIQUE, JAMAICA, SAINT MARTIN, CUBA, ST KITTS AND NEVIS)


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Where the four main parties stand on climate policy
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Heading into the election campaign, the major parties aren't disputing that human beings are responsible for climate change, or that the consequences of a warming planet pose dramatic threats to the global population and other species. They do differ widely, however, on how deeply Canada needs to cut greenhouse gas emissions, how those emissions should be cut and at what cost
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Wednesday, September 11, 2019 – Page A10

The large-scale global release of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere because of industrialization has caused Earth's average temperature to rise over the past century.

In a 2018 report, the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - the leading advisory body on the issue - emphasized that climate change is already happening and warned about its serious health and economic consequences.

Nearly every country in the world is a party to the 2015 Paris accord on climate change, in which the global community agreed to prevent temperatures from rising more than 2 degrees Celsius higher than preindustrial levels, with the goal of limiting warming to 1.5 degrees.

The IPCC report concluded that even that 0.5-degree difference in warming could result in 420 million fewer people being exposed to severe heat waves and cut in half the number of animals and plants that would lose habitats and risk extinction.

The report, authored by 90 scientists, shows that at the current rate, the world would see between 2.7 and 3.4 degrees of warming, which would result in catastrophic effects on human society and the broader environment.

For Canada's targets, the report's findings suggest the country would have to cut emissions by about 40 per cent less than 2005 levels by 2030 in order to do its part to limit warming to 1.5 degrees, said Andrew Leach, an environmental economist at the University of Alberta.

In advance of the Paris agreement, then-prime-minister Stephen Harper pledged that Canada would reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 30 per cent less than 2005 levels by 2030. Justin Trudeau's Liberal government reaffirmed those targets when it took office.

The political debate in Canada is heightened by the regional nature of the resource economy. Alberta and Saskatchewan are heavily dependent on coal for their electricity and on oil and gas production as their economic engines.

Parties that promise aggressive actions to rein in emissions are often accused of threatening economic prosperity, while they counter that a sound economy depends on sustainable environmental practices.

THE PLAN The Liberals go into this election campaign with four years of climate policy behind them, and will release a platform during the campaign laying out how they will build on that action if re-elected.

Immediately after winning the 2015 election, Mr. Trudeau sought to differentiate his government from Mr. Harper's on climate-change policy.

In December, 2016, Mr. Trudeau concluded a sweeping agreement with provinces and territories (minus Saskatchewan) that laid down a road map for achieving the Paris targets and promised joint action. The federal government has started to enact some 50 measures - from the carbon tax, to support for electric vehicles, to regulations on the carbon content in fuels, to investments in public transit and clean technology. The government has also set a target that by 2030, 30 per cent of light-duty vehicles sold will be zero-emission vehicles.

The carbon tax is at the centre of the Liberal plan, and is a lightning rod for federal and provincial conservatives. It kicked in at $20 a tonne - roughly 4.3 cents a litre at the gas pump - on April 1, and rises $10 each year to $50 a tonne in 2022. The federal tax is imposed on provinces that do not have their own levy or do not meet federal standards. Ontario, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and New Brunswick are currently covered by the federal levy, and are soon to be joined by Alberta.

It applies to consumers - who get rebates through the tax system to offset the cost impact - as well as to businesses. Large industries pay the levy on only a small percentage of their emissions - from 5 per cent to 20 per cent depending on the sector - in order to protect business competitiveness.

The carbon-tax system put in place by the Liberals has a carrot-and-stick approach. On the one hand, the price on carbon acts as an incentive for companies and individuals to find a way to reduce their carbon footprint in order to avoid the higher costs associated with a carbon tax. On the other, the rebate that is given to consumers acts both to cover the costs for people who have no other option but to drive their car and has the added benefit of rewarding consumers who reduce their footprint because they get the same rebate no matter how much pollution they create.

If the Liberals are re-elected to government, they say they will consult with provinces, territories and other interest groups to determine the trajectory of the tax after 2022.

A new Liberal government would also have to finalize the proposed Clean Fuel Standard, which would require energy companies to reduce the overall GHG content of the fuels they sell by mixing in biofuels and other renewable sources, making their processing operations more energy efficient and gaining credits by financing other emission-reduction projects.

THE GAPS The Liberals maintain that they are on track to reach Canada's 2030 targets, but the government's own numbers show their plan will fall short. According to Environment and Climate Change Canada, there is a 79-megatonne shortfall that remains unaddressed. The Liberals counter that the gap will be covered by "unmodelled measures and future reductions," including current investments in public transit and new technology and "future federal, provincial and territorial measures."

However, UBC professor Kathryn Harrison said "the gaps, or the missing parts, of the Liberal plan are how to fill the shortfall," and she noted that the hole has "almost doubled" since the Liberal's climate-change plan was announced in 2016.

The Liberals say they will unveil more ambitious policies during the campaign. An advisory group - co-chaired by Montreal environmentalist and now Liberal candidate Stephen Guilbeault - recommended the government adopt regulatory mandates on zero-emission vehicles to ensure Canada meets its target.

It's unclear whether those ambitious plans will include ramping up Canada's targets to bring them in line with what the UN's advisory committee now says is needed for emissions cuts. Minister of Environment and Climate Change Catherine McKenna has acknowledged that urgency, but has been vague on how a re-elected Liberal government would respond to it.

The Liberals will also have to outline how they will manage the balance between cutting emissions on the one hand and resource development on the other. Ms. McKenna says the economy and environment go together, but partisans on the left in the highly polarized national debate often see the Liberals as leaning too heavily toward the other side. Detractors point to the government's decision to buy the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion for $4.5-billion as proof of the imbalance. The pipeline will allow for much more oil sands development - a key contributor to greenhouse gas emissions - even as Canada touts the need to cut emissions.

THE PLAN In June, Conservative Leader Andrew Scheer released his party's environmental platform that outlines the party's plan for measures to address climate change. Mr. Scheer vows to repeal the federal carbon tax as well as the planned Clean Fuel Standard, which would force fuel providers to lower the GHG emissions associated with their products.

The Conservative Leader noted that it was his predecessor, Mr. Harper, who first set Canada's current emissions targets. His plan would give the country the "best chance" to meet those targets, he said, while stopping short of actually committing to that goal.

Rather than taxes and regulations, the Conservative Party's climate platform relies on tax incentives and spending to support the development of technology that would allow consumers and industry to improve their energy efficiency and reduce the carbon content of the fuels industry produces. It promotes carbon capture and storage - which has been adopted by two oil refineries in Alberta and a coal-fired generating station in Saskatchewan - as the kind of technology that Canada can not only deploy at home but sell to the rest of the world.

While the Conservatives pledge to eliminate the federal carbon tax as it applies to both consumers and large industrial polluters, they would replace it with "emission standards" for major industries that would require them to reduce GHGs to a prescribed limit. The platform gives no indication where those limits would be set, how they will be enforced or how much of a penalty companies would face if they exceed them. Instead, it says companies would be required to invest a set amount per tonne into technology that would help them lower their emissions.

The Tories also propose a two-year program of tax incentives for homeowners to undertake energy retrofits in order to cut their energy consumption and related GHG emissions. A household could save up to $3,800 annually if it spends $20,000 on energy-saving renovations.

The party is also promising to negotiate agreements that would allow Canada to claim credit for the sale of lower-carbon fuels to countries that would otherwise be relying on coal or other high-emitting sources. The Paris climate accord contains a provision - Article VI - that facilitates international co-operation by allowing the transfer of credits for emission reductions between countries. The Conservatives say the international sale of liquefied natural gas would more than offset the increased emissions in Canada by, for example, lowering the reliance on coal in China.

THE GAPS The Conservative Party approaches climate-change policy with two baselines that separate it from the other parties: it staunchly supports the expansion of the oil and gas sector, and says that it does not believe that policies tackling climate change should impact household pocket books. The policy options left to the Tories then are limited, and several experts have concluded that they will fall far short of Canada's commitment.

Simon Fraser University's Mark Jaccard, who sits on the UN's advisory panel on climate change, modelled the impact of the plan and said it would lead to increased greenhouse gas emissions between 2020 and 2030.

The Conservatives' plan to cap emissions for large emitters and charge those who blow past their limits is in effect a carbon tax, but because there is no explanation of what the cap is or what the tab would be for companies that break it, Prof. Jaccard said its impossible to know the effect it will have.

The plan focuses on international efforts to cut emissions and suggests that the global problem requires a global solution. However, there is no global enforcement for emissions reductions.

The Conservatives would rely on the Paris accord's Article VI to claim credit for the sale of lower-carbon energy sources, such as LNG, to replace coal in the global electricity sector. The article might also be applied to the sale of technology needed to reduce emissions overseas, they say.

However, international negotiators have been unable to agree on the rules for how Article VI would operate. At the very least, two countries would have to agree on the transfer of credits, and it remains unclear how those credits would be generated.

However, tackling climate change outside of Canada's borders has some merit, according to Jennifer Winter, an assistant professor at the University of Calgary. Ms. Winter said paying to cut emissions in countries where it is cheaper to do so is a "reasonable" approach, although it would send money out of the country.

MOCRATS THE PLAN The NDP says it would ramp up Canada's plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions - bringing them 38 per cent lower than 2005 levels by 2030. The party says that's what is required for Canada to do its part to limit the global temperature increase to 1.5 degrees higher than preindustrial levels.

To get there, the NDP says it would continue with Canada's carbon-pricing regime, including maintaining the pricing set by the Liberals from 2019 to 2022.

However, New Democrats do plan to tweak the carbon tax. According to the party, the rebates that are currently sent to all households will no longer be sent to millionaires, and the extra exemptions that the Liberals gave to trade-exposed industries through the output-based pricing system will be removed.

This means all industrial heavy emitters will have to pay a carbon tax on emissions once their emissions exceed 70 per cent of the industry average. Under the Liberal government's policies, the benchmark is 80 per cent, and some sectors were given higher exemptions. The party is also setting a target of 2040 to only sell zero-emission cars in Canada.

To reach the new targets, Leader Jagmeet Singh said New Democrats would spend $15-billion on their climate plan over the course of their first mandate.

The NDP is committing to a suite of aggressive timelines to remove fossil fuels from the electricity grid, transportation and building sectors. It would offer low-interest loans in order to finance energy-saving retrofits of all of Canada's housing stock by 2050, with half of them completed by 2030.

The party also wants to spur innovation by establishing a Canadian Climate Bank with a $3-billion fund for investments in the low-carbon economy. It would also eliminate fossil-fuel subsidies. To measure its progress, the NDP is promising to create an independent Climate Accountability Office to track the progress of emissions cuts.

THE GAPS Experts who spoke with The Globe and Mail said the key questions around the NDP's plan come down to timing, details and a failure to address jurisdictional barriers.

"They haven't got the detail of how they would get there," Prof. Harrison said, pointing out that it's not clear how much emissions reduction would occur from electrification of transportation, or from home retrofits.

The same questions apply to the carbon tax, which under the NDP plan appears to have roughly the same trajectory as the Liberal levy.

Prof. Jaccard said that to be able to assess the party's plan, he would need to see a carbon price that is progressively more stringent, but he said that option isn't detailed in the plan. Similarly, he notes that none of the party's goals around retrofits, the electrical grid or zero-emission vehicles are accompanied by enforcement mechanisms. Without those mechanisms, he said, the uncertainty around their impact increases.

Finally, Prof. Leach, of the University of Alberta, says that the plan set out by Mr. Singh would spark even more jurisdictional fights between Ottawa and the provinces. For example, building codes are adopted and enforced at the provincial level, rather than the federal level as suggested by the NDP's plan.

GREEN PARTY THE PLAN Green Party Leader Elizabeth May compares the response Canada needs to bring to climate change to Winston Churchill's campaign to defeat fascism in the Second World War.

To respond to climate change, the Greens say Canada needs a "war cabinet" made up of members from all parties.

The party is pledging to double Canada's GHG-reduction targets, bringing Canada's goal to cut emissions to 60 per cent lower than 2005 levels by 2030.

The Greens say they would hike the carbon tax annually by $10 until 2030, which would raise it to $130 a tonne in that year.

The party also says it will eliminate all fossil-fuel subsidies and ban hydraulic fracking, which is used by non-oil-sands oil and gas producers throughout Western Canada.

The Greens would also stop all pipeline expansion, including the Trans Mountain pipeline project.

Similar to the NDP, the Green Party is proposing dramatic changes to the building, electricity and transportation sectors, but on even tighter timelines.

The Greens have not yet listed a price tag for these policies or explained whether it would be done through incentives, such as tax breaks or regulations.

They would require all new cars sold in Canada to be electric by 2030, and phase out all traditional cars by 2040. They pledge to require energy-saving retrofits of all buildings - residential, commercial and industrial - by 2030. And they propose to eliminate coal and natural gas from Canada's electricity generation by 2030.

The party says it will release more details for its plan during the election campaign.

THE GAPS The concerns expressed by experts over the timing, costs and lack of detail about the NDP's plan are amplified when they turn to the Green Party. A question echoed by professors Jaccard, Harrison and Leach was "how" the party would meet the goals.

A regional dimension that is not addressed in the Green Party's plan is what happens to refineries in Montreal and New Brunswick when the Green Party bans fossil-fuel imports. At the national level, Mr. Leach said the plan could look doable because we are a net exporter of crude, but he notes that since no pipeline connects Eastern Canada to the Prairies, those refineries could be cut off. "There's something that has to give," Mr. Leach said: Either those refineries are shut down or the party has to expand rail and tanker capacity.

Its proposal to phase out all fossil-fuel electricity hits up against regional and timeline challenges, which Mr. Leach said "[makes] it nearly impossible." Electricity is a provincially regulated business and, in some cases, provincially owned.

Alberta is currently in the midst of replacing coal with renewable sources and natural gas. That cuts related emissions in half, but it's still a fossil fuel.

The mammoth task of retrofitting all housing stock also raises timeline questions, according to several experts who spoke with The Globe. Put in perspective, it would require 10 per cent of people to be moved out of their houses each year for a decade in order to complete the retrofits in the time prescribed by the party.

"It's more of a signalling device than a credible plan," Ms. Winter said.


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, September 13, 2019 – Page B18

WAYNE KENNETH BELL

Died on September 9, 2019 at the age of 71 after bravely living with dementia for 15 years. Lovingly remembered by his wife of 19 years, Donna, his daughter Julianne Morrissey (Dwayne), son Jamie Bell (Jodi), and stepdaughter Heather. Wayne was predeceased by his parents and his brother and sister.

Throughout his career he was employed at I.B.M., Memorex, Nulogix, and SUN Microsystems, and is remembered fondly by his friends and colleagues. No funeral services will be held.

For condolences and photo gallery, please visit ogdenfuneralhome.com. In lieu of flowers, donations in Wayne's memory can be made to shepherdvillage.org/donate.

Please specify that you would like your donation to go to the long-term care unit in memory of Wayne.

PETER T. BOGART

Peter Teignmouth Bogart passed away suddenly at home on September 11, 2019.

He was 82 and had just celebrated his 60th wedding anniversary to his beloved wife, Darleen Emily Bogart OC (née Welk). He is remembered by his son Christopher, his daughter-inlaw Elizabeth O'Connell and the three grandchildren he adored, Katie, Liam and Claire.

Peter was one of seven brothers who grew up in Wychwood Park, the sons of Ernest Charlton Bogart and Edith Mary Bogart (née Clarkson); he was predeceased by Ernest, Geoff, Robert and Humphrey and is survived by John and James.

He is also survived by a large number of nieces, nephews and cousins who enjoyed his antics in the summers at Glenavy Point on Lake Rosseau.

The family is grateful for the wonderful care from Dr. Carol Kitai of Women's College Hospital, the hospital where both Peter and his mother proudly served on the board of directors for many years and to which any memorial donations are invited.

The family will hold a private service, and later commemorate Peter's life at a celebration in the weeks to come.

MADELEINE JESSIE GOSNELL (nee Lascelles)

February 10, 1927 September 1, 2019 After a long full life, it is with deep sadness our family announces the passing of an extraordinary woman and mother, Madeleine Gosnell. She died at home, as she wished with courage, grace and dignity, surrounded by family. Predeceased by her loving husband Bruce Harold Gosnell.

Loving mother to Jill and Don Kowalchuk, Lesley Gosnell and Dale Mowat, Beth Gosnell and Gren-Erich Zwicker. Amazing Gramma to Jesse and Jamie Gosnell-Mowat and Leah Zwicker.

Dear Aunt to Nancy Hall, Diane Venner, Donna Macrae, Pam Ullock and Geoffrey Lascelles.

Madeleine was a very strong, intelligent, quick witted, warm, thoughtful mother and grandmother. Full of grit, she passed on many wonderful characteristics to her children and grandchildren. She had a gift for connecting and maintaining friendships. Once she was your friend she was a friend for life.

From her endless cherished tennis group friends to her immense group of developed friendships over a long lifetime and her very special close knit neighbour friendships who helped her over so many years. Bayview Golf & Country Club was a second home to Madeleine, providing many fond years of tennis, to the age of 90 and an immense social life with special close relationships with many of the staff.

A proud Alpha Gamma Delta from the University of Toronto, who studied history and classical languages, having impressively translated Homer's "The Odyssey" from Greek to English and worked at the same with The Iliad.

Always a flower gardener Madeleine was, with an aesthetic talent that came naturally as a floral arranger. Madeleine had a love of travel and was a fabulous cook, who made endless meals inspired by cuisine from her around the world travels.

There will be a celebration of life held on October 1, 2019, Bayview Golf & Country Club at 12:30 p.m.

Thank you to all of her friends and her doctor, Janet Morse, who supported her over so many years and at the end of her life.

She will be fondly remembered and missed by all whose lives she touched.

R.S. Kane 416-221-1159

NIPHAPHAT GOULD (Tori)

On September 11, 2019 at home.

Tori Gould, beloved wife of Robert. Loving mother of Top, Stamp, Stang, and Samuel.

Devoted daughter of Puangrak and Nipat Banyen (of Thailand).

Dear sister of Panida Banyen, and Nattapong Banyen. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West, Toronto (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Friday, September 13, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. Interment in the Temple Sinai section of Lambton Cemetery. Memorial donations may be made to Gilda's Club Simcoe Muskoka 705-726- 5199.

PAUL MICHAEL KAVANAGH

January 2, 1928 September 11, 2019

Paul Michael Kavanagh, aged 91, died peacefully at his Toronto home on September 11, 2019. He was born in Ottawa, Ontario, on January 2, 1928 to the late Alfred Byron Kavanagh and Monica Margaret Kavanagh (nee McEvoy).

With an undergraduate degree from the University of Toronto and a PhD in Geology from Princeton University, he was a mainstay of Canadian mining exploration for nearly 40 years, with senior positions at Kerr Addison, Rio Algom, Newmont and Barrick.

He served as president of the Geological Association of Canada in 1975-1976, and was a recipient of the Past Presidents' Gold Medal awarded by the CIM in 1972.

Grampa is survived by his devoted wife, Marcia; his loving children, Janet (Gordon) Webb of Chattanooga, Tennessee, Ted (Toni) Kavanagh of Pelham, New York, and Gerret (Heather) Kavanagh of Thornhill; also survived by his nine cherished grandchildren, Alex (Xi), Barth, Caroline (Alex), Will, Peter, Julia, Patrick (Caitlin), Andrew, and Timothy; and by his two greatgrandchildren, Siqi and Sixian. He was predeceased by his brother, John and is survived by his sisters, Anne (Garry) Guzzo of Ottawa, Sheila Serafini of Calgary; and sister-in-law, Lorraine Kavanagh of Ottawa who, along with many cousins, nieces, and nephews, are greatly saddened by his passing.

Paul's long exploration career took him to most corners of the globe, and he filled in many of the gaps with Marcia over the course of their nearly 46-year marriage.

He devoted many hours during his retirement to giving talks at assisted living facilities in Toronto, and playing bridge and cribbage with the residents. He maintained his good health and good spirits over the years by regular application of very dry martinis.

A memorial service is planned in due course. In lieu of flowers, donations to the St. Michael's Hospital Foundation or the Good Shepherd Ministries would be most appreciated.

JOHN DAVID LAFFERTY

"Jack"

John "Jack" David Lafferty, Blomidon. It is with profound sadness that we, the family, announce the passing of our beloved father, husband and grand-papa, Jack, age 84, on September 8, 2019, in the Valley Regional Hospital, after a short but courageous battle with cancer.

Born in Belleville, ON, he was the eldest son of Joyce (Rosevear) and James Edward Lafferty.

Jack served as a navigator in the Canadian Armed Forces.

His passion for travel led he and his wife to visit many places in Europe and once retired, spending winters in the south of France; hiking in the Vaucluse gave him great joy. He loved the Canadian arctic as well, having spent many hours flying over our Canadian coastal waters while serving in the military. A kind and gentle man, he loved spending time with his grandchildren and the many family pets throughout his life. Jack was a loving and devoted husband and father who always put his family first. He will be dearly missed.

He leaves behind his wife, Claudette (Chevarie); three daughters, Danielle (René Roy), Belgium; Sabina (Serge Vanasse), Aylmer, QC; Christianne (Alan Hartley), Iqaluit, Nunavut; grandchildren, Arianne, Célian and Nicholas Roy; Stéfane, Daniel, Mathieu (Erin Euberig) Vanasse; Jasmine Lafferty-Hartley; sister, Cheryl (Jacques Comtois), Montreal; brother, Gary, Belleville, ON; nieces, Lisa Lachance, Halifax, Vanessa Comtois, Montreal; nephew, Matthew Comtois, Chicoutimi; and the loving Chevarie family in New Brunswick. Following the family wishes, there will be no visitation or funeral service. A blessing will be performed at a private family burial in the Blomidon Cemetery, Houston's Beach.

The family wishes to thank the doctors and staff of the hospital for the excellent care he received. Donations in memory may be made to the Valley Regional Hospital Foundation.

Funeral arrangements have been entrusted to the White Family Funeral Home and Cremation Services, Kentville.

Online condolences and inquiries may be directed to http://www.whitefamilyfuneralhome.com.

BARBARA ELIZABETH ROWE

December 8, 1933 September 7, 2019

Barbara died peacefully at her home at the Tansley Woods Retirement Residence, in Burlington, Ontario. Barbara was the youngest daughter of Florence May and John T. Rowe of Westmount, Quebec, sister of Irene, Carden (Art Woodward), and Joan Rowe (Peter Hadrill).

Barbara grew up in Westmount, and much of her career was spent working with Harrison & Co., a small scientific instrument business owned by her father, Jack Rowe. Barbara moved to Burlington over ten years ago and began her new life in Ontario, close to old friends and some of her nieces and nephews. Barb has been involved in several committees in her community at Tansley Woods, and sought out any opportunities to express her artistic talents, despite her declining health. Barb's laughter, wisdom and intelligence will be dearly missed by her family of nieces, nephews and their children - Geoff (Lorrie Pella), David, Lesley, Julie Hadrill (Chris Arnold Forester), Debbie (Robert), Joanne (Rod) Diane Woodward, the Delo family, and fellow residents of Tansley Woods.

A celebration of her life will take place this Friday, September 13, 2019 at 11:30 a.m., at the Village of Tansley Woods, in Burlington.

A reception will follow the service.

Condolences may be left at legacy.com

GEORGE SCHRAMM

On Wednesday, September 11, 2019 in Mississauga, in his 94th year. George was reunited with his loving wife Elsie. A devoted father to Gary and Sonja, and Diana and John Russell.

Cherished grandfather of Jennifer, Michael, Christine and Emily, and greatly missed by his greatgrandchildren Braxton, Brooklyn, Sutton, Gabrielle, Evangeline, Waverly and Winslowe. George cherished the many great times and memories shared with his family, friends and colleagues. His business career included custom home construction, Real Estate including a term as President of The Mississauga Real Estate Board. George had a strong passion for golf which drove him to his final career as managing partner in the acquisition and operation of Hidden Lake and Lowville Golf Clubs.

George was also a very accomplished player highlighted by Club Champion awards at Brampton Golf Club and Greystone Golf Club.

George had a keen interest in Thoroughbred Horse Racing and held ownership shares in multiple stakes winners Sweet Briar Too, Eighty Nine Red and stakes placed Eminent Force. With his dedication to family and friends he was an inspiration to all who knew him, he will be greatly missed.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter "Peel" Chapel, 2180 Hurontario Street, Mississauga (Hwy. 10 North of the Q.E.W.) from 6-9pm on Monday, September 16, 2019. A private family interment will follow. In memory of George, memorial donations may be made to CNIB or Long Run Thoroughbred Retirement Society.

Online condolences available through http://www.turnerporter.ca

HUGUETTE SCHWARTZ (née Rajotte)

In Montréal on September 7, 2019.

She leaves behind her husband Georges Schwartz, her daughters Annabel and Nathalie (Charles Décarie), her grandchildren Delphine and Romain, her sister Andrée, her nieces and nephews, as well as many friends and colleagues.

Visitation will be held on : Thursday, September 12th from 4:00 pm to 8:00 p.m.

Friday, September 13th from 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m.

at Centre Funéraire Côte-Des-Neiges 4525 Côte-des-Neiges Road Montréal QC H3V 1E7 (514) 342-8000 Warm thanks to the 6th floor team at St. Mary's Hospital who went out of their way to make her comfortable with such exceptional care.

Contributions in her memory may be made to St. Mary's Hospital Foundation.

Incredibly gifted for languages, passionate about architecture, Huguette Rajotte Schwartz possessed several qualities which led her to become one of Montréal's foremost tourist guides. An excellent communicator in five languages, she helped thousands of visitors and tourists discover her beloved city through her much appreciated tours.

Loving wife, mother and grandmother, supremely elegant and original with a remarkable wit, she was curious and always ahead of her time. She was the first Montrealer to drive a scooter, the first francophone to sing in a Ukrainian choir, and her in-depth knowledge of jazz music and musicians led her to co-found the Emanon Jazz Society, a group of passionate connoisseurs which left its indelible mark on Montréal's music scene in the 1950s.

Her versatility was put to use during Expo 67 when she headed the Québec Pavillion's team of hostesses. Her functions led her to meet numerous heads of state (including French President Charles de Gaulle just before his infamous "Vive le Québec libre !"

speech at Montréal's City Hall) and eventually to become General Secretary of the prestigious France-Canada Association.

Her passing leaves an unfillable void.

DOUGLAS LORNE TURNER

In memory of our father, Douglas Lorne Turner, who passed away September 8, 2019 at the age of 91. He is survived by his wife, Lois Rae Turner (nee Jenkins), his daughters Anne and Mary, and daughter-in-law, Antje. His son Brian pre-deceased him.

Dad was the youngest of six children born to Bert and Edythe Turner, both of whom emigrated from England. Directly out of high school he joined the RCAF, initially as a technician, but ultimately moving to officer training to become a navigator. One of his early postings was to CFB Summerside in PEI where he met and married our mother, and where Anne was born. His career moved him all around Canada, and to England to fly on exchange with the RAF at Tangmere. On his return to Canada he and his pilot partner made the first Trans Canada flight for the CF100. Mary was born in Alberta while he was with the Fighter Training Squadron at CFB Cold Lake. Brian was born in Toronto while he was studying at the Canadian Forces Staff College. Later he commanded CFB Armstrong, one of the Pinetree Line radar bases. He retired with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and, ready for his next challenge, undertook a second career with the Ontario Housing Corporation.

There he was very involved in the acquisition of the lands for the planned Seaton community in Pickering.

In his true retirement he became a disciple of Tai Chai both as a student and as a teacher, no doubt contributing to the wonderful health he enjoyed right up until the end. Golf was a lifelong passion, as was wine. But above all, he was a voracious reader, studying a number of international newspapers each day, and ordering endless books from the Toronto Public Library on his well-used iPad. Dad and Mum also enjoyed long walks in the local park system until Mum fell and broke her hip recently. At this time, Dad embarked on his third career, that of devoted care-giver, seeing her through recovery, mobility issues and memory loss.

While we understand it is hard for family and friends not to have an opportunity to come together, we are respecting his express wish for no ceremony whatsoever, and in lieu of flowers, for donations to be made to The Salvation Army. He will always be in our thoughts, and perhaps one evening, as you sip a nice glass of wine, he'll be in yours.

We know he would enjoy that.

DOUGLAS HECTOR MACDONALD SMITH

1964 - 2019 The Death of Douglas Hector MacDonald Smith has occurred at his home in Sydney, Australia. He was the eldest son of Stuart Allen Smith and the late Valerie, (Poaps), Smith. He is survived by his son Lachlan, and Lachlan's mother, Terry Bursey (Ian), his father and step-mother Brenda Conboy, his sister Rachel Alexander, (Doug), brothers Matthew, (Rose), Adam, (Tascha), and numerous nieces and nephews, but above all, by Emily Wells, a childhood friend who, after many years, became the centre of his life.

Born in Ottawa and raised in Fredericton, he graduated in Geology from the University of New Brunswick.

As a geologist, he worked all over northern Canada, Alaska, and the Canadian Arctic. The explorer in him took him to the western deserts of Australia, and finally to Papua New Guinea. It was there he found a new family, and the search for gold was enriched by a love of the native people of the area. That love was returned by the people of Enga province, and especially, the Puman Aiyel and Yokorin tribes among whom he was known as "a man who greets people well." As a spontaneous gesture of affection and acceptance, a traditional two day village funeral has been held in Crown Ridge PNG.

Interment will be in Keswick New Brunswick at a later date and a portion of his ashes will return to Papua New Guinea at the request of the community.


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Silicon Valley's RV city: As Big Tech fuels a housing crisis, poorer residents are left in limbo
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The San Francisco Bay Area may be the economic engine of the United States, but skyrocketing rent and cost of living have left thousands of people homeless
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By TAMSIN MCMAHON
  
  

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Friday, September 13, 2019 – Page A10

MOUNTAIN VIEW, CALIF. -- In a quiet residential neighbourhood near Google's headquarters, Francisca Ramirez has finished the dishes and is sweeping the kitchen floor while her nine-year-old granddaughter naps.

A few doors away, William Adolfo Yac has his tools out and the generator going, readying to start some home repairs. His neighbour Norma Ruiz is preparing to run errands. Her ex-husband, who lives on the same street even though the couple has been separated a year now, will watch their two children while she's out.

These could be the scenes from any typical American suburb. Except that every one of the residents in this neighbourhood can't afford rent in the area and is counted as homeless. They have assembled a makeshift community made up of row upon row of recreational vehicles (RVs) - small, dilapidated motorhomes and travel trailers - along with parked cars and trucks that line the main arteries running through the heart of Silicon Valley.

The San Francisco Bay Area - a sprawling region of 101 cities and nearly eight million people - is the geographic centre of Silicon Valley. It is an economic marvel and the envy of communities the world over for its ability to churn out a dizzying array of new technology and a seemingly endless supply of well-paying jobs. But that success has a dark side: It has helped create a housing shortage so severe that nearly everyone agrees the region is in a crisis.

Silicon Valley rents have risen 50 per cent since 2011, with studio apartments going for US$3,000. Home prices have doubled. In Palo Alto, home to Stanford University and many of the region's largest venture-capital firms, the median home price topped US$2.8-million in July.

The people paying the heaviest price for the housing crisis are the minimum-wage service workers who cater to well-paid tech employees by staffing restaurants, painting homes and caring for children. The escalating cost of living has pushed many of those workers onto the streets. Homelessness in Silicon Valley has surged 30 per cent in the past two years to more than 30,000 people, mainly because more people are living in cars and recreational vehicles.

"It's not a luxury to live in an RV like this, it's a necessity," says Jose Reyes who lives with his wife and two children in a motor home with no water, lights or air conditioning on the edge of a city park in Mountain View, Calif. "I can either go to work and pay the rent, or I could live in an RV and get food and clothes for my kids."

Mr. Reyes has lived in Mountain View - home to the sprawling campuses of Google, Microsoft, LinkedIn and many other tech firms - for 20 years. Two years ago, his landlord renovated the building, raising the rent from US$1,300 to US$3,000 a month, more than he could afford busing dishes at a local Italian restaurant.

Like Mr. Reyes, many of the more than 200 people living in RVs in Mountain View are undocumented immigrants who say that while they earn good money working in the city's shops, restaurants and hotels, they can no longer afford even modest accommodations.

The rise of RV living has put California in an unwelcome national spotlight. U.S.

President Donald Trump frequently calls out the state's growing homeless population as proof of the failure of the Democratic state government's policies. The White House sent a group of officials to Los Angeles this month to study the city's homeless crisis, ahead of the President's planned visit to the state next week."What they're doing to our beautiful California is a disgrace to our country," Mr. Trump told a rally in Ohio in August. "It's a shame. The world is looking at it."

Partisanship aside, Silicon Valley's housing crisis is raising a vexing question for state and local governments in California: What happens when an economy is so successful that it churns out thousands more jobs than homes?

Business leaders worry that the housing crisis will eventually imperil the region's innovation economy. State lawmakers have pushed for an array of solutions - and even Big Tech admits it needs to do more to solve the housing shortage.

But those pro-housing forces are coming up against a powerful "not-in-my-backyard" movement.

The dilemma is a cautionary tale for other cities that are chasing high-tech jobs, including many in Canada, of the consequences of not planning to manage such economic growth.

"I would say it's our number one concern," says Russell Hancock, chief executive of Joint Venture Silicon Valley, a nonprofit research group funded by local businesses and governments. "If Silicon Valley were a Greek god, then housing would be the Achilles heel."

In the past decade, the region has created eight new jobs for every home construction permit issued, says Matt Regan, senior vice-president of public policy at the Bay Area Council, a business association whose members include most of Silicon Valley's largest tech companies. A healthy ratio is 1.5 jobs to one home. In some Bay Area cites, the ratio is as high as 25:1.

The fear is that Silicon Valley's shortage will drive large tech firms to expand elsewhere or even move their headquarters out of the region. Many have already announced office expansions in cheaper locales such as Austin, Tex.

For now, however, they continue to churn out most of their new jobs in the Bay Area, with salaries to match the escalating cost of living.

Those most affected by the housing shortage have been middle-class and lowincome workers.

Silicon Valley saw a net loss of more than 23,000 people last year, driven mostly by households making less than US$75,000.

Storefronts and restaurants are filled with help-wanted signs, while local newspapers report on teachers commuting from two hours away.

"We're losing the people that are the lifesupport network of any society," Mr. Regan says. "They're finding it very difficult to hang on."

Some of those who do remain have increasingly turned to living in vehicles.

Francisca Ramirez moved to Mountain View from Galveston, Tex., after Hurricane Harvey hit the city in 2017, drawn by family members who live in the city and ample job opportunities.

She and her husband lived with her brother for a while, crowding into an apartment along with three of her brother's friends. (Many RV residents say they must choose between sharing a room with strangers in overcrowded rentals for as much as US$1,000 a month, or living in an RV.)

The couple eventually saved up US$4,000 to rent their own apartment. But landlords also wanted a US$3,000 security deposit and the last month's rent up front, along with a credit check that requires a social security number, which many undocumented workers don't have. "My brother said get an RV just like everyone else does," she said.

It was uncomfortable at first. The couple have to ration water and power, travel to dump their sewage and have paid countless parking tickets when they failed to move their RV within the 72 hours that local bylaws require.

But they're getting used to it, she says.

And the opportunities to earn money makes it worth it. Ms. Ramirez makes US$15.65 an hour as a house painter, more than twice what she earned in Galveston.

She understands local residents aren't happy that their streets are filled with RVs, but doesn't know what else to do. "I know that the houses don't want to see us here," she says, gesturing toward the residential subdivision across the road from where she is parked. "I wish there were places we could go. We feel like nomads."

Many here blame the tech industry for engineering the region's housing crisis, arguing that companies have been allowed to expand too quickly and create more jobs than communities here can handle.

The lack of housing in Silicon Valley has also pushed tech workers into the region's major cities of San Francisco and San Jose, which have become bedroom communities to the jobs-rich suburbs.

California's property-tax system has encouraged cities to compete for new tech office parks, even as they shun housing projects.

A 1970s-era ballot initiative known as Proposition 13 limited the ability of cities to increase property taxes, the majority of which are ultimately siphoned off by other levels of government. So they have turned to development projects that bring in the lucrative sales and businesses taxes that fund a large share of city budgets.

By contrast, cities complain that new housing developments are often a drain on city budgets, with the cost of providing services to new residents exceeding the additional property tax revenue. That has helped spur a commercial property boom, even as housing production has stagnated.

While the tech expansion has filled city coffers - Silicon Valley cities posted a combined surplus of US$751-million in 2017 - it has also led to a growing resentment among many long-time homeowners that tech firms have reaped enormous profits, while doing little to the solve the housing crisis.

"I think there needs to be an enlightenment, an awakening, by some of our businesses who are really benefitting from the folks who ... live in an RV because they can't afford to live here," Mountain View's vice-mayor Margaret Abe-Koga told a council meeting in June during a discussion about how handle the surge in RV residents. Local officials say they pressed Google and other businesses to allow RVs to park overnight in their office parking lots without success.

Tech companies are starting to get the message. A week after that council meeting, Google announced it plans to invest US$1-billion over the next decade to build as many as 20,000 homes. Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg pledged to help raise US$500-million through his personal charity toward housing.

Google's announcement came amid negotiations between the tech giant and the City of San Jose over a planned new down-

town Google campus that drew protests from low-wage workers. "Our goal is to help communities succeed over the long term, and make sure that everyone has access to opportunity, whether or not they work in tech," Google CEO Sundar Pichai wrote in a blog post announcing the US$1-billion housing investment.

Increasingly, housing analysts point the blame for the housing crisis at opposition by neighbourhood activists.

California's unique political system, which gives special consideration to grassroots groups, has empowered neighbourhood associations to block housing developments through referendums and efforts to recall elected politicians who support home building. State-mandated environmental reviews have also allowed opponents to launch lawsuits that have tied up projects for years.

The neighbourhood preservation movement began in the Bay Area in the 1970s as a way to protect diverse and middle-class neighbourhoods from gentrification. But today it has morphed into a political force that effectively shuts off many neighbourhoods from all but the most affluent, argues Randy Shaw, executive director of San Francisco's Tenderloin Housing Clinic and author of last year's Generation Priced Out: Who Gets to Live in the New Urban America.

This, he says, helps explain why some of the most progressive cities in the country have struggled the most to build more housing.

"We enshrined this sense that homeowners should have the right to decide who lives in their neighbourhood," he said.

"We don't let homeowners decide whether you get health care or not, or whether you get food. Why are we letting them decide who can build housing?" Mr. Shaw points to the city of Cupertino - population 61,000 and median home price US$2.1-million - as emblematic of the problem.

Residents enthusiastically supported Apple's plans to build a headquarters for about 12,000 employees in Cupertino in 2013. But they have spent more than a decade blocking a proposal to redevelop an empty shopping mall into a large mixedused community that would include 2,400 homes - half of them affordable housing.

"Wouldn't you think they'd be dancing in the streets that some guys are going to come in at their own expense and create 50-per-cent affordable housing in a vacant shopping mall?" Mr. Shaw asks. "But they're not dancing in the streets."

Neighbourhood preservation groups say they are working to protect their hometowns from what they see as global corporate elites looking to destroy communities for profit.

"There is so much benefit to be gained from those people already in high-wealth positions, in corporations or in global real estate, or in development, that have reasons to keep pushing an agenda that furthers their profit margins," says Susan Kirsch, who founded Livable California, a slow-growth advocacy group that has actively campaigned against pro-housing policies throughout the state.

"They don't really care so much about community, or history, or historic places, or neighbourhood bars and unique places."

A retired educator, Ms. Kirsch lives in Marin County, a region just north of San Francisco made up of quaint towns, rolling farms and redwood forests largely protected from major developments. She became involved in the slow-growth movement more than a decade ago when she helped successfully block plans to construct a 20unit building at the end of her street.

Many housing advocacy groups that have sprung up in Silicon Valley in recent years have been funded through donations from tech giants, Ms. Kirsch argues, while local taxpayers end up being the ones most burdened by the costs of developments that block beautiful vistas, clog roads with traffic and drive up the cost of city services.

"NIMBY has been around a long time," she says. "And I think it has always been the kind of pejorative term around those people who are really acting as stewards for what's happening in their backyards."

Recently, however, there has been a movement at the state level - spearheaded by Scott Wiener, a senator from San Francisco - to wrest control from local governments.

A former president of his neighbourhood association, and a lawyer who did pro bono work for low-income renters evicted from their apartments, Mr. Wiener says he understands the concerns of groups who fear what new housing will mean for their communities. But, he argues, the situation has gotten out of hand. "Our system of almost pure local control over housing has failed," he says. "It has led to a race to the bottom, where very few cities produce nearly enough housing."

Mr. Wiener has introduced several efforts to overhaul California's land-use planning rules with mixed results. He drew national attention last year for proposing to allow multifamily housing along transit routes and in neighbourhoods near urban job centres and suburban office parks - including in cities where local councils objected to such developments. But that bill quickly died in the state's legislature amid widespread opposition. He introduced a retooled version of the bill this year that he hopes will be voted on as early as January, and this week the state's legislature passed a bill that would limit rent increases on some types of housing.

RV residents aren't optimistic that the stalemate over housing will end any time soon.

Jose Reyes points out that Mountain View's city council has spent the past four years debating whether to open a single lot where RV residents can park overnight capable of holding just 60 RVs, likely not enough for the city's estimated 212 vehicle residents.

"They can't even find a small place for us to park our RVs," he says. "And we're supposed to expect them to build affordable housing?" He wants to stay in the community. But with escalating rents and the local government still weighing a ban on RV parking on city streets next year, he worries that eventually he may be forced to leave. "My wife loves it here. So do my kids. It's where they grew up," he says. "But if we have to go, we have to go."

Associated Graphic

William Adolfo Yac stands outside the RV in which he lives, parked in Mountain View, Calif. T

TAMSIN MCMAHON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Left: Francisca Ramirez, seen in her RV parked along Mountain View's Shoreline Boulevard in June, says she was drawn by family members who lived in the city and many job opportunities.

JASON HENRY/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Below: RVs sit parked along Mountain View's Crisanto Avenue. Many of the more than 200 people who live in the RVs are undocumented immigrants.

JASON HENRY/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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How to prepare teens to handle campus stress: A guide for parents
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When too much focus is placed on grades and college applications and even laundry skills, what often gets neglected are the life lessons that guide teenagers along the path to happiness and well-being, experts say
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By ERIN ANDERSSEN
  
  

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Monday, September 2, 2019 – Page A8

The texts started once Sara Dimerman's daughter arrived at university. The fan in her dorm room was making weird noises. A stain on her duvet cover wouldn't come out.

Should she buy one lemon or a whole bag?

In a new book retelling that first year, Dr.

Dimerman, a Toronto psychologist, describes patiently brainstorming one problem after another via text. Cutting the cord doesn't happen with one sharp snip, on either end. But at one point, after getting a text that says plaintively, "I feel very sad that things are breaking," any mom might wonder, is all this reaching out really about lemons and laundry?

Parents have good reason to go searching for emotional subtext: The numbers of high-school and university students who report struggling with depression and anxiety are rising, crowding school counselling services and emergency rooms. In part, this is evidence of a new generation more open to seeking help for mental illness. But what's behind all the stress and angst? The list of suspected environmental toxins is long: the race for Instagram likes; the doomsday narratives of the 24hour news cycle; the fear of failure.

Universities are increasingly investing in programs and counselling services to improve mental health for students upon arrival. One example: A 10-hour program at Dalhousie University in Halifax, called Q-life, has students complete a mentalhealth survey to identify strengths and potential issues, watch training videos on resilience and complete a workbook to teach coping skills.

But a collection of recent books by mental-health experts proposes that young people require more on their whatto-bring-to-university list than toiletries and cooking lessons. They need a resiliency booster to steady them against inevitable, everyday stress.

These authors approach the issue from different angles, but their conclusions are similar. When parents focus too much on grades and college applications and even laundry skills, what often gets neglected are the life lessons that guide teenagers along the path to happiness and well-being: How to tune out all that white noise and prioritize what matters.

CALL STRESS WHAT IT IS - GOOD AND BAD To begin with, let's stop using the word stress when we mean something else. An American study published in June in the journal Emotion suggests being more precise in describing emotions - I feel frustrated this happened; I am nervous about that - helps young people better manage daily hassles and reduces the symptoms of depression. Being specific identifies solutions for negative feelings. By comparison, the word "stress" is unhelpfully vague.

"Somehow, we are supposed to be stressed enough to put in effort, but not too stressed or we're being dramatic and attention seeking," says Morgan Burton, who is going into her fourth year as a history major at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta. This belittling of the stress that teenagers feel, she says, makes it harder for adults to teach them how to recognize and manage stress that is healthy, protective and performance enhancing.

In her recent book, Under Pressure, Ohio psychologist Lisa Damour explores stress and anxiety specifically among girls. Among her recommendations is teaching teenagers that most of the time the physical signs of stress - a racing heart, nervous tension - are their body and brain revving up for a difficult task.

How often do we say, "I am so stressed," in an exam-conquering kind of way? Research has found that how people view stress - as either useful or debilitating - affects their responses to it. Teens should be taught that while stress can feel uncomfortable, in manageable amounts, it can improve their performance of difficult tasks.

MAKE ROOM FOR STRESS TRAINING Responding well to stress, like any skill, requires practice - learning how to cope with manageable stress prepares us for future stress, a pattern that researchers called the "steeling effect."

As Dalhousie researcher Michael Ungar, the Canadian Research Chair in Child, Family and Community Resilience, writes in his new book on resilience, Change Your World, a person's "capacity to withstand and learn from stressful experiences hinges on how well resourced they are before and after the stress occurs."

That includes prior exposure in small doses - a difficult test they force themselves to take, a nerve-wracking publicspeaking event - to help them manage the big events, such as a loved one's death or an illness. What worries Dr. Ungar is that today's children, protected from even minor adversity, are not prepared for the stress of adulthood or for the environment that awaits them.

LEARN HOW TO FIND A POSITIVE PATH WHEN ADVERSITY HAPPENS Dr. Ungar's book suggests that what our children need from us are not solutions.

Instead, they need to know how to ask solution-seeking questions: Where can I get help? What have I learned? How much does this matter to me and my life?

For half a century, he writes, we have known that three steps are necessary to cope with misfortune - to understand the nature of the stress, to identify the meaning that we are giving that stress and to have resources to manage that stress. This is the practice of resilient people - name the problem, give the problem perspective and then access solutions to the problem.

"We are more resilient when we have encountered a manageable amount of stress and have the resources required to put our lives back in order," he writes. "If children today seem to us vulnerable or unable to look after themselves, we need to stop blaming them and start pointing the finger where it belongs."

Too often, parents rescue their children from stress, when what they really need is supportive coaching.

SEE FAILING AS THE SECRET OF SUCCESS What happens to a generation who gets the message that they have no wiggle room to mess up? Resilience, after all, is the act of getting up after a fall. "Failure, as any design firm will tell you, is the catalyst for innovation and discovery of new talents," Dr. Ungar writes.

That's not the lesson that young people appear to be learning. "A lot of the pressure students feel comes from a need to do well, and do well immediately," says Ms. Burton, the student at Lethbridge.

"Anytime I came home with a B instead of an A, I felt ashamed, even though I had plenty of other things to be proud of."

Ross Denny-Jiles, a 26-year-old in Vancouver, recalls how as early as Grade 9, he felt expected to know his future - he had high-school friends, he says, already worried about getting into grad school. "We live in a competitive world and that is drilled into us all the time."

The pressure to be the best in high school "consumed almost every aspect of my life," Mahima Mishra says. The 21-yearold, now going into her third year of pharmacy at Memorial University in St. John's, says she felt like she was "racing for a finish line that didn't exist."

Ms. Mishra isn't alone. On mentalhealth surveys, girls consistently report more stress than boys. Dr. Damour, who has a private practice and is the executive director of Laurel School's Center for Research on Girls, suggests one reason may be that girls worry more about disappointing the adults in their lives. She admits herself to using her "disappointed face" - named so by her daughters - to motivate them in school. "Though these interactions seem small, their impact is not."

They can foster an anxiety about failing and a focus on results, not learning.

She suggests parents remind their children that test results only reflect their knowledge of the material on a given day - so they learn the link between effort and outcome. Also a good idea, she says, is to help stressed-out students learn to identify when it will pay off to work harder, versus when it's okay to let things go - to be more strategic about how they invest their time in homework and assignments.

In a section in her book called, "Swapping projectiles for pathways," she advises parents to resist the "'ballistics' model of future success" - in which a child is launched like a rocket from high school, to a set of life-determining co-ordinates based on grades and activities. Instead, talk about success in terms of values and meaningful work.

In particular, she cites the positive example of parents who, when meeting with her, would focus on "who" - and not "what" - their two children would become as adults. They encouraged them to find work that they cared about and felt pride in doing. This was especially important since their daughters were very different - one was a typical high-achieving student headed for a top college, while the other was more artsy and just getting by academically. "They defined success in terms of pursuing wellbeing," Dr. Damour observes, "not conventional markers of achievement."

As Ms. Burton says, "If we put an emphasis on the entire journey, instead of minor events along the way, students could feel a lot better about themselves."

BACK OFF AND LISTEN In The Stressed Years of Their Lives, American psychologist Janet Hibbs and psychiatrist Anthony Rostain point the finger with cutting precision: at parents who coddle, judge and demand too much.

Their book, intended as a guide for parents to help their children through university, is peppered with anecdotes: A mother and father pushing university upon a son who doesn't want to go, another couple who minimize their child's mental-health issue. In Toronto psychologist Dr. Dimerman's retelling in her book Don't Leave, Please Go, her daughter begins to hint about not returning to university after a home visit; her mother coaches her firmly to see her first year through.

But most parents aren't trained psychologists - and not every case is a mild bout of nerves and homesickness. In their book, Dr. Hibbs and Dr. Rostain advise parents to become informed of the signs of depression and anxiety, and to identify the services available at their child's university before a problem happens. The best buffer to protect them from a mentalhealth crisis, they write, are parents who give them a safe space to share what's going on and where they can feel supported.

Another important skill they emphasize also lines up with Dr. Ungar's: "Parents can do their kids a favour by making it clear that openness to seeking help is a sign of maturity."

After all, it's seeking help that invariably saves young people when they find themselves in crisis. This was the case for Mr. Denny-Jiles, who dropped out of university in his second year in 2015, after struggling with depression. He attempted suicide twice. It was only after many thousands of dollars of therapy, covered by his parents, and medication, that he finds himself recovered today and about to start law school. While he doesn't blame his depression solely on the pressure to succeed in high school, he says the burden to hit certain goals on cue was overwhelming - especially for an ambitious, perfectionistic student. In therapy, he says, he finally learned lessons that would have helped when he was younger - that "it's okay to be sad, to take your time, that life is not a race."

As he puts it, "We need to seriously reevaluate the priorities and values that we impart to young people, because it's destroying a lot of us. I did everything I was 'supposed' to do, and you know what? It wasn't enough. My brain couldn't accomplish what I thought was my mission."

TEACH THEM TO SET THEIR OWN PRIORITIES Changing that mission is also the topic of a new treatise by Danish psychologist Svend Brinkmann, entitled The Joy of Missing Out. Dr. Brinkmann makes the case for JOMO, not only as necessary to fix problems such as climate change and social inequity, but also for positive mental health. (This is, of course, in contrast to FOMO - the Fear Of Missing Out - which has only been heightened by all those triptaking, high-achieving, like-seeking posts on social media.)

His prescription includes important lessons for our children - learning to set personal goals not dictated by society, to think about what is truly valuable in your life and to find pleasure in focusing your energy there, even if it means missing out somewhere else. Time management is not about packing every hour of the day, but rather prioritizing activities that bring joy and a sense of achievement. He makes the case for moderation in all aspects of life - from what we buy to how we fill the day.

Yet our environment, he says, tells us otherwise. Consumer society suggests every desire is legitimate, while social media suggests every want is necessary.

"All this makes it difficult to distinguish significant desires from insignificant ones," he writes. If our kids - and, let's face it, their parents - don't feel they have to check off every box to be deemed successful, they have a better chance of finding a life that fulfills them.

Knowing what to care about is a lesson that Ms. Mishra only learned in university, after spending high school checking off those very boxes in sports, academics and student leadership. Now, she says, she sets her own expectations, and lets some things slide, to focus on what matters. Of her high-school self, she observes, "I wish I could go back and just tell myself to breathe."

The shared take-away of all these books: to remind an anxious generation in their moment of stress, or facing failure, or uncertain about their future, that it's healthy and smart to slow down, reflect on what's important and look for help. In other words, first, take a breath.

Associated Graphic

Ross Denny-Jiles, seen in Vancouver on July 18, dropped out of university in his second year after struggling with depression. He attempted to kill himself twice. He doesn't blame his depression solely on the pressure he faced in high school, but he says the burden of hitting certain goals at the right time was overwhelming.

DARRYL DYCK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Mahima Mishra, who is entering her third year of pharmacy at Memorial University in St. John's, where she is seen on Aug. 16, says the pressure to be a top achiever in high school 'consumed almost every aspect' of her life.

PAUL DALY/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Dalhousie University researcher Michael Ungar, seen in Richmond Hill, Ont., on Aug. 19, says he worries that today's children are not ready for the stress of adulthood or the environment that awaits them.

TIJANA MARTIN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Big Deals
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SIGNIFICANT CORPORATE TRANSACTIONS
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Friday, August 30, 2019 – Page E24

BROOKFIELD INFRASTRUCTURE ACQUIRES ENERCARE INC. FOR $4.3B

On October 16, 2018, Brookfield Infrastructure and its institutional partners (collectively, "Brookfield Infrastructure") completed the acquisition of all the issued and outstanding common shares of Enercare Inc. for $29.00 per common share or, in the case of certain electing Canadian resident shareholders, 0.5509 of an exchangeable limited partnership unit ("Exchangeable LP Unit") for each common share elected. The Exchangeable LP Units are exchangeable, on a one-for-one basis for nonvoting limited partnership units of Brookfield Infrastructure Partners L.P. ("BIP"). The transaction was valued at $4.3 billion, including debt.

Enercare's common shares were subsequently delisted from the Toronto Stock Exchange and Enercare has ceased to be a reporting issuer under applicable Canadian securities laws.

The acquisition leverages Brookfield Infrastructure's substantial presence in the utility, home building and multi-residential sectors in North America, and provides significant opportunities for growth and value creation.

BIP is a global infrastructure company that owns and operates high-quality, long-life assets in the utilities, transport, energy and data infrastructure sectors across North and South America, Asia Pacific and Europe. BIP is focused on assets that generate stable cash flows and require minimal maintenance capital expenditures. BIP is the flagship listed infrastructure company of Brookfield Asset Management Inc., a global alternative asset manager with approximately US$285 billion of assets under management.

Enercare Inc. is one of North America's largest home and commercial services and energy solutions companies, as well as the largest non-utility sub-meter provider in Canada.

McCarthy Tétrault LLP advised Brookfield

Infrastructure with a core team led by Jonathan See, Jake Irwin and Isabel Henkelman that included Cameron Belsher, Robert Richardson, Scott Bergen and Nicole Chiarelli, and including Patrick McCay and Yaroslavna Nosikova (Tax), Ian Mak and Noel Chow (Financial Services), Sarit Pandya and Andrejs Mistiouk (Real Property and Planning), Catherine Samuel, Andrew Armstrong, Shauvik Shah, Paulina Bogdanova and Andrea Schneider (Corporate), Oliver Borgers and Jonathan Bitran (Competition/Antitrust), George Vegh and Heloise Apestéguy-Reux (Energy Regulatory), Joanna Rosengarten (Environmental), Adam Ship and Paul Kunynetz (Franchise and Distribution), Nancy Carroll (Insurance), Trevor Lawson, Patrick Pengelly and Matthew Demeo (Labour and Employment), Ana Badour (Regulatory), Eric Block and Kosta Kalogiros (Litigation), Deron Waldock and Kelleher Lynch (Pensions and Benefits), John Boscariol and Robert Glasgow (Trade) and Ryan Prescott (Technology and Intellectual Property).

White & Case LLP advised Brookfield Infrastructure in the US with a team that included Oliver Brahmst, Samuel Raboy and Adam Cieply (Corporate), and Binoy Dharia and Shana White (Financial Services).

Enercare was led in-house by John Toffoletto, Senior Vice-President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary with a team that included Chelsea Provencher, Senior Legal Counsel and Monique Lampard, Legal Counsel. Enercare was advised by Davies Ward Phillips & Vineberg LLP with a team that included Bill Ainley, Brett Seifred, Ha Nguyen and Todd Wierenga (Corporate/M&A), Anita Banicevic and David Feldman (Competition) and Paul Lamarre (Tax).

The acquisition was financed, in part, through a new credit facility entered into between Brookfield Infrastructure and a syndicate of lenders and the Toronto-Dominion Bank ("TD Bank"), as administrative agent and as issuing bank. TD Bank was advised by Stikeman Elliott LLP with a team that included Craig Mitchell, Kelly Niebergall and Laura Von Heynitz.

INTERNATIONAL PETROLEUM CORP. ACQUIRES BLACKPEARL RESOURCES INC.

On December 14, 2018, International Petroleum Corporation (IPC) completed its acquisition of BlackPearl Resources Inc. (BlackPearl) by way of a share exchange pursuant to a plan of arrangement under the Canada Business Corporations Act with a value of approximately $675 million. The transaction combines IPC, an international oil and gas exploration and production company with a portfolio of assets located in Canada, Malaysia and Europe and BlackPearl, a Canadian-based

heavy oil exploration and production company with production primarily from conventional, steam assisted gravity drainage and enhanced oil recovery heavy crude oil projects.

Bennett Jones LLP represented BlackPearl Resources Inc. with a team that included Renee Ratke, Kahlan Mills, Eric Chernin and Jordan Primeau (M&A/Corporate), Darcy Moch and Anu Nijhawan (Tax), Denise Bright (Financial Services), Beth Riley (Competition), Justin Lambert (Litigation) and John Batzel (Employment).

Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP was legal counsel for the acquirer, International Petroleum Corporation. Their team included Dan McLeod, Markus Viirland, Peter O'Callaghan, Kris Simard, Mike Proudfoot and Valerie Simion (M&A/Corporate), Nancy Diep and Monica Cheng (Tax), Julie Soloway and Fraser Malcolm (Competition), Vanessa Williams (Litigation) and Birch Miller and de Lobe Lederman (Employment).

INNERGEX ACQUIRES 62% INTEREST IN FIVE WIND FARMS FROM TRANSCANADA FOR $620M On October 24, 2018, Innergex Renewable Energy Inc. completed the acquisition of the 62% undivided co-ownership participation of TransCanada Corporation in five wind energy farms in Quebec ("Cartier Wind Farms"), as well as TransCanada's 50% interest in the operating entities of the Cartier Wind Farms, for approximately $620 million. Innergex already owned the remaining interests in the Cartier Wind Farms and its operating entities. The transaction will increase Innergex's net capacity by 366MW.

In connection with the acquisition, Innergex has obtained two short-term credit facilities of $400 million and $228 million to cover the purchase price and transaction costs in its entirety.

Innergex is a global renewable energy company that develops, acquires, owns and operates runof-river hydroelectric facilities, wind farms, solar photovoltaic farms and geothermal power generation plants.

TransCanada is a leading developer and operator of North American energy infrastructure including natural gas and liquids pipelines, power generation and gas storage facilities.

Innergex was represented by an in-house legal team led by Nathalie Théberge, Vice President - Corporate Legal Affairs and Secretary, that included Anabela Sousa, senior paralegal and by McCarthy Tétrault LLP with a team that included Marc Dorion, Philippe Fortier, Hadrien Montagne and Isabelle Nazon (Corporate),

Richard O'Doherty and François Dupuis (Financial Services) and Danielle Drolet and Danielle Gagnon (Real Estate).

TransCanada was led in-house by Victoria Marselle, Director Commercial & Regulatory Law, Energy, and Kara Levis, Senior Legal Counsel, Energy Law. TransCanada was also advised by Stikeman Elliott LLP with a team that included Sean Vanderpol and Michael Decicco (Corporate) and Bertrand Ménard and Stéphanie Bernier (Real Estate); and by Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP as tax advisors with a team that included Robert Kopstein and Dan Jankovic (Tax) and Trevor Rowles and Sharagim Habibi (Corporate).

INTER PIPELINE LTD.

DIVESTS THE HEARTLAND PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX'S CENTRAL UTILITY BLOCK TO FENGATE CAPITAL MANAGEMENT On September 25, 2018, Inter Pipeline Ltd. ("Inter Pipeline") completed its divestiture of the Heartland Petrochemical Complex's Central Utility Block ("CUB") to Fengate Capital Management ("Fengate"), a privately held infrastructure and real estate investment firm.

Under the terms of the sale, Inter Pipeline will recover all of its development capital and Fengate will assume responsibility for funding the CUB capital cost, currently estimated at $600 million.

Fengate has also entered into long-term agreements to supply core utilities to Inter Pipeline's Heartland Petrochemical Complex in exchange for structured capital and operating recovery fee payments from Inter Pipeline.

The CUB is a 102 MW natural gas-powered cogeneration facility capable of supplying Inter Pipeline with electricity, steam and other key utilities for its 100% owned Heartland Complex near Edmonton, Alberta. The $3.5 billion complex, which excludes the CUB capital cost, consists of integrated propane dehydrogenation and polypropylene plants. The complex will convert locally sourced, low-cost propane into 525,000 tonnes per year of polypropylene pellets. Construction of the Heartland Complex is in progress with completion scheduled for late 2021.

With the sale of the CUB to Fengate, Inter Pipeline recovered approximately $50 million of development capital incurred to date in a lump sum closing payment. Fengate is responsible for funding the remainder of the CUB capital cost on an ongoing basis.

Fengate has engaged Inter Pipeline to manage the construction of the CUB and the day-to-day operations of the facility once in service. This helps ensure that the CUB, which will be highly integrated with the Heartland Complex, will

be managed safely and efficiently for the longterm benefit of both Fengate and Inter Pipeline.

When in service, the capital fee paid to Fengate will be adjusted upward or downward based on final construction costs.

The CUB is expected to be in service by mid2021, in order to provide utilities for the commissioning of the Heartland Complex.

The senior secured, non-recourse project financing for the acquisition and subsequent construction was provided by a syndicate of lenders consisting of MUFG Bank, Ltd., Canada Branch, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, Canada Branch, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, National Bank of Canada, Mizuho Bank, Ltd., Siemens Financial Ltd., Metropolitan Life Insurance Company and Sumitomo Mitsui Trust Bank, Limited, New York Branch.

Inter Pipeline was represented internally by Kent Chicilo, Associate General Counsel, with a team including Kristen Simpson, Senior Legal Counsel and Jennifer Asquin, Legal Counsel. Torys LLP acted as counsel to Inter Pipeline, with a team including Chris Christopher, Ian Gordon, Carla Hunt, Jessie Mann, Carleigh Kennedy and Tanis Makowsky (Energy and Infrastructure), Kevin Fougere (Finance), Andrew Bedford (Real Estate), Craig Maurice (Tax), David Wood (Litigation), Tyson Dyck (Environmental), and Lou Cusano and Evan Dickinson (Regulatory).

Fengate was represented internally by Vernita Tsang, Vice President, Legal. Davies Ward Phillips & Vineberg LLP acted as counsel to Fengate, with a team including William Buchner, Anthony Spadaro and Angela Susac (Energy and Infrastructure), Sarah Powell (Environmental and Regulatory) and Pawel Mielcarek (Real Estate). McLennan Ross LLP acted as Alberta local counsel, with a team including Doug Evanchuk and Adrian Sherman (Real Estate) and JoAnn Jamieson (Regulatory).

The Lenders were represented by a team from McCarthy Tétrault LLP, comprised of Stephen Furlan (Team Lead), Seán O'Neill (Power), Kerri Lui, Lynn Parsons, and Taha Qureshi (Financial Services), Scott Chalmers (Construction), Kimberly Howard (Environmental and Regulatory), Candace Pallone (Derivatives), and Mark Christensen and Elizabeth Rafferty (Real Estate).

NUVISTA ACQUIRES PIPESTONE ASSET AND COMPLETES EQUITY FINANCINGS NuVista Energy Ltd. (TSX: NVA) (NuVista) successfully completed its previously announced acquisition of assets in the Pipestone area of Northwest Alberta from Cenovus Energy Inc.

(Cenovus) on September 6, 2018.

The acquisition was partially funded through

an offering of 47,415,801 subscription receipts at a price of $8.10 per subscription receipt for gross proceeds of approximately $384 million.

Subscription receipts totaling 20,990,000 were issued pursuant to a prospectus offering and an additional 26,425,801 subscription receipts were issued pursuant to a private placement to certain investors, each co-led by CIBC Capital Markets, Peters & Co. Limited and RBC Capital Markets. The offerings closed on August 30, 2018.

The balance of the purchase price for the acquisition was funded through NuVista's increased credit facility.

NuVista was represented by Burnet, Duckworth & Palmer LLP with a team that included Grant Zawalsky, Shannon Gangl, Gina Ross, Alicia Quesnel, Heather DiGregorio, Carolyn Wright, Edward (Ted) Brown, Kirk Lamb, Bronwyn Inkster, Brandon Holden, Brittney LaBranche, Nigel Behrens, Riley O'Brien and Emily McDermott.

NuVista was also represented by Paul Negenman of Lawson Lundell LLP with regard to the drafting and negotiation of the sale agreement and closing matters. Lawson Lundell also conducted title due diligence on the assets, with a team that included Randy Madsen, Jason Paton, Bernadita Tamura-O'Connor and Carson Falk.

Cenovus was represented internally by an inhouse team that included Geoff Paskuski, Amy Gillespie and Jeffrey Whyte. Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP provided external support with a team that included Ben Rogers, Julie Soloway, Evan Herbert, Anna McKilligan and Julia Potter.

The underwriters were represented by Torys LLP with a team that included Scott Cochlan, Janan Paskaran, Mike Pedlow, Michele Cousens and Aaron Zambonin.

AKITA DRILLING LTD.

AND XTREME DRILLING CORP.

CLOSE STRATEGIC BUSINESS COMBINATION On September 11, 2018, AKITA Drilling Ltd.

("AKITA") acquired all of the issued and outstanding common shares of Xtreme Drilling Corp. ("Xtreme") by way of a Plan of Arrangement. Xtreme shareholders were able to elect to receive 0.3732394 of a Class A non-voting share of AKITA or $2.65 in cash for each Xtreme common share held, or a combination thereof, in each case subject to proration as determined by a cash maximum and a share maximum.

Bennett Jones LLP was Canadian counsel to AKITA Drilling Ltd. with a team led by William Osler and including Kahlan Mills, Kay She (M&A/Corporate), Jeremy Russell and Taylor Davis (Financial Services). Vinson & Elkins LLP were US counsel to AKITA. AKITA was provid-

ed tax counsel by Brent Perry, Byron Beswick and Erica Hennessey of Felesky Flynn LLP.

Xtreme was represented by Bradley Squibb, Bradley Ashkin, Haifeng Hu, Rhonda Parhar (Corporate) and Kevin Guenther (Tax) of Stikeman Elliott LLP.

CANACCORD GENUITY ACQUISITION CORP. COMPLETES QUALIFYING ACQUISITION OF SPARK POWER CORP.

On November 14, 2018, Canaccord Genuity Acquisition Corp. ("CGAC"), a special purpose acquisition corporation, completed its qualifying acquisition and merged with Spark Power Corp.

("Spark Power"). CGAC was renamed Spark Power Group Inc. ("the Company"). The qualifying acquisition had no redemptions.

Spark Power provides electrical power services and solutions to North American industrial, commercial, institutional, renewable and agricultural customers, as well as utility markets including municipalities, universities, schools and hospitals. Spark Power also maintains and operates over 2,000 solar and wind energy assets. It has over 600 megawatts of renewable power under management and manages two of the largest renewable energy co-ops in Canada.

The Qualifying Acquisition was completed through the purchase of certain shares of Spark Power for cash, the exchange of all remaining shares of Spark Power for common shares of CGAC, and the exchange of certain warrants to acquire Spark shares for warrants to acquire common shares (each, a "warrant"). In addition, certain outstanding options to acquire Spark shares were exchanged for options to acquire common shares.

Following closing, each of CGAC's class A restricted voting units separated into common shares and warrants, with the underlying class A restricted voting shares having automatically converted into common shares on a onefor-one basis immediately prior to such separation. Following closing, the Company had 44,920,316 common shares and 11,776,653 warrants outstanding.

The Company was represented in-house by Martin MacLachlan, General Counsel and externally by Goodmans LLP with a team led by Stephen Pincus and including William Gorman, Victor Liu, David Coll-Black, Seth Klerer, Bryan Flatt (Corporate/M&A), Celia Rhea, Danielle Knight and Lisa Hawker (Finance), Kabir Jamal (Tax) and David Rosner (Competition).

Spark Power was represented by Miller Thomson LLP with a team that included Lawrence Wilder, Tom Koutoulakis, Jay Sernoskie and Deven Rath (Corporate/M&A).

Thursday, September 12, 2019
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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Wednesday, September 11, 2019 – Page B17

KENNY MCHERBERT ADAMS

1946 - 2019

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Kenny McHerbert Adams, on August 11, 2019, at the age of 72. Loving husband of Toylin (née Elie) for 36 years. Devoted father of Akobi Adams. Cherished grandfather of Adele Adams.

Beloved brother of Ashton, Jacqueline and Viola, and predeceased by Oliver, Stephanie, Carl and Wesley. Kenny's memory will always be cherished by his nieces, nephews, extended family and friends.

Kenny was born in Trinidad and Tobago, and moved to Canada in August 1968 to pursue a degree in Economics at Concordia University (Sir George Williams campus). He then furthered his education in Edmonton at the University of Alberta, where he obtained a Masters in Economics. Kenny then pursued a career with the federal government for 36 years, from which he retired in 2015. Kenny had various interests and hobbies.

He was a stereophile, who mainly loved Jazz, and he frequently attended Jazz festivals in Toronto, Montreal and Ottawa. Kenny was also a dedicated member of church groups and the Caribbean association wherever he lived. His presence will be greatly missed.

The family would like to express thanks and appreciation for the many visits, prayers, phone calls, words of comfort and encouragement. Your kindness and thoughtfulness during this time of our bereavement are very much appreciated. May God bless you all.

Kenny has graciously donated his earthly remains to science, to help educate future doctors, nurses, and scientists. Memorial donations to the Canadian Diabetes Foundation and Myeloma Canada are appreciated. A Celebration of Life service will be held on Wednesday, September 11th at 11 a.m. at St. Paul's Anglican Church (20 Young Road, Kanata, Ontario); live streamed at http://www.stpaulshk.

org/webcast. Reception to follow.

Condolences and Sharing Memories at https://www.arbormemorial.ca/ en/kelly-kanata Funeral care entrusted to Kelly Funeral Home - Kanata Chapel, 580 Eagleson Rd. 613-591-6580.

RUTH CUTLER

Passed away on Monday, September 9, 2019. Beloved wife of Edward Cutler. Devoted mother and mother-in-law of Jill and Fred, and Lorne and Judith.

Loving Bubby of Michelle and Robert Ackerman, and Jen Cain and Trevor Freeman. Great Bubby of Chelsea, Emmy and Charlotte.

Predeceased by brothers Max and Frank Zener, and sisters Claire Goodman and Estelle Dickler. Our family would like to thank Mom's caregivers Vina and Janice for all their support. A graveside service will be held on Thursday, September 12, 2019 at 2:30 p.m.

in the Adath Israel Synagogue section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva at 111 Heatherton Way, Thornhill. Memorial donations may be made to the charity of your choice.

LILY FIELDING (nee Kivi)

Lily Fielding (nee Kivi) passed away peacefully on a beautiful Sunday morning, September 8, 2019, at her home on Long Lake.

She was surrounded by her loving family and friends, as well as her dedicated team of caregivers, nurses and physicians.

Beloved wife of Clifford Fielding (predeceased) of Sudbury.

Predeceased by both her loving daughter, Brenda Wallace (Jamie) and son, Malcolm James "Jim" Fielding (Shirley, predeceased).

Predeceased by her parents, John and Susanna Kivi. Predeceased by her sister, Violet "Vi" Koski (predeceased by Toivo). Devoted grandmother to Norinne Perdue, predeceased, (Gerry), Murray Fielding (Debbie), Craig Fielding (Katriina), Jeffrey Wallace (Sarah), Kristen Wallace (Dan Park) and Gordon Wallace (Andrea Drager).

Cherished great-grandmother of Jason, Cameron, Angela Perdue; John and Katherine Wallace; Brendan and David Wallace Park.

Sadly missed by her son-in-law, Jamie Wallace (Maureen Ofield); her grandson-in-law, Gerry Perdue (Gaye Fielding); and her many nieces and nephews.

Lily lived a humble but distinguished 103 years, partnered for 68 years with the love of her life Clifford Fielding. She valued family above all else. The smiles she gave when visiting with her greatgrandchildren could brighten the darkest days. Among her favourite interests was gardening and she valued her membership in the Sudbury Horticultural Society. She had a talent with orchids and drew great pleasure watching the hummingbirds that were drawn to her colourful flower gardens. Lily's magnificent pet peacocks were a delight to all visitors, particularly children.

Throughout her life, Lily has been proud of her Finnish heritage and her Sudbury community. Inspired by her roots and her Northern Ontario upbringing, her most notable lifetime achievement beyond her family, was perhaps the creation of Kivi Park. Lily's memory will live on with the beautiful outdoor footprint that she left for all to enjoy.

Visitation Sunday, September 15th from 5-9 p.m. at Jackson Barnard Funeral Home. Funeral service Monday, September 16th at 11 a.m., Church of the Epiphany. Burial to follow, Civic Memorial Cemetery.

CLARICE H.R. HITCH

1929 - 2019

Wife, mother, grandmother, sister, aunt, educator, inspiration, leader, the fulcrum of our lives, Mom died on August 28, 2019.

She was an adoring wife and life partner to our father, Ross, mother, friend and wise counsellor to Lisa and Celia, the best mother-in-law Robert (Dandurand) has ever had, and besotted grandmother to Ian.

She lived life with a dauntless spirit, always ready for her next adventure. Her knowledge, curiosity and passion crossed all lines astronomy, anthropology, archeology, history, physics, biology, museology, art, music and The Weather Channel. She never met a rule she couldn't find a way around - especially if it meant she could help someone. Her intellect and drive led her to three hard-earned university degrees. Her conviction that she always had time to fit in one more thing led her to a marvellous knowledge of the world - and a life-long tendency to be late.

At 73, ignoring her incipient Parkinson's, Mom went to Russia to meet her newlyminted grandson, Ian.

Their relationship was transcendent; their love for each other was unconditional and limitless. She came to Toronto to help Celia with her first two weeks of parenting and stayed for four years until her health forced her to leave us. As the Parkinson's took away her physical freedom, on grey days, only Ian could make Mom's face light up with one tender hug.

Mom taught elementary and secondary school for most of her adult life but, regardless of their age, she cherished her students and inspired many of them over the years to think about their direction in life, to look inside to find their true character, to push through obstacles and to take their feet off their desks. Her favourite lesson: the bad things in life come for free but you have to work at the good things or they won't happen.

We have lost the beating heart of our family. She will forever be missed.

A family funeral was held on August 31. If desired, consider a contribution in her name to the Children's Book Bank in Toronto, which works to build literacy in low-income communities.

EDNA ISABELLA McCUTCHEON "Leslie"

Born in Edinburgh, Scotland passed away peacefully on Monday, September 9, 2019 in Oakville in her 99th year and is reunited now with her beloved husband Frederick and her treasured son, Dennis. Edna was a loving mother to Leslie Jeanneret (David), Lorrie DeGaust (Lorne) and daughter-in-law, Chris McCutcheon. She was a proud grandmother of Marc(Lisa), Brent (Karen), Stephanie (Manet) Jennifer (Greg) and greatgrandmother to Freddie, Spencer, Nolan, Seth, Nate, Maxine and Simone. Edna always held a special place in her heart for the Tan Family, Chito Gonzaga and the Donaldson family who shared love, friendship and support with her for many years. Friends will remember her as a woman of sharp intellect and enduring beauty, with a generous spirit and sense of humour. As a longtime Oakville resident, Edna contributed to the IODE, St Paul's United Church and the Oakville Yacht Squadron. Edna's family extends heartfelt appreciation to all the staff at Queens Avenue Retirement Residence, Oakville Trafalgar Hospital and to the PSWs who cheered her days with their skill and loving kindness. Friends and family will be received at Oakview Funeral Home, 56 Lakeshore Rd. (1 block east of Kerr St.) on Friday, September 13th from 3 until 6 p.m. A funeral service will be held at St. Paul's United Church, 454 Rebecca St., Oakville on Saturday, September 14th at 10:00 a.m. Donations in memory of Edna to a charity of your choosing would be appreciated.

Online condolences may be offered at oakviewfuneral.ca

BETTY OLANOW

Betty Olanow passed away peacefully at home on Monday, September 9, 2019, in her 104th year. Beloved wife of the late Max Olanow. Adoring mother and mother-in-law of Dr. Charles Warren Olanow and the late Mariana Olanow, and the late Joel Olanow. Loved by her grandchildren, Edward, James, Alessandra and Andrew and Chelsea. Great-grandmother of Isabella, Coco, Max and Ines.

Special thanks to her devoted caregivers Josie, and Gemma.

She will be in our hearts forever.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West, Toronto (3lights west of Dufferin) for service on Thursday, September 12, 2019 at 2:30 p.m.

Interment at Beth Tzedec Memorial Park. Shiva at 1166 Bay Street, Toronto, following the burial on Thursday.

Memorial donations may be made to The Betty Olanow Memorial Fund c/o Benjamin Foundation 416-780-0324 http://www.benjamins.ca

MAURICE PAPERNY

(1928-2019)

With deep sadness we announce the passing of Maurice Samuel Paperny, peacefully at home on September 9, 2019 at the age of 90. Maurice was born at the Holy Cross Hospital in Calgary on December 6, 1928 to Annie and Leo Paperny. Maurice grew up in Calgary amidst a large and loving extended Shumiatcher and Paperny family. He attended the I.L. Peretz School, Earl Grey and Central Memorial High School before leaving for the University of Toronto where he graduated with a degree in political science and economics. Upon graduation, Maurice decided to explore the world travelling to Europe and Israel on his own. He returned to Calgary to join his father in his toy and book wholesale business, Alberta Book & Novelty. In 1953 Maurice went to Vancouver and met the stunningly brilliant Myra Lee Green. Myra was leaving Vancouver to attend graduate school at Columbia in New York City.

Upon her graduation, Maurice, the consummate salesman, persuaded Myra to leave New York to marry him and live with him in Calgary.

Maurice enjoyed a highly successful career as an entrepreneur.

He was curious, a risk taker with incredible foresight. The risks paid off. Maurice's understanding of the real estate market paved the way for the creation of a strong private real estate company, a longtime presence in the hospitality industry and in diagnostic imaging. Maurice also unleashed his unbridled enthusiasm and social conscience on the broader community, locally, nationally and internationally. Amongst his myriad of leadership contributions, he was President of the Calgary Civil Liberties Association, the Calgary Philharmonic, a founding board member of Alberta Theatre Projects, President of the I.L.

Peretz School, The Calgary Jewish Centre and the Calgary Jewish Community Council. He was on the Board of Governors of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, the Canadian Zionist Federation and a proud member of the Liberal Party of Canada. His commitment to the Calgary Jewish Community is but one of his enormous legacies.

Maurice's greatest success was found at home. He shared a love of travel, art, music, literature, politics, tennis, hiking, biking and enjoying life to its fullest with his beloved Myra and his four children, their spouses and grandchildren.

Maurice was predeceased by his parents Annie and Leo Paperny, his in-laws Jessie and Mischa Green, his sisters Evelyn Rothstein (Aser) and Juliette Shapiro (Jack). He has left a huge hole in our hearts and will be dearly missed by his wife of 65 years, Myra; his children, Marina Paperny (Shep Secter), David Paperny (Audrey Mehler), Cathy Paperny (Ron Ritch) Lorne Paperny (Raechelle); grandchildren, Michael Secter (Katie Tedham), Anna Mehler Paperny, Samara Secter (Kris Collins), Daniel Paperny (Lindsay), Juliet Paperny (Jaylen Gadhia), Shoshanna Paperny, Leo Paperny, Yaelle and Alex Ritch; and his first great- grandchild, Zoe Rose Paperny.

Memorial tributes may be made to the Paperny Family Fund at the Jewish Community Foundation of Calgary. Funeral services will be held on Wednesday, September 11 at 1:00 p.m. at the Beth Tzedec Synagogue, 1325 Glenmore Trail SW, Calgary.

BARBARA ELIZABETH ROWE

December 8, 1933 September 7, 2019 Barbara died peacefully at her home at the Tansley Woods Retirement Residence, in Burlington, Ontario. Barbara was the youngest daughter of Florence May and John T. Rowe of Westmount, Quebec, sister of Irene, Carden (Art Woodward), and Joan Rowe (Peter Hadrill).

Barbara grew up in Westmount, and much of her career was spent working with Harrison & Co., a small scientific instrument business owned by her father, Jack Rowe. Barbara moved to Burlington over ten years ago and began her new life in Ontario, close to old friends and some of her nieces and nephews. Barb has been involved in several committees in her community at Tansley Woods, and sought out any opportunities to express her artistic talents, despite her declining health. Barb's laughter, wisdom and intelligence will be dearly missed by her family of nieces, nephews and their children - Geoff (Lorrie Pella), David, Lesley, Julie Hadrill (Chris Arnold Forester), Debbie (Robert), Joanne (Rod) Diane Woodward, the Delo family, and fellow residents of Tansley Woods.

A celebration of her life will take place this Friday, September 13, 2019 at 11:30 a.m., at the Village of Tansley Woods, in Burlington.

A reception will follow the service.

Condolences may be left at legacy.com

MARILYN WINBERG

Peacefully on Monday, September 9, 2019. Beloved wife of the late Burton Winberg.

Loving mother and mother-in-law of Alan Winberg and Donna Wagg, Jack and Judy Winberg, and Carole Winberg. Dear sister and sister-in-law of Mitch and Doreen, Mark and Jackie, Mickey, Gilda and Marty, Edie, and Alice.

Devoted grandmother of Jonathan and Jennifer, Steve, Caitlin and Jon, Daniel and Stephanie, Lauren and Gabriel, Lisa and Zach, Henry, Alexandra.

Great-grandmother of Oceana, Ronan, Audrey, Millie, Charlotte, Cameron, and Zoe.

The service will be held at Holy Blossom Temple, 1950 Bathurst Street (south of Eglinton) on Wednesday, September 11, 2019 at 10:30 a.m. Interment Beth Tzedec Memorial Park. Memorial donations may be made to HouseCalls, SPRINT SeniorCare, 416-481- 5099 ext:331 (speak to Alain or Teresa for assistance).


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WEATHERING THE STORM
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Dorian left a trail of destruction in its wake after passing through Atlantic Canada last weekend. What has been learned from the hurricane, writes Noah Richler, is that when infrastructure fails, communities' self-reliance is key
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By NOAH RICHLER
  
  

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Saturday, September 14, 2019 – Page O1

Noah Richler divides his time between Toronto and Sandy Cove, N.S. His most recent book is The Candidate: Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail, a finalist for the Shaughnessy Cohen Prize for Political Writing.

The Atlantic provinces know what weather can bring, enough so that when one of my wife's children was a student at King's College in Halifax, she spoke not of returning to Nova Scotia, but "to winter."

Here on the Digby Neck and Islands, the 40-kilometre-long peninsula that divides the Bay of Fundy from Baie Sainte-Marie and a natural wharf in the world's best lobster and scallop fishing grounds, the knockout blow against which all else is measured was the Groundhog Day storm of February, 1976.

Winds reached 120 kilometres an hour and the 217, the single road that runs the length of the promontory, was washed out at Seawall, effectively severing the Neck in two. Later, in 2003, Hurricane Juan wrecked Halifax - although Sandy Cove, the village on the Neck from which I am writing, was mostly spared. But "White Juan" dumped some 60 centimetres of snow in February, 2004, the blizzard Janus did the same in 2014, and the winters of 2015 and 2017 were not much easier.

Then, last weekend, came Dorian, which Nova Scotia Power described to me as "the most destructive storm we've yet seen."

Prior to the hurricane's landing, the mood in the Cove was phlegmatic. Folk here are never quite sold on the weather reports and check the skies for themselves. We listen to CBC forecasts that, depending on the day, we receive from Charlottetown, Saint John or Halifax, and we check Environment Canada for reports from Digby, Meteghan and Brier Island. Maybe the rain comes, maybe it doesn't. But we were prepared for Dorian, taking it seriously and heeding the networks' meteorologists who were tweeting its progress as others were doing about the hurricane that is Bianca Andreescu.

And in the way of things, old turns of phrase were given fresh meaning. Friday, "the calm before the storm," was glorious, sunny and still enough for what may turn out to have been the season's last sea swim. And as caution was in order, we "cleared the decks," literally, storing even heavy metal patio furniture. We filled the bathtubs with water, made sure we had food and drink and that the car was filled with gas. We watched fishing boats, a number of them unfamiliar, tie up to the wharf ("any port in a storm") three deep. Then we had dinner out, an unusual thing to do here, and waited.

The hurricane, downgraded to a tropical storm, hit early on Saturday afternoon.

We're used to great banks of fog crawling up over the woody point beyond the harbour like an enormous sea serpent on its grey belly, to the pummelling of wind and rain and snow, and to wet mists so thick that leaves catch them and, after they pass, it rains beneath the trees, but Dorian was much more than this. The Neck, at its narrowest here, is a mere three-quarters of a kilometre wide, and sheets of rain were travelling in from both bays, etching zigzag patterns in the air and, at one point, dropping what looked like wet snow.

After a couple of hours, the lights flickered and went out. Come evening, as was happening across the province (and does in any disaster-struck Canadian community, I'm sure), several of us checked in on other households, those of seniors especially. We were lucky, the only tree we lost was a lilac. In the Annapolis Valley, the farmers were not - a good part of their apple and corn crops was destroyed - and neither were our immediate neighbours, two enormous maples falling down upon their house. Against what would have been official advice - had we been in a position to receive it - we used a ladder to check the integrity of the roof, walls and windows. In the drenching rain, a neighbour helped me get my generator started before we tried, unsuccessfully, to do the same for a friend down the road and gave him warmth through company instead.

Ours was one of Nova Scotia's 400,000 households without power (the number of people obviously much greater) - this, a staggering 80 per cent of the population. At dawn the next morning, wondering what else was in store, I lay in my cold bed listening to the CBC, national and local, on our battery-powered radio - a part of the kit advised by government emergency-management co-ordinators - waiting for information about what I should or was able to do in the aftermath.

A house guest had been expecting to travel to Halifax to meet his daughter but needed fuel. We had no idea what or if any gas stations were open - or, for that matter, if we should even be on the 217, a road so deeply rutted by seafood and cartage trucks that even an ordinary rain creates a serious hydroplaning hazard. I had a couple of days' fuel if I ran the generator an hour every five, but, like so many others, had no idea if we'd be out of power for one or several days. (As I write, around 35,000 households are still waiting for power, some possibly waiting a full week for it to have been restored). A hospital, thankfully, we did not need, though someone else might have: That morning, a dead body washed up on the Fundy side beach, and, the next day, the flesh-eaten leg of a man still in its boot was found.

Astonishingly, or perhaps not, the CBC was of no practical use. You'd think a public broadcaster would be communicating vital information after an occurrence such as Dorian and quite reasonably expect, by district, information in the event of a medical emergency (Nova Scotia is already disastrously short of services on sunny days); a list of roads safe to travel; of gas stations that are up and running; news about the airport and flights; and regular updates on the restoration of services - for it to be making public-service announcements, in other words, and for these to be broadcast on the hour. Instead, the CBC was reporting the hurricane as entertainment. We listened, repeatedly, to a Halifax reporter describe the tree as big as a fridge that had brought power lines down on the road where he was standing and, from Prince Edward Island, to the CBC Weekend Morning host's breezy chat with a local musician cheerily describing her patio's overturned furniture. I was told I could still catch one of the singer's last shows, listened to a trailer for The Sunday Edition and was advised that if I wanted Hurricane Dorian updates, to go to the network's Storm Centre online ... where the CBC had also posted pictures! Except that most of us could not. The CBC evidently had no idea that what "no power" means for Nova Scotians is no light, no water, no heat, no landline for those without analog sets - and no internet. In this province, even on the best of days, the so-called high-speed service of the major telecommunications provider, Bell Aliant, is a sham, so bad for rural users that uploading a 2 MB picture means other web-based applications drop out, and the cellular service is so awful that even the fella who lives at the foot of the local tower can be seen crossing the village in his truck to find a bar or two of reception. And so, CBC, when a hurricane takes out the power, and even if you do have cellular service, it is too overloaded to function; it means no one can access social media or the CBC's online Storm Centre and its jolly photographs. No power means no contact.

Which is when the community kicks in.

On the Sunday morning and early afternoon, the nearest open gas station was in Middleton, 115 kilometres away. There were rumours a station was open in Lequille, outside Annapolis, and another on the Bear River (Mik'maq) First Nation, and then, after the ferries connecting Long Island and Brier Island were restored, that Westport was, too, but rationing gas to $10 a customer. Royce, in his 80s now, sells no gas but opened his general store in nearby Little River for the morning, and then later in the day, Chrissy Walker in equidistant Centreville opened her convenience store despite having been broken into on the night before. ("I have to keep it open," said Ms. Walker, undeterred. "I'm all they got.") In Digby, the Sobeys superstore was shut and stocking shelves but had a generator, and the store manager, Wendy Leblanc, saw customers outside who'd noticed the lights on. She learned of families without water and babies without milk and diapers, and made the snap decision "to open a couple of tills," which was all she could do, staying open until midnight. "The need was there," Ms. Leblanc said. "It was crazy. People were caught off guard, they weren't expecting the power to be out that long and my people put their own dilemmas aside. It was an amazing community effort. I never had so many hugs, never saw so many tears."

What we have learned from Hurricane Dorian, but also the countless other "natural" disasters that have struck Canada in recent years - the Fort McMurray fires and the flooding of Canmore, Gatineau and High River come to mind - is that when, as will happen more and more, infrastructure fails, communities' self-reliance is key.

Haec olim meminisse iuvabit - "one day even these things will be pleasant to remember" - said Aeneas to his crew when, shipwrecked, they were so hungry they'd taken to eating their wooden plates. (My, what a popular boss he must have been.)

We survive by reconciling ourselves to hard times and, more than simply moving on, revising them in a rosy hue. As folk were already doing when, on the Monday and Tuesday, stories of that self-reliance, and of NS Power crews being handed snacks and apple pie, started to surface; when, in the normally polluted night sky powerwashed by Dorian, every star seemed four times larger; or when, the sight stirring almost ancestral memories, the fishing boats at the wharf headed out again.

Except that we are living in an ominous age, fear trumping nostalgia now and everything taking the guise of a warning.

This year, for the first time in the nearly 20 years I've been visiting the Neck, fields usually thick with clumps of wild blueberries had none. Nor did we have blackcurrants, white currants, red currants, quince.

The winter was so long, and the spring so damp and cold (it lasted into July, when rains you'd expect in November lashed the Neck), that the bees didn't come - and you shouldn't have to live in the country for that to worry you. Mosquitoes never used to flourish here and not until last year did I ever think of buying air conditioning or a dehumidifier - it's never hot like that here.

But last year's anomaly was this year's climate normal and the rest of July and most of August were uncharacteristically sweltering, a change affecting not just humans but the oceans, too. Maine's heated waters mean the lobster catch is shattering records in the colder waters of this, the best lobster fishing district of all, but that's also a source of worry as Nova Scotia may simply be today's brief stop on the lobsters' unfinished migration. And last year, too, you could stand onshore and watch whales breaching mere tens of metres away. Nobody had ever seen so many whales - not a single old-timer will tell you otherwise - but they were hungry, too, and the seiners from New Brunswick and the Acadian French Shore using the whales as sonar to fish the herring out, were following them in outrageous proximity, pretty well assuring there'd be no food left and the whales would not be back, which they haven't been.

All this is new, and scary, but privately owned utilities are not about to bury power lines at 10 times the expense of overhead ones when regulation demands they provide electricity at the lowest cost, and only the Green Party is talking about the "democratization of power" - that is, the reorganizing of electrical distribution and the creation of community hubs that might actually make a difference when the next disaster strikes.

And so, ironically, we have reached a point where the environmentalists of the left and, on the right, libertarians and survivalists, are thinking along the same lines: The state, when it is interested, cannot be depended upon, so get off the grid, create your own. I know I'll be installing solar panels and a wind turbine when I can, and that my attitude to land and sea has been altered. I see the dwindling bounty of my surroundings differently now - more, as historically rural Nova Scotians have done for so long, as a larder, as a bank - and I'm in avid disagreement with the federal government (when will Canada ever learn?), bypassing the people and awarding the corporations they sidle up to monopolistic jurisdiction over our resources. I want independent fishers to flourish, but I also want my own trap, and think anyone living within a kilometre of the shore should be able to set one.

We're alone out here, and it's hard not to see the failings that natural events such as Dorian put on show as harbingers of worse to come. No, it's not an entertainment.

There's serious work to be done.

Associated Graphic

A torn Canadian flag is stretched by intense winds near Peggys Cove, N.S., as the effects of Hurricane Dorian begin to make landfall on Sept. 7.

DARREN CALABRESE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

In Dartmouth, N.S., a man braces for Hurricane Dorian's winds as the storm hits Halifax Harbour on Sept. 7.

ANDREW VAUGHAN/THE CANADIAN PRESS


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In search of higher ground
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By ELLIOTT CAPPELL
  
  

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Saturday, September 7, 2019 – Page O1

Jakarta is sinking, and Indonesia is building a new capital. It's a vision of a future where climate change will force our hand - something all cities must reckon with, at the risk of leaving people behind International climate-change specialist and the former chief resilience officer for the City of Toronto

There's something about water that draws people together. For reasons both romantic and practical, humans tend to congregate by oceans, lakes and streams. Almost every major city in the world - from New York and Toronto to London and Mombasa - sits beside a body of water, on a site chosen by founders who sought trade routes, economic hubs, marine resources such as fish and even places for rituals from birth to burial.

But there's something else that unites many major cities: They're sinking.

Climate change and urbanization have combined forces to cause this effect in cities worldwide. As global temperatures rise, glaciers melt and seas get warmer. Simultaneously, our cities face challenges from erosion, subsidence and permafrost melt. In short, sea levels are rising, and the ground beneath many cities is lowering. Taken together, homes flood, the foundations of buildings and other infrastructure crack and cities become inundated by storms. In some cases, entire neighbourhoods can sink to a point where they are assailed by water.

Jakarta - Indonesia's tropical, crowded capital, which sits near an inlet of the Java Sea - represents one of the most extreme examples of this existential threat. There, water for drinking or washing is drawn en masse from underground aquifers - meaning the city is literally draining the swamp on which it was built. Combined with sea-level rise, Jakarta has sunk more than 2.5 metres in the past 10 years alone.

At this rate, 95 per cent of northern Jakarta will be completely under water by 2050. This affects an astonishing number of people: Jakarta is on pace to be home to more than 36 million people by 2030, when it is forecast to become the most populous city region in the world.

Such an enormous challenge calls for a bold response, and the Indonesian government has delivered on that front.

Two weeks ago, President Joko Widodo announced a plan to build a new city in the East Kalimantan province on the island of Borneo - which has less exposure to climate-change hazards such as sea-level rise or natural disasters such as earthquakes - and relocate the capital from Jakarta to this from-scratch hub by around 2024.

At a cost of about US$33-billion, the planned-capital project is easily the world's most significant case of "managed retreat," where instead of fighting a climate hazard, a decision has been made to pull back to safe ground.

As Indonesia's commercial, cultural and political centre, Jakarta is also home to what is arguably some of the worst traffic congestion and urban air pollution in the world. Moving the administrative population might relieve some of Jakarta's urban and social stresses while decentralizing political life to a more central, politically neutral geographical location. Both the President and Prime Minister have promised to protect Borneo's ecologically important forests in constructing the new capital.

It is a big, bold, ambitious plan.

As a professional whose work relies on governments and businesses taking climate action, I should be excited about it. Done well, this could be a world-changing project.

And yet, I am filled with dread.

This is a fundamentally flawed idea - one that points to a dystopian future in which the world's poor drown under a rising sea and the rich, powerful or connected jump from the sinking ship.

Simply put, there are too many cities and too many people to all be moved to higher ground.

About 800 million people live in 570 coastal cities threatened by sea-level rise, according to C40, an international network of cities. Moving that many residents, homes and infrastructure is simply impractical. In fact, the plan to move Jakarta doesn't even propose to do that; rather, the idea is to move just the bureaucrats and politicians. This means the state will be sponsoring those with political power and their families to escape to safer ground, while the commercial capital will continue to face the storm surges and flooding of a sinking city. The poorest residents, those with the fewest means to relocate, risk being left behind.

There is a second issue: Capital cities planned from scratch generally do not change how the vast majority of people live. Some urbanists salivate at the idea of being freed from the shackles of how cities are already built. As Sidewalk Labs chief executive officer Dan Doctoroff said of the company's project in a Toronto neighbourhood: "We started talking about all of these things that we could do if someone would just give us a city and put us in charge." Unfortunately, the world doesn't work like that. It has been tried in dozens of countries, including Brazil, Nigeria, Tanzania and Australia. But compare Brasilia with Rio de Janeiro, Abuja with Lagos, Dodoma with Dar es Salaam and Canberra with Sydney; in each case, a country built a planned capital city, and in each case the pre-existing coastal urban centre remains the de facto heart of the country. The politicians, bureaucrats and associated hangers-on might be high and dry, but everyday Indonesians do not have the means to pull up stakes or access to political jobs, so Jakartans will remain by the water (or under it).

Cities are, in a way, a natural habitat for humans. The idea that we can just up and move the history and social fabric of a city, its relationships and people or its homes and infrastructure to a safer place is egotistical and, in a way, unnatural.

Indonesia's plan to move the capital to Borneo may provide temporary relief to some of that city's stresses, but from what we know today, the plan will do little to help Jakarta adapt. The effort and money spent building a new capital city might well distract from the sinking and flooding that still imperils tens of millions of Jakartans, especially with the political class physically removed from those dangers.

There is still hope, though. After concerns over what would be left in Jakarta, the government announced that US$40-billion over the next 10 years will be invested in the city to "modernize" it - even though that number is a relative pittance for a city this size, and appears to be devoted mostly to transport infrastructure. Final plans and timelines for both the new capital and the old one have not been set in stone.

And a project of this size would draw the best expertise from across the region, if not the world.

But this isn't just a localized crisis in Indonesia. Here in Canada, 70 per cent of Nova Scotians lives within 20 kilometres of the coast, where the sea level is rising faster than the global average as the ground subsides. Northern cities such as Iqaluit are contending with melting permafrost owing to climate change, causing the ground on which the city sits to crack or sink. From New Brunswick through Quebec and Ontario, inland flooding from rivers has raised the idea of managed retreat from flood-prone areas.

Canada is warming at almost twice the rate of the rest of the world - and in the North, three times as fast. Climate change's effect on Canadian communities is really just emerging, in the sense that we are only starting to experience and understand what may be the "new normal" of flooding, wildfires or sinking - a mari usque ad mare.

The new normal brings potentially wide-ranging economic and social changes, especially for the more than 80 per cent of Canadians who live in cities. There are houses that may be uninsurable due to climate risk. Older and taller apartments, which make up as much as 45 per cent of the rental housing in Toronto, may be too hot to live in for weeks of the summer. Outdoor workers will need to contend with hotter summers, as well as more extreme wind and rain. Bay Street firms will need to understand and disclose climate risks in their global portfolios. Relatives from overseas will need more financial support, more often, to deal with extreme weather and disasters.

Thankfully, Canada is home to some of the best expertise in infrastructure, city building and environment in the world. We are lucky, in the global scheme of climate change, to have the wherewithal to make our communities more resilient.

But there are lots of opportunities to level up our ambition. The Jakarta plan, if flawed, is at least a bold way to approach a problem that has been well studied for years. In Canada, we do not have even a national climate-change adaptation or resilience plan, let alone an ambitious one. The federal election has become obsessed with a carbon tax, which would reduce our effect on the climate; none of the parties has proposed a proper plan to help Canadians adapt to the climate's effect on us.

The first step in developing such a strategy is to significantly improve our understanding of climate risks. When we have a good understanding of them, Canadian governments and the private sector have typically responded with strong ideas. For example, the $1-billion Don River naturalization project in Toronto - a suitably daring response to flood risk - came about after years of study to understand the flood risk to Canada's commercial capital. We could invest more to understand climate risks in other areas, such as Northern and coastal communities.

The federal government deserves praise for its world-class efforts to advance our national understanding of climate change through reports such as Canada's Changing Climate and Canada's Top Climate Risks, both published this year. But while Britain made it mandatory in 2008 for the government to complete a national climate-risk assessment every five years, Canada is just starting out.

Provincial and local efforts are also pushing ahead. British Columbia recently completed the first provincial climate-risk assessment, and the Ontario government - yes, Doug Ford's Ontario government - has promised to do the same. Myriad communities, businesses, municipalities and academics are bursting with enthusiasm in tackling climate change, as cities from Vancouver and Edmonton to Kingston and Halifax have declared climate crises. But these efforts need to be scaled up and supported with the expertise and money needed to take real action. In the United States, "resilient-by-design" competitions in California and in post-Superstorm Sandy New York captured that local energy, directed it to designing locally supported climate-resilience projects and earned funding from the federal government to the tune of more than US$1.3-billion. Canada's federal and provincial governments, or even philanthropists, could support communities in developing and implementing local climate-resilience plans.

Canada can also leverage one of our cities' greatest strengths: our incredible green infrastructure, such as urban forests, ravines and parks. While we still rely on grey infrastructure - roads, bridges, power lines - the way we have traditionally built cities can contribute to problems such as sinking. Concrete and asphalt do not absorb water well, and the runoff can cause more erosion and flooding. So cities around the world are increasingly turning to green infrastructure as a complement to the traditional grey. For instance, the biggest project from New York's rebuild-by-design competition, the "Big U," plans to surround Lower Manhattan with a naturalized wetland, which would serve as a park in dry times and a flood plain as required. And from Gibsons, B.C., to Gibraltar Point on the southern tip of the Toronto Islands, Canadian municipalities are already doing incredible things on their own with green infrastructure.

Adapting our cities to climate change should be a national priority, to ensure that cities can continue to provide jobs, homes and community to the many millions of Canadians who live in urban centres. Globally, hundreds of cities need resilient solutions, and if we applied Canadian skills and resources to the issue, there would be a global market for Canadian climate-adaptation expertise.

We may have more breathing room than Jakarta, but time is not our friend. There is a huge opportunity for Canada to get ahead of the issue, but it starts with having the ambition to tackle it and the data to understand it. At the same time, we can support our communities and businesses to make our cities resilient to a changing climate.

Let's not wait until we're in deep water to start taking action.

Associated Graphic

People cross a bridge from their neighbourhood in Jakarta on Aug. 31. Jakarta is one of the world's most densely populated cities, and also one of the fastest-sinking cities in the world under the weight of out-of-control development, overuse of groundwater and rising sea levels caused by global warming.

ED WRAY/GETTY IMAGES

A man navigates an interlocking network of seawalls in Jakarta's Luar Batang neighbourhood last Sunday. As Jakarta sinks, the foundations of buildings and infrastructure crack and seawalls such as those depicted cease to provide adequate flood protection for residents, many of whom are among the city's poorest.

ED WRAY/GETTY IMAGES

Workers clean a large water pump in an area of central Jakarta where houses are built under a levee. Such pumps are often necessary to drain rain and floodwaters in low-lying areas. Based on current projections, 95 per cent of the city's northern coast will be completely underwater by 2050, 20 years after its population is expected to surpass 36 million people.

BAY ISMOYO/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

A group of boys swim in floodwater trapped inland from a recently constructed seawall in Jakarta's Muaru Baru neighbourhood. Indonesia's most populous city relies on underground aquifers for much of its water - meaning the city is literally draining the swamp on which it was built, lowering it every year.

ED WRAY/GETTY IMAGES

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Correction

>A Saturday Opinion article incorrectly attributed this quote to Sidewalk Labs chief executive officer Dan Doctoroff, when in fact it was said by the then-executive chairman of Alphabet Inc., Eric Schmidt, of the company's project in a Toronto neighbourhood: "We started talking about all of these things that we could do if someone would just give us a city and put us in charge."


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CRONENBERG, IN HIS OWN WORDS
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The iconic director, and co-star of the new TIFF thriller Clifton Hill, sits down for an exclusive discussion about why he'd be fine if he never made another movie
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By BARRY HERTZ
  
  

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Saturday, September 7, 2019 – Page R1

The movies need more David Cronenberg. But David Cronenberg isn't so sure that he needs movies.

Two weeks before the start of the Toronto International Film Festival, the Canadian icon is enjoying a light lunch - egg, cheese and turkey bacon croissant - on the sunny patio of a café in the city's tony Forest Hill neighbourhood.

Clad in a black tee and shorts, the 76-year-old is here to talk not about his latest film, but his performance in someone else's: Albert Shin's new thriller Clifton Hill, in which the Dead Ringers director has scored a thirdbilled role as a Niagara Falls conspiracy theorist.

It's a juicy part, and one equipped with especially Cronenbergian touches - his character is introduced emerging out of a cloudy lake, a primordial force of nature, ready to talk about the mysteries of the world.

The job proved to be a refreshing change of pace for the director, too, so used is he to worrying about everything else on a set but memorizing lines. But his deadpan and curious performance underlines just how sorely missed Cronenberg's presence has been in the cinematic landscape.

His most recent directorial effort, the Hollywood-set psychodrama Maps to the Stars, came out five years ago. Since then, there have been reports that Cronenberg has been unable to finance his movies. That he's making a Netflix series. That he's writing a new novel. That he never wants to make another film ever again.

The reality, like any Cronenberg film, is not so clean and tidy.

Ahead of Clifton Hill's world premiere at TIFF on Sept. 5, The Globe and Mail's Barry Hertz sat down with Cronenberg for an indepth discussion about acting, streaming and legacy.

Did you know much about Albert's work before joining Clifton Hill?

Not at all, but I was sent his script and it was an interesting, unusual, complex work. I had confidence that he knew what he was doing and that we'd get along. It was just about trying to create the character and be a good actor. Once I agree to be an actor, I'm not a director anymore.

Is that control hard to give up?

It's quite nice to let go, because you only have to concentrate on one thing: remembering your lines and your character. You don't have to worry about the camera, the lighting, the rhythm, all the other stuff as a director that you're constantly juggling.

Do you get sent scripts often, to act?

I do, actually. I recently acted in Viggo Mortensen's film, which he wrote and directed [the forthcoming drama Falling]. It gives me a chance to remeet people who I've known working as a director. It keeps me in touch with filmmaking. I haven't directed a film in over five years, but I still feel like I'm part of the community.

Why haven't you made a film since? There was the interview that Viggo gave in 2016 that said it was because of trouble securing financing ... I really thought that I was finished with filmmaking. I was getting bored with it. I thought that I would end up writing another novel, and then I got interested in the whole Netflix thing and the idea of a streaming series. To my surprise, I found myself flying down to L.A. to pitch an idea to Netflix, which they liked enough to green-light two episodes, which I wrote. But then they decided to pass. I'm trying to set it up somewhere else, but that got me back to think that maybe I'm not done with it after all. I'm involved with [producer] Robert Lantos on two things now: a script, which I'd written some time ago, and a series based on my novel, Consumed.

I thought Consumed had been optioned by AMC for a series?

And they eventually passed on it after the writers had gone quite some distance. At that point, I said I just want to be the guy who wrote the novel, and you can pay me residuals and do whatever you want to do with it. But now I'm involved as a director again, which means I'm going to be involved as a writer. So I have three projects that might or might not go.

There's the Consumed adaptation, but can you talk about the older script and what was once the Netflix series?

Not really, because they're at a very delicate stage right now.

None have been green-lit and they might just disappear.

When you were talking about Netflix at the Venice Film Festival last year, you mentioned that it was the "novelization" aspect of binge-able television that intrigued you.

I was talking with Spike Lee, and he's done a series with Netflix.

They're still talking about the "cathedral of cinema," the "communal experience," blah blah. I said, "Look, I'm watching Lawrence of Arabia on my watch right now, there's a thousand camels and it looks glorious." I was joking, but the experiences I've had recently in the theatre have not been good. There's commercials, noise, cellphones. I was watching Colette at the Varsity, and halfway through red flashes came up at the bottom of the frame. A woman came out and said, "We're going to have to reboot, so take 15 minutes and come back." Then they rebooted it from the beginning and she had to ask the audience to tell her how far to go. You tell me, is that a great experience? I generally don't watch movies in a cinema at all. Netflix is the future. It's the present.

But the whole paradigm of a series, binge-watching, it's quite different. My first reaction is that it's more novelistic, because if you have an eight-hour season, you can get into complex, intricate things. You can let it breathe and the audience expectations are such that they will let you, where before they wouldn't have the patience. I think only the surface has been touched with experimenting with that.

How was your Netflix experience, from a creator's perspective?

I was hoping it would be different than a Hollywood studio, but it felt a lot like a Hollywood studio. And I can see that the stuff Netflix is producing itself is very conservative, very mainstream.

The more interesting stuff I'm watching there is all foreign-produced, things they've acquired.

Which is too bad, because unlike movies, Netflix isn't depending on box office. They have their own algorithms and can afford to have eccentric series.

Well, Spike's Netflix series, She's Gotta Have It, was just cancelled after two seasons. I'm not sure what they look for in terms of success measurements.

It's a bit mysterious. I know they've fought against the perception that they're controlled by algorithms, and when I met them, it was very much about talking to the creator and artist.

And bless them, because I wouldn't have written what they call a prototype - not exactly a pilot, because they don't do pilots - so I was happy to do that because it came into being. Even though it was a pretty extreme, in some ways, pitch, I thought it'd be a good fit. But they said the classic Hollywood thing: "It wasn't what we fell in love with in the room." So they want you, but they don't really. And I've run into that my whole career.

And that's the nature of being a working filmmaker?

I talked with my son [filmmaker Brandon Cronenberg], and when he asked me why I was thinking of not making movies, I said, "I'm not willing to suffer anymore."

And he said, "Well, I'm willing to suffer," and I said, "That's good, because you're going to."

Which he did, but after three years of all the usual indie-film stuff, he got to make his movie [the forthcoming sci-fi thriller Possessor], and I've seen it and it's terrific. You don't want to be a masochist, but you have to be willing to suffer.

Is there more suffering today?

Especially for independent filmmakers in Canada?

A lot of producers tell me it's harder to raise money, and I have to accept that because that's not where I operate. I'm in a place, though, right now where if it all fell apart, I'd be okay. I don't care.

I don't have the hunger or the desperate need to make a film.

Once I start with it, though, I want to realize them. The thing I wrote for Netflix is very personal and I would really like to see it happen. But I can always write a novel again. Not that you make money from writing a novel or that you get that many readers.

Not that making movies gets you a lot of money, either.

That's true. For an independent filmmaker, there's no guarantee.

And even in the old days, it took me three years between movies.

Eventually you run out of years.

And it takes a lot of energy. It's a difficult thing, to direct, and I'm five years older now. How would I feel? I don't know.

So you would be fine if Maps to the Stars ended up being your final film?

Absolutely. If this is it for the socalled Cronenberg canon, then so be it. You can't worry about legacy. It's very pleasing to me that many young filmmakers tell me they were inspired by seeing The Fly when they were six years old. How long will that last? I don't worry about it.

Do you take comfort that "Cronenberg" has become an adjective?

That's the ultimate accolade, to become an adjective. Even if it's misleading. Often, "Cronenberg" means grotesque or bloody. I think that's modulated now. Kafka-esque, Fellini-esque, Cronenberg-esque ... Cronenbergian?

Cronenbergundian. That was my preference, but I accept Cronenberg-esque.

Working with younger filmmakers like Albert, talking with your son Brandon, do you feel they're going to have a strong future?

There are many strange and interesting ways of presenting and accessing a film that didn't exist before, and in that way I think it's better. You might tweet your movie soon. And there will be different ways to monetize it so that you can at least survive. And I would absolutely watch movies on my phone or watch, rather than not watch them at all. My phone, an iPhone SX Max, has a great screen.

So there are new ways to get a movie out there, but what about the discoverability aspect?

I remember talking with Oliver Stone and he asked me, "Are you happy being a marginal filmmaker?" I said, "Well, how big an audience do you need, Oliver?" They're both legitimate questions. How many people do you need to see your movie before you feel justified? There's the money aspect to it, but also the artistic satisfaction aspect.

There's no universal answer.

In your speech to the Ontario College of Art and Design last year, you talked about art's inherent capability to be dangerous, to be criminal. Is today's cultural output matching that definition?

Sometimes. I think that it's more daring to be more criminal in your art now because you have Twitter backlash. There are more ways to be attacked as an artist than there used to be. You're putting yourself out there in ways that were unimaginable years ago. Art is not a decorative thing, but a subversive thing, because it has appeal to the unconscious.

And the unconscious and the ego and society are at odds with each other.

Is there a reticence on the part of artists today, because society can more easily push back?

Well, you can see it. There are artists who've become reclusive who are not naturally reclusive because of fear of backlash. But it depends on the person, how tough you are. An artist requires a tough skin. It's a weird balance because to be an artist, you have to be incredibly sensitive to things - that's where you draw your material from. But you also have to be incredibly tough, because you're putting yourself out there in ways that others don't.

It's like going on a date. You are making yourself vulnerable to rejection and attack. So you can decide to stay home and watch Netflix. Or you can go out and see what happens.

This interview has been condensed and edited.

Clifton Hill premieres at TIFF on Sept. 5, 9 p.m., Ryerson, with an additional screening Sept. 9, 10 p.m., Scotiabank (tiff.net)

Associated Graphic

David Cronenberg works on the set of Stereo (1969), The Fly (1986), Spider (2002) and Cosmopolis (2012). His most recent directorial effort is Maps to the Stars (2014). 'I really thought that I was finished with filmmaking,' he says.

FROM TOP: JOHN WOOD/THE GLOBE AND MAIL; BARRIE DAVIS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL; ODEON FILMS; EONE FILMS

David Cronenberg portrays a Niagara Falls conspiracy theorist in Clifton Hill, above, a new thriller directed by Albert Shin and appearing at this year's Toronto International Film Festival. The 76-year-old says it was a relief to leave the director's chair and focus solely on his lines and character.

Cronenberg has directed dozens of films over several decades, such as Stereo in 1969, above, and 2002's Spider, below, starring Ralph Fiennes. He received a lifetime achievement award for his works last September at the Venice Film Festival, left.

ABOVE: JOHN WOOD/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL; LEFT: ALBERTO PIZZOLI/ AFP/GETTY IMAGES; BELOW: ODEON FILMS


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Saints look to take Rams down memory lane
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NFC elite meet in L.A. for a rematch of 2018's controversial title game nt New Orleans home
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By BARRY WILNER
THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
  
  

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Saturday, September 14, 2019 – Page S2

Throw that flag.

For those who have short memories - very short - the previous time the Rams and Saints met was in the NFC championship game in the Big Easy.

New Orleans was victimized by a blatant officiating non-call that led to a rule change allowing pass interference to be part of the video-review system.

The echoes of "We was robbed!" still reverberate in the Superdome.

So the Saints won't need any extra motivation when they visit Los Angeles in a stellar early season matchup. Even if they are trying to play down the unforgettably painful memories.

"Still haven't, never will. When you say forgotten about, you have to find a way to compartmentalize it to where you can move on in a positive way, so I found a way to do that," Saints quarterback Drew Brees said. "But as far as just the events, you live and learn and sometimes things don't go your way, and you've got to find a way to come out better on the other side."

Saints coach Sean Payton stressed these teams are not the same.

"It feels like it was a long time ago," he said of the NFC title match. "It's part of our game.

These are two different teams now, a lot of roster moves from last year to this year. We're playing each other early in the season, so it doesn't feel like that many games ago relative to the distance between when we played. You're looking at two different teams."

Both teams opened with tight victories, New Orleans rallying to beat Houston in the final seconds on Wil Lutz's 58-yard field goal, the Rams winning at Carolina.

While it's far too early to call this a game for NFC supremacy, the Saints and Rams should be among the conference's elite.

"I think our players, our coaches know the level of urgency that's going to be needed for us to be at our best in order to give ourselves a chance to compete and hopefully come out of this thing 2-0," Rams coach Sean McVay said.

The second week began Thursday night with Tampa Bay's victory over Carolina in a game that ended early Friday after being delayed 25 minutes in the first quarter because of lightning.

Jameis Winston threw for 208 yards and a touchdown, and Tampa Bay held Cam Newton in check, coming up with a late goalline stand to give coach Bruce Arians his first victory with the team.

Tampa Bay improved to 1-1, while Carolina dropped to 0-2.

SEATTLE SEAHAWKS (1-0) AT PITTSBURGH STEELERS (0-1) A pair of retooling clubs that, for one week at least, looked as if they were headed in opposite directions.

The Seahawks struggled to beat Cincinnati, but showed the elements of being a contender, particularly their fortitude in coming back. Seattle is 2-7 in Pittsburgh, outscored 45-0 in the past two trips - in 2007 and 2011.

It's difficult to believe the Steelers won't rebound from their abysmal performance in Foxborough, Mass. Maybe they need a bit of that fortitude Seattle displayed.

"I like to think everything just flew off and everything was wrong so we can say, 'That's not going to happen again,'" defensive tackle Cam Heyward said.

"But we did some things right.

Not every play was minus, but I'm going to treat it like every play was."

INDIANAPOLIS COLTS (0-1) AT TENNESSEE TITANS (1-0) Both teams were far more impressive in their openers than predicted. The Colts took the Chargers to overtime, while the Titans manhandled the Browns in Cleveland.

Andrew Luck held a mastery over Tennessee, and Indy has won 13 of the past 15 meetings. Of course, Luck is retired now, and the only two Titans wins in that span came with current quarterback Jacoby Brissett under centre.

Watch for Marlon Mack, who had a career-high 174 yards rushing at L.A. and leads the league.

The Titans are retiring Nos. 27 and 9 for Eddie George and the late Steve McNair, the first 9 and 27 retired by any NFL team.

SAN FRANCISCO 49ERS (1-0) AT CINCINNATI BENGALS (0-1) Two more clubs that had solid debuts beyond expectations. San Francisco used two interceptions for touchdowns to beat Tampa Bay, and the Bengals gave Seattle all it could handle before a onepoint road loss.

The 49ers have the highest winning percentage against Cincinnati of any NFL team, and last opened a season with two road wins in 1989. They worked out at Youngstown State University in Ohio to avoid a second straight cross-country flight.

Bengals quarterback Andy Dalton had career highs against the Seahawks last week, with 35 completions and 418 yards passing, his first 400-yard game. Eight receivers caught passes, led by John Ross, who had careers highs with seven catches, 158 yards and two TDs. But running back Joe Mixon hurt his left ankle.

KANSAS CITY (1-0) AT OAKLAND RAIDERS (1-0) One of the great rivalries in sports, dating back to the AFL days. Kansas City leads the series 65-53-2 and has won eight of the past nine.

But K.C. will be without injured star wideout Tyreek Hill, although Sammy Watkins was spectacular against Jacksonville with nine catches for 198 yards and three touchdowns.

The Raiders had an offensive standout in their win over Denver, too. First-round draft pick Josh Jacobs ran 23 times for 85 yards and two touchdowns, while also hauling in a 28-yard pass that set up a touchdown.

"This man wasn't really the feature back at Alabama. He's not drawing from a lot of experience," coach Jon Gruden said.

"I'm anxious to see how he feels ... after 24 touches because we'd like to get him 24 more next week."

DALLAS COWBOYS (1-0) AT WASHINGTON (0-1) Another terrific and historic rivalry that has taken on a one-sided air: Dallas has won seven of nine.

Washington got off to a nice start in Philly, then flopped in the second half. It also lost its top running back, Darrius Guice, to a right-knee injury, meaning Adrian Peterson - a healthy scratch last weekend - figures to get some action.

No such worries for the Cowboys now that Ezekiel Elliott is in the fold. He should be in better form on Sunday, too. And the Dallas passing game ranks first in the league after toying with the Giants.

CLEVELAND BROWNS (0-1) AT NEW YORK JETS (0-1), MONDAY NIGHT Long, long ago, in a galaxy far, far away ... Well, it was actually 1970, and the Jets had Joe Namath and a recent Super Bowl crown, while the Browns were one of the league's elite franchises with an enviable history.

Now? Gang Green hasn't been back to the big game since and blew a 16-0 lead at home to Buffalo last week. Those Browns of yesteryear now reside in Baltimore as the Ravens, and this group has made the postseason once in its reincarnation in Cleveland.

Still, the NFL wanted a redux of the first Monday Night Football telecast, so here we are, with a pair of clubs that basically faltered in their openers.

NEW ENGLAND PATRIOTS (1-0) AT MIAMI DOLPHINS (0-1) Shield your eyes.

The Patriots have had issues in Southern Florida, losing five of their past six visits. Considering how rarely Tom Brady loses anywhere, that's striking.

There's a catch this year: Miami has its sights on the first overall draft pick, not on-field achievements; did somebody mention tanking? The Dolphins were humiliated by Baltimore 59-10 in the opener.

Meanwhile, Brady and Co.

picked Pittsburgh apart last Sunday night, an ominous sign for the rest of the AFC because the Steelers supposedly are a contender in the conference.

ARIZONA CARDINALS (0-0-1) AT BALTIMORE RAVENS (1-0) Lamar Jackson, Heisman Trophy winner (2016), meet Kyler Murray, who took that award last college season.

Both exciting and versatile passers had impressive debuts.

Jackson had a career day in only his eighth pro start, going 17-of-20 for five touchdowns. Yes, it was against Miami, but those numbers stand out against anybody.

Murray rallied the Cardinals from a 24-6 deficit in the fourth quarter against Detroit, overcoming some early mistakes to produce tons of clutch plays.

"Once you kind of get in that rhythm, we're going quick, everything kind of just opened up," Murray said.

"We just got into a rhythm and we started playing better."

LOS ANGELES CHARGERS (1-0) AT DETROIT LIONS (0-0-1) The Chargers and Lions both worked overtime last week. At least L.A. got the win over Indianapolis.

Austin Ekeler had the winning, seven-yard TD run and finished with a career-high 154 yards from scrimmage. Ekeler became the first undrafted player to have more than 150 yards from scrimmage, two receiving and a rushing TD in the same game in 43 years.

Detroit has lost seven of the past eight in the series. Its best hope Sunday might be T.J. Hockenson, who had 131 yards receiving last week, breaking the record for a tight end in his NFL debut set 59 years ago by Monty Stickles.

PHILADELPHIA EAGLES (1-0) AT ATLANTA FALCONS (0-1) DeSean Jackson's return to Philly couldn't have gone much better.

He made eight receptions for 154 yards and a pair of 50-plus-yard TDs in sparking the Eagles' rally from a 17-0 hole against Washington.

"DeSean will tell you he's got practice speed and he's got game speed," coach Doug Pederson said. "Practice speed is around 16 miles per hour, and game speed is up to 22. He's a gamer. He's dynamic, he's electric and he loves when the lights come on. That speed is real, and we saw it Sunday."

What's real with the Falcons is hard to tell after an ugly loss at Minnesota, losing first-round pick guard Chris Lindstrom (broken foot).

MINNESOTA VIKINGS (1-0) AT GREEN BAY PACKERS (1-0) Twenty-two of the past 33 regularseason meetings have been decided by seven points or fewer, including both games last season.

Aaron Rodgers has seven career games with a passer rating of 130-plus against Minnesota, the most by a quarterback against one team in NFL history. But this one very much could be decided by the defences.

Green Bay's was staunch in its win at Chicago, with five sacks and lots of physicality. The Vikings has two picks, four sacks and kept Matt Ryan and the Falcons off balance in an easy win.

CHICAGO BEARS (0-1) AT DENVER BRONCOS (0-1) Vic Fangio designed the stingy and aggressive defence the Bears used last season to win the NFC North. He's now, at the age of 61, at last a head coach. His Broncos D, however, aside from linebacker Josey Jewell's career-best 14 tackles, was anything but dominant at Oakland.

Chicago's defence once more was very strong, this time with Chuck Pagano as the co-ordinator. Edge rusher Khalil Mack had 10 sacks, three forced fumbles and 14 tackles for a loss in eight career games against Denver while he was a Raider.

JACKSONVILLE JAGUARS (0-1) AT HOUSTON TEXANS (0-1) If there's one team that should be encouraged by an opening loss, it's the Texans. Yes, their prevent defence prevented victory at New Orleans, but it was Drew Brees, after all, performing magic on the other side.

Most encouraging for Houston was the spectacular combination of Deshaun Watson throwing to DeAndre Hopkins, and expect to see plenty more of that Sunday.

Star edge rusher J.J. Watt didn't play much of a role against the Saints, so expect to see him do so this time.

Pity the Jags, who felt they cured their longstanding quarterback troubles by signing Nick Foles, only to lose him early in falling to Kansas City. Just as bad, the ballyhooed D was hooey.

BUFFALO BILLS (1-0) AT NEW YORK GIANTS (0-1) Despite the names, the Jets and Giants are New Jersey teams. The Bills are the only real representative of New York State, and they woke up in the fourth quarter at the Meadowlands last Sunday to down the Jets.

They return in a rare bit of scheduling to play the Giants while thinking of a Big Apple sweep.

The Giants need to upgrade the pass defence that was torn apart by Dallas and ranks dead last. Yes, worse than Miami.

Associated Graphic

Both Alvin Kamara's New Orleans Saints and the L.A. Rams eked out tight wins over their Week 1 opponents.

BILL FEIG/THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

Jacoby Brissett impressed in Week 1, allaying some Colts fans' concerns after Andrew Luck's retirement.

ROBERT HANASHIRO/USA TODAY SPORTS

Jameis Winston threw for 208 yards in the Bucs' Week 2 win over the Panthers. Carolina slips to 0-2 to start the season.

BRIAN BLANCO/AP

If the 49ers defence repeats its shutdown performance from Week 1, Jimmy Garoppolo and Co. might get to 2-0.

MIKE EHRMANN/GETTY IMAGES


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WHY BUYING A DUMBPHONE WAS A SMART DECISION
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A lot of people talk about how much they want to give up their smartphones, all while continuing to increase their dependency on them. But choosing to go dumb, Randy Boyagoda writes, might not actually be that stupid
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By RANDY BOYAGODA
  
  

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Saturday, September 7, 2019 – Page O8

Randy Boyagoda is a writer and professor of English at the University of Toronto, where he is also principal of St. Michael's College. His most recent novel is Original Prin.

The first time I regretted giving up my iPhone was in Petersburg, Ky. I went there last month, as part of a road trip to biblical theme parks. Early in my visit to the Creation Museum, brought to you by the Answers in Genesis apologetics ministry, I came face to face with the model of a sinful human being. It was one of fallen Adam's many descendants. He was perched by a stream, near a thirsty dinosaur.

More surprising to me than his neighbour - dinosaur-human contemporaneity is a major theme at the museum - was that this postlapsarian bro was the spitting image of a good friend, a bearded young Albertan anthropologist of Pakistani origin. As we all do, I went for my phone, keen to snap and tap away and then send this image, lots of images and also snarky comments, to him and his wife. Then I remembered I couldn't, not with my new dumbphone.

The second time I felt a moment of real iPhone longing was later that same month, in Vancouver Harbour. In fact, I was flying just above it, in the front seat of a roaring six-seat propeller plane, en route to a literary festival in Sechelt, B.C. I wanted to send my wife and daughters images of the land and seascape. I'd never seen such a symphonic play of variegated blues and dark green and cresting white. I also wanted to send pictures of the plane's seemingly retro tech, its busy dashboard of black and silver switches and dials and punchbuttons. With the right filters, I could have fooled them into thinking it was a screen shot from the latest season of Stranger Things and then taken a selfie to reveal where I really was. That time, I stayed the universal reflex to reach for my phone. Instead, I kept looking and made mental notes to describe these places later - you know, with this stuff: words, words, words. Reader, it was worth it, it has been worth it, it is worth it, going dumb. I'm not going back.

My new phone, the Punkt MP02, has no camera and no apps. I can talk, text (with a fiverow T-9 keyboard) and, when I actually need to, go online by tethering a laptop to its built-in modem. The phone is small and black and sturdy. It looks like James Bond's calculator, circa 1985. When people see it, they respond with eye-rolling disgust (my kids), confusion, surprise and irony - "Now, that's a great invention! It's a phone!" said my father, who's spent a lot of time sitting around the Boyagoda kitchen watching us look something up. The more telling and common response I've been getting, however, is one of sighs and knowing nods and highly selective envy. A lot of people wish they could give up their smartphones, or at least use them less, or use them better, and anyway really, really like to talk about wanting to change their relationships to their phones.

I was one of these people until earlier this year, when I realized I had to do something else. I was at the Toronto Symphony Orchestra with my oldest daughter, who's 13. She'd bought us tickets to the TSO's screening of Casablanca, accompanied by a live performance of the score. We'd dressed up and gone downtown and just before the show started, she said, "What are you doing?" I looked up from my phone, a little glazed and confused. "What? Oh. I'm just taking a note, um, for my novel." I was telling the truth, technically - Scrivener's a killer app for writers! - but really, as so often is the case, I was just trying to fill up a little blank space in the easiest possible way. The look on my daughter's face was one of genuine surprise, offence and disappointment, and rightly so, on all counts. Not only was I failing to be present to and with her in an experience she had created for the two of us, but I was also letting her know what to expect on future dates.

In the latter years of my decade of ever-intensifying smartphone use, I'd tried everything: screentime limits, turning off notifications, removing mail and news and web browsing apps, charging it downstairs instead of in our bedroom, giving it up for Lent (which doesn't include Sundays), even shifting to the "greyscale" setting so that the phone would be less visually appealing. Of course, all of this had one commonality: an excuse to use my phone, to change a setting, just check it one more time, just check it, check it, check it. Meanwhile, I knew all the many reasons why I was doing this in spite of myself, and why I should stop, for my good and the good of family, friends and humanness itself, thanks to recurring reports of Silicon Valley elites limiting their children's access to the devices they sell by the millions to others; and to documentaries such as Screenagers and dystopic television shows such as Black Mirror; and to tech-era doomsday books such as Nicholas Carr's The Shallows, Evgeny Morozov's To Save Everything, Click Here and, most recently, Shoshana Zuboff's The Age of Surveillance Capitalism.

Works such as these, among so many others coming out at a steady clip these days, suggest that taken together, George Orwell and Aldous Huxley were right about the totalitarian futures they imagined in their novels 1984 and Brave New World. Not only would we be subject to impersonal, large-scale forms of command and control (Orwell's Big Brother), but we would enjoy this condition and seek more and more of it because of the all-pervading sensory rapture it offers (Huxley's "feelies").

It was only a matter of time before someone saw a business opportunity in all of this handheld hand-wringing. The Swiss technology company behind my new dumbphone is seeking to capitalize on the collision of peak smartphone use with peak smartphone anxieties. It's marketing its new phone as part of a minimalist lifestyle that acknowledges the importance of these devices - practically, socially, aesthetically - but also makes it possible, even necessary, to reorder our relationship to them. It turns out I'm far from alone in wanting to give this a try. Coming home from Casablanca, I did some research and ordered my new device. This was the middle of winter. Despite some bad reviews for software glitches and for its high pricing (balanced by admiring reviews for the phone's concept and design), Punkt's new phone sold out very fast, and back orders were pushed into spring, then summer and then into the fall. I eventually contacted the company and explained that I was planning a summer road trip without a smartphone and wanted to write about the experience, and I received a device the day before I left for the United States.

Well beyond the predictable goods of giving up my smartphone - eye contact, buying less stuff, reading more books and reading far less e-mail, no more slumped-over trawling through newsfeeds, no more measuring and checking the weather and air conditioning and my running pace and cycling routes in endless micro-particular terms, exiting elevators at the correct floor, an end to hostage-style negotiating with my kids about the terms for releasing it to someone else and finally, finally having an invincible defence for not replying to my mother's WhatsApp War and Peace messages - I wanted to see what would happen, in practical terms, if I was in a situation, such as a solo summer trip to new and strange places, where having a smartphone is now a taken-forgranted necessity. Those necessities, primarily navigation and information-seeking and gathering, became something to test during two weeks on my own in the United States, flying and driving from charming small town to rusty small town, from 4D Bible movie to a life-sized Ark standing tall above an ocean of parking lots.

I relied on printed-out directions and boarding passes, a compass, an atlas, and also on paying attention to my surroundings, to road signs and local radio. I know that sounds absurdly obvious, but think about how little you notice such features of moving through time and space these days because there's no need to, thanks to your phone. You could argue that my approach was less efficient than having everything right there in one place, but I am certain I spent less time checking and rechecking routes and arrival times and hotel names because paper can't recalculate or tempt you to tap on something else, and radio almost everywhere gives you traffic and news every 15 or 20 minutes. In the end, visiting Biblical museums and parks, and also a superb collection of Dante manuscripts at the University of Notre Dame (my next novel is set at a Dante theme park in small town Indiana), I drove from Toronto to Washington with my family, and then on my own flew from Washington to Cincinnati, and then drove hundreds of miles through Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky, before returning to Cincinnati and flying back to Toronto. Throughout, I had a sense of time, space and also agency that was fundamentally different than this same trip would have been an iPhone X ago. I soon overcame phantom checking my screen and eventually went hours without thinking about, and with, and through my phone.

Meanwhile, listening to dozens of local radio stations while driving for hours through the middle of America, instead of, for instance, streaming a podcast about life in the middle of America, gave me a sense of place and people - angry, fearful, seeking, God-loving and universally fans of each and every possible version of Lil Nas X's Old Town Road.

This made it feel alive and of-themoment because it was imperfect and not of my own, self-contained, algorithm-addled choosing. Stations would fade in and out going down the highway, and I'd only catch snippets of shows and have to figure out if the caller was upset about something President Donald Trump had done, or not done. I never became lost, and even if there were times when I was stuck in traffic that the navigation app Waze might have rescued me from, I didn't mind. Instead, I banged my steering wheel in solidarity with the news jockeys on Indianapolis talk radio, who were channelling the outrage of thousands about the roadwork starting on the I-465 on a Friday night in the middle of the Indiana State Fair. Likewise, while having dinner at a table near a Wounded Warriors reception in Lawrenceburg, Ind., and while passing by teenaged Korean Presbyterians taking selfies with a smiling greeter dressed up as a first-century Jerusalemite at the Museum of the Bible in Washington, and while lip-synching my way through a Creationism singa-long led by a country-western musician and professional dinosaur sculptor at Ark Encounter, I noticed and remembered things about the people around me - about them, not about me noticing them and communicating to others elsewhere about me noticing them and then waiting, staring down in my lap, to see what others thought of me and my noticing.

Of course, there's another way to look at my decision to give up my smartphone - that it's a luxury and privilege to be unconnected like this, one that's made possible by a secure and stable life in which I still benefit from all the many kinds of connection and efficiency made possible by the smartphones that the people around me continue to use.

Moreover, perhaps I have broken my smartphone dependency because I've never really had to depend on it, like workers in the gig economy, or people seeking connection, help, information and basic dignities and material improvements while living under repressive regimes or with failing infrastructures, never mind both.

Smartphones are vital for many in such circumstances, and that poses the right and hard limit to my dumbphone evangelism.

That said, I think for a lot of people, those who habitually, even self-defensively, talk about using their phones way too much but only like talking about it, phones are costing more and more, in time and money and relationships. If you can do it, choosing to be dumb might actually not be that stupid.

Associated Graphic

The Punkt MP02 is a small, sturdy phone with no camera, no apps - and no distractions.

ILLUSTRATION BY GRAHAM ROUMIEU


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BEHIND THE SCREENS: THE RISE, FALL AND COMPLICATED FUTURE OF THE DRIVE-IN THEATRE
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Business is booming for Canadian drive-ins - that is, the ones that can stay open. Changing attitudes about cars and entertainment, plus soaring property prices, all play a role in the unpredictable story of these alternative movie theatres
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By PETER NOWAK
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Friday, August 30, 2019 – Page D1

It's a sweaty Sunday evening in July and the lineup for the snack bar at the 5 Drive-In is interminable. Stretching out of the aging building into the dirt lot, underneath a neon sign that reads "diner," it snakes past a row of parked cars and groups of people lounging in camping chairs.

Tonight's movie, The Lion King, will be starting in 15 minutes. A collective grumble is brewing among the queued assemblage of mainly twenty- and thirtysomething couples on dates. No one wants to miss the show.

Nearby, across the lot and beyond the imposing 15-metre-tall screen, cars and pickup trucks in rows a dozen deep await their turns at the front gate. Their occupants, after paying admission, will join the irritated throng for popcorn and drinks.

Business here at the 5 in Oakville, an hour west of Toronto, looks to be brisk. The main lot is almost full, as are those for the other two screens showing the latest Spider-Man and Toy Story films. All told, nearly 1,000 cars packing several thousand people will be here tonight.

"Drive-ins are as popular as ever," says Brian Allen, president of Toronto-based Premier Theatres, which owns the 5 and four other Ontario drive-ins. "It's as strong in major markets as the indoor theatres."

The drive-ins that remain are indeed popular, but the catch is that there are fewer of them every year. Drive-in theatres - like the cars that are their lifeblood, once iconic symbols of freedom and easy living - used to dot North America. But now, like manual transmissions or films that don't feature superheroes, they're an increasingly rare breed.

The drive-in is thus at a crossroads. In an era of seemingly limitless entertainment options, skyrocketing property prices and overall declining interest in car ownership, their future has never looked more imperilled.

Yet, as the crowds - primarily young couples and families - at the 5 on this summer evening suggest, there may be life in these theatres yet. The drive-in is dead. Or is it long live the drive-in?

The drive-in concept as it is known today finds its roots in 1933 with Richard Hollingshead, a sales manager at the Whiz Automotive Products car-parts company in Camden, N.J. According to historians, Hollingshead was looking for a way to accommodate his mother, a larger woman who had trouble sitting in regular movie-theatre seats.

He began experimenting in his driveway with his car, a Kodak movie projector and two large sheets strung between some trees. He placed speakers behind the screen and came up with the idea of using ramps so that even cars in the back had a good view.

Hollingshead received a patent for his concept, then opened several drive-ins. His selling points were clear - here was a movie venue that offered more privacy, comfort and freedom than the typical indoor theatre. His slogan at the time was, "The whole family is welcome, regardless of how noisy the children are."

Attendees could insulate themselves from those crying kids or barking dogs and other disturbances simply by rolling up their windows once movie audio switched to broadcasts over cars' radios.

The idea took off in the late 1940s and early 50s, in lockstep with the rise of car culture and mass consumption. Families piled into their spacious Chevrolet Bel Air convertibles, Cadillac Eldorados and Studebaker Champions and flocked to outdoor movies. It was a time when Americans and Canadians wanted to do everything in their vehicles.

Drive-in restaurants, with roller-skating bellhops, also multiplied.

Between 4,000 and 5,000 drive-in theatres popped up around the United States by the late fifties, depending on the estimate, accounting for about a quarter of all movie screens. The first Canadian drive-in was the Skyway in Stoney Creek, Ont., in 1946, followed by another 1,500 across the country.

The decline, starting in the 1970s, came just as quickly. The advent of home video and multiplex indoor movie theatres are often cited as the main factors, but auto-related issues also played a role. Successive oil crises, brought about by developments in the Middle East, curtailed crude exports and drove up prices, leading to smaller cars and negative consumer sentiment.

"The idea of spending money on gas to travel to a drive-in" or sitting for hours in cars that were "smaller and not comfortable" also contributed to the drive-in's downfall, says April Wright, director of the 2013 documentary Going Attractions: The Definitive Story of the American Drive-in Movie.

With attendance declining, many drive-ins fell into disrepair, while others closed.

Disney also stopped making animated movies, which further eroded the appeal for families.

Many theatres shifted to adultoriented fare and became known as "passion pits," or places where watching a film was merely the secondary activity of choice for the young couples in attendance.

Today, about 320 drive-in theatres remain in the United States, while Canada has between 40 and 50, depending on the estimate.

The continuing decline isn't as precipitous as it was, but theatres are still closing routinely. Last year, Toronto's Docks Drive-In and Ciné-Parc Templeton in Gatineau were among the Canadian theatres to cease operations.

The film industry's shift to digital projection in recent years hit a number of drive-in owners with costs they couldn't afford, but the biggest issue continues to be rising property prices. Many proprietors don't own their land, which means they're unlikely to have their leases renewed when they expire. Landowners are instead opting for more lucrative redevelopments.

"If you would have asked me two or three years ago, I would have said we'd stabilized, but the numbers show we're having a decline," Wright says. "The ones that are going are going very strong.

They're not closing because they're not doing good business, it's usually some other reason."

A case in point is the Park Drive-In in Prince George, one of three remaining drive-ins operating in British Columbia. (The other two are the Starlight in Enderby and the Twilight in Aldergrove.) Nina Kiss and her husband, Jeff, recently told the CBC that they're looking to sell, despite the theatre attracting big crowds. If they can't find a buyer, the Park could close.

Despite the lineups and packed lots, theatres collectively register as tiny blips in the overall movie business. "Drive-in theatres are virtually a non-factor at this stage," says Aravinda Galappatthige, an analyst at Canaccord Genuity who covers Cineplex, Canada's dominant theatre chain. "It's had no financial relevance since I started covering [the media sector]."

And then, there's the well-documented fact that fewer people are getting drivers' licences. Statistics from the U.S. show a massive decline, with just 24 per cent of 16-year-olds having their licence in 2014, from 46 per cent in 1983. Similar drops in teen driving rates have been found in Canada and other industrialized countries.

Much has been made of the decline, with changing social norms, greater availability of alternative transportation options and the perceived death of car culture all cited as factors. Whichever the case, it isn't good news for drive-ins - they simply can't survive without drivers to drivein.

Dane Clatney, 51, and his partner Nadia Yee, 48, are avowed fans of drive-ins. The couple, who live in Toronto and work in sales and government affairs respectively, make a point of coming out to the 5 in Oakville at least once a year, if not more. They bring their kids Evan, 16, and Griffin, 12. This year, their new dog Piper is also in tow.

"We can sit out and chat a little bit. We can bring the dog, which is a big bonus," Yee says. "It's a retro feeling. It brings back memories of when I used to go with my family."

There's a social aspect to the drive-in that doesn't exist at indoor theatres, Clatney adds. Families socialize with each other and their car neighbours before the film starts. "It's almost like the movie is secondary," he says.

The business may indeed be showing signs of a rebound, at least for existing proprietors, thanks to new cycles in industry and demographic trends.

For one thing, Disney isn't just back to releasing family movies - the company is now almost solely in the business of making films, including giant superhero blockbusters, that lend themselves perfectly to the drive-in experience.

The average theatre has room for 1,000 cars, Wright says, meaning that proprietors generally have to draw around 2,000 people to fill the place, which is tough to do with smaller movies.

"Now, you have the films to pull those audiences," she says.

Almost as important, car sizes have also come back around.

With trucks and SUVs now accounting for about 70 per cent of North American car sales, the average vehicle is much bigger - and therefore more comfortable - than it was in the 1980s and 90s.

Counterintuitively, a handful of new drive-ins are popping up.

In Canada, The Boonies Drive-In in Tilbury, Ont., near Windsor, opened in 2015. Owner Richard Schiefer, an electrician by trade, saw the opportunity after the area's previous drive-in, Stevie Rae's, closed down. With no other drive-ins in the region, he estimates his market at half a million potential customers within 50 kilometres.

The Boonies has just one screen and can accommodate about 200 cars. On typical weekends, it's about half full, Schiefer says. But business has been growing every year and he's planning to turn his 13-acre lot into a multiuse facility with camping and paintball games.

Hope is also on the horizon in the form of the younger generation, who are discovering driveins thanks to an appreciation of retro culture aided by social media.

Millennials and their successors in Gen Z are experience-oriented, says Shana MacDonald, an assistant professor specializing in media at the University of Waterloo. They also have an extreme interest in the 1980s - a sense of nostalgia for the decade that actually encapsulates everything that came before it.

"Everything pre-eighties is the eighties to them," she says. "The eighties are really capturing their attention and even though driveins aren't the eighties, it's being collapsed into that."

Social media, meanwhile, is coupled with experiences - which of course must then be documented online. Drive-ins, with their giant screens, lines of cars and neon signs, provide plenty of visual fodder to be shared.

Chris Iannuzzi, 26, runs the La Dolce Vita gelato shop in nearby Oakville and frequents the 5 with his girlfriend and dog every few weeks. He's also a fan of oldschool video-game arcades and can testify to his generation's supposed appreciation of retro experiences.

"Younger people today want to try different things," he says.

Drive-ins and arcades are "an escape from this time era."

Iannuzzi says that going to the 5 has been a common activity among his circle since he was in high school. Although fewer of his friends had licences than they might have a generation ago, there was never a problem finding someone to drive. "It wasn't an issue for me," he says.

Allen, for his part, believes innovation can offset the decline, which is why Premier Theatres has partnered with Zipcar. Users of the primarily urban-based short-term rental service who take one of its cars to a Premier drive-in get a $25 driving credit, 15 per cent off concessions and free admission for kids.

This blend of new ideas mixed with old-time nostalgia is appealing to newer audiences, which is why Allen believes the future for drive-ins is brighter than it may seem.

"People still want to go out and have an experience. They're looking for things to do," he says. "It's more eccentric now, which is why I love it even more."

Associated Graphic

The 5 Drive-In in Oakville, about an hour west of Toronto, still draws plenty of customers - on one summer night, it might see almost 1,000 cars, packed with several thousand people.

PETER NOWAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Oakville's 5 is one of about 40 to 50 drive-in theatres left in Canada. PETER NOWAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The Skyway Drive-In Movie Theate in Stoney Creek, Ont., the first of its kind in Canada, opened in 1946. Drive-in theatres took off in the late 1940s and early 50s, in lockstep with the rise of car culture and mass consumption.

ERLAND LEE MUSEUM


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, September 6, 2019 – Page B16

EDWARD ROBERT ALBERT

"Eddie"

1921 - 2019

We regretfully announce that Eddie passed away peacefully on September 4th in the Salmon Arm Hospital at the age of 98.

He is survived by his loving wife Zoe; two stepsons Robert (Annie) of St Petersburg, Florida and Bruce (Carol) of Surrey, BC; 8 grandchildren Sean (Nicole) of Prince Rupert BC, Suzanne of Vancouver, BC, Roy, Mitchell of Rossland, BC, Jacqueline (Kyle) of Cumberland, BC, Danielle of Chilliwack, BC, Carrie (Doug) of Sardis, BC and Paige of Vancouver, BC; 12 great-grandchildren; and 1 great-great-grandchild. He is predeceased by his parents August and Amelia, brother Dan, two sisters Elsie and Sarah his daughter Barbara and two nephews David and Don Wolfe.

There will be no service by request.

Donations in Eddie's memory, if desired, can be made to Shriners Hospitals for Children (https:// http://www.shrinershospitalsforchildren.

org/shc).

Share memories and condolences online through Eddie's obituary at http://www.fischersfuneralservices.com

GEORGE LEONARD D'SILVA "Len"

August 19, 1925 August 31, 2019 It is with profound sadness that the family announces the passing of Len, Dad, Grandpa and Great Grandpa in his 95th year. Son of Henry D'Silva and Esther Sullivan.

Predeceased by his loving wife of 46 years, Maureen D'Silva (nee Wallis). Also predeceased by his older brothers Thomas, Albert and Harold. Len leaves behind a legacy of love, laughter, family, strength and perseverance to be carried on by his children Michael (Sherry), Susan (Brian) and Alan (Kim), his Grandchildren, Christopher, Shawna, David, Daniel, Jeremy, Aaron, Kaitlin and Emily and his Great Grandchildren Katelyn, Lucas, Avery, Carter and Zoey. Len was born and educated in Calcutta, India. He moved his family to England in 1961 in search of a better life. As a young executive, he then moved them again in 1967 to Canada where he worked at Manulife for over 25 years. He always believed that Canada was the best country in the world. His focus in his life was on his family for whom he created a great life. He supported his wife Maureen in her many illnesses.

He revelled in the accomplishments of his children and grandchildren and was always engaged in and supported their activities, accomplishments and aspirations. He faced many health setbacks in recent years and showed us what courage looked like. The service will be held at St.

Bonaventure Church (1300 Lesile Street, Toronto) on Monday, September 9, 2019 at 10:30 a.m. followed by reception. A private Interment to follow at the Mount Pleasant Cemetery. Donations in Len's memory can be made to the Sunnybrook Foundation. For more information please visit http://www.etouch.ca.

MARY GARDNER BEEMAN (née Whelen)

August 27, 1917 - September 2, 2019

Mary Beeman passed away peacefully, in Ottawa, after a long and fulfilling life. She was predeceased by her husband, Colonel (Ret'd) John Stanley "Jack" Beeman; her parents, Major (Ret'd) Otis Goodwin Whelen and Bessie Gardner; and her nephew, James Robert Lindsay. Mary will be missed by her sister, Anne Lindsay (Doug) of Red Deer; her nephews, Graham Lindsay (Terry) of Kingston and Michael Lindsay (Purnima) of Red Deer; her longtime friend, Mike Cano; and all the members of their families.

Born and raised in Ottawa, Mary was a graduate of Lisgar Collegiate Institute.

In 1939, she married Jack, then a Captain in the Royal Canadian Engineers.

Post-war, Mary always accompanied Jack as he continued his Army service in many different locations, including: Calgary, Edmonton, Whitehorse, Ottawa, New Delhi, and Saint John's. Upon their return to Ottawa and Jack's retirement from the armed forces they resided on Fairbanks Avenue and, later, on Queen Elizabeth Driveway.

In 2005, after Jack's passing, Mary moved into a retirement residence where she remained active and involved in the resident's community and the neighbourhood. She enjoyed walking, playing bridge, and cultivating flowers, maintaining a thriving collection of orchids. Mary was a thoroughly delightful lady, full of grace and determination. Her positive outlook and love for life were an inspiration to family and friends. She will be missed by all who knew her.

After a private funeral she will be interred beside Jack in Beechwood Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, donations in Mary's memory made to Hospice Care Ottawa or the CNIB Foundation would be most appreciated by her family.

VALERIE FLORENCE MACLAREN

It is with sadness that the family announces the passing of our beloved mother and grandmother, Valerie Florence MacLaren, 86 years, peacefully and surrounded by family, at the Wenleigh Nursing Home in Mississauga, Ontario on August 17, 2019.

Born in Montreal to Florence and Cannon George Trueman, Valerie grew up in the borough of Hampstead and attended high school at The Study in Westmount. Valerie met her future soulmate and husband, the late Glen MacLaren, on a blind date that would lead to 55 years of wonderful memories together.

Valerie spent 20 very meaningful years working at the Palliative Care Unit at the Royal Victoria Hospital.

Valerie spent hours sharing her wonderful gift of playing classical music on her baby grand piano.

Among her other passions were creating detailed acrylic paintings (many of her works adorn family households today) and she was a voracious reader of mystery novels. Valerie had the great fortune to travel the world with Glen while he worked with Air Canada for almost 30 years. In 1999, Valerie and Glen moved to Guelph, Ontario where they would spend many enjoyable years of retirement.

Valerie is survived by her two sons, Paul Edgar and his wife, Arianna (Venditti) of Oakville, Ontario and Guy Trueman and his wife, Nicole (Albert) of Ottawa, Ontario. "Mynee" loved spending time with her three grandsons, Noah, Connor, and Ricky. Valerie's bright smile and generous ways will be deeply missed by her family and friends.

Memorial donations may be made in Valerie's name to the Alzheimer Society of Canada, 1-800-616-8816, or at Alzheimer.ca.

STEVE NAIMARK

On Wednesday, September 4,2019 at his home. Beloved husband of Marlene. Loving father and father-in-law of Ryan and Karen, Corey and Merav, and Ainsly. Dear brother and brotherin-law of the late Corrine and Harry Glanz of Montreal. Devoted grandfather of Emilie, Ashton, Aidan, Samantha, and Charlee.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday, September 8, 2019 at 11:30 a.m. Interment Community Section of Pardes Chaim Cemetery. Shiva 424 Roehampton Avenue, Toronto.

Memorial donations may be made to the Diabetes Canada, 1-800-226- 8464.

DONALD JAMES JOSEPH STRUPAT

April 20, 1925 - August 31, 2 019 It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Don (Strupe) in his 95th year on Saturday, August 31, 2019 at the Sunnybrook Veterans Centre, Toronto, Ontario. Don was predeceased by his wife, Edith Louise (nee Thistle) Strupat, his mother, Rose Mary (nee Chittick) Strupat, his father, Ronald Julius Strupat, brothers, George, Ron and John, sisters, Helen (Caston) and Anna (Bruce). Don is survived by his spouse, Patricia Ann Spear. Don was a devoted uncle and great-uncle to many nieces and nephews who have been special to him. Don will be greatly missed by all of his family and his many close friends. He was loved and respected by everyone that he met.

Don encouraged everyone to strive to do their best, as he did all of his life.

Don will be fondly remembered for his intelligence, sense of humour, good nature, love of his family, generous and strong spirit, and for being a true gentleman. Don was born in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia where he spent his first two years with his family, up to his father's death. Don's mother Rose Mary (nee Chittick) moved the family to London, Ontario. Don attended the De La Salle Catholic Boys School while working at Labatt's and Central Aircraft, London, Ontario. He joined the navy at age 18 from 1943 to 1945. Don graduated from the University of Western Ontario in 1950 with a business degree. Don cherished all of his family and in particular his dear mother Rose who was the matriarch of the Strupat clan.

Don moved to Toronto after university and had a very distinguished career in the automobile industry. He was the past owner and President of Lawrence Park Motors in Toronto; the President of the Toronto Automobile Dealership Association for 1986 and 1987; and member of the Board of Directors; and was the past President of the Canadian International Automobile Show.

Don and his first wife founded the Edith and Donald Strupat Charitable Foundation. This foundation has provided financial support to various charitable organizations over many years.

An important part of Don's life was the 35 years of living as much of the year as possible at John's Island Club, Vero Beach, Florida. Don made many strong friendships in Florida, while enjoying the weather and variety of sports activities.

Don was a sports enthusiast all of his life. He was an honorary member of the Toronto Granite Club; member of the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club; Beacon Hall Golf Club; John's Island Golf Club, Vero Beach, Florida; and the loyal ancient Honourable Order of the Unicorn. At these clubs, Don shared his knowledge of sports by teaching others. He also developed strong friendships while demonstrating his ability and passion for all types of sports.

Special thank you to the LFSW 1st floor team at Sunnybrook Veterans Centre who have taken exceptional care of Don since he moved there on April 21, 2015. Thank you to Dr. Hung, the LFSE 1st floor team and the pastors who helped Don through the last two days of his life. Sunnybrook Veterans Centre provided Don with a safe, comfortable environment for four and one half years. The activities, entertainment, garden, and every team member provided Don with contentment.

Special thank you to Cecily Baker, who was Don's devoted caregiver during his time at the Veterans Centre. Cecily and Don had a special relationship and shared many laughs, walks and chats. Cecily ensured that Don was involved in the activities that Don loved, such as the sing-along groups and countless walks in the garden.

A Celebration of Don's Life will take place at 1:00 p.m. on Monday, September 30th at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville). Reception to follow. Interment at St. Peter's Cemetery, London, ON at a later date. In lieu of flowers, Don's wish is for donations to be made to the Alzheimer's Society of Ontario, 20 Eglinton Avenue west, 16th Floor, Toronto, ON M4R 1K8. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com We will miss his smile, laugh, wisdom, compassion, strength, will, and most of all his love.

We will cherish our memories in our hearts forever.

Happily together forever with his dear mother Rose, wife Edith, his brothers and sisters Love lasts forever

ZHENG WU (1960-2019)

Passed away on August 27, 2019 in Victoria, British Columbia after a short period of illness. He was Professor of Gerontology and Tier I Canada Research Chair in Aging and Health at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, British Columbia. He was Professor of Sociology at University of Victoria (1992-2018) and past Chair of the Sociology Department (2006-2011), and past President of Canadian Population Society (2008-2010).

Zheng's research interests reached across numerous demographic topics, with long-standing interest in family demography. His recent research program was concerned with trends and patterns of aging population in Canada, focusing on union formation and dissolution in later life, and physical and psychological wellbeing of older adults. His other research areas include immigration, social integration, and race and ethnicity. Zheng was an accomplished educator and scholar. Over his career, he published over 100 books, edited volumes, chapters in books and peer-reviewed journal articles.

Zheng is survived by his wife, Lanjing Li; brother, Jun; and sister, Fei. At his request, no funeral is to be held.


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The path to prosperity
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As head of the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business, JP Gladu's mission is to find corporate champions who won't just cheer on Indigenous businesses but hire them
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Friday, August 30, 2019 – Page P9

In the seven years since JP Gladu took charge at the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business, the country has collectively cracked an eyelid and become conscious of the needs and interests of its Indigenous peoples. For that, Gladu gives credit to the Trudeau government's stated commitment to Indigenous communities, to the work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), and even to the late Gord Downie, who used a few of his last spotlit moments to press Canadians to do more. But Gladu deserves credit of his own, for relentlessly making the case that more time and money should be spent on helping Indigenous communities carve their own path to prosperity through business. Of the TRC's 94 calls to action, he notes, the subject of business, jobs and economic development comes in at No. 92, after media, sports and museums.

The CCAB (1) promotes the cause through programs, events and research, while Gladu spends more time travelling than he does at home--he recently hit a million miles with Air Canada--engaging with business leaders, attending board meetings and searching for champions who will not just cheer Indigenous businesses but hire them.

We met at Pure Spirits in Toronto's Distillery District, where Gladu dines often because he has no time to stock his fridge.

I'm leaning to seafood.

I will never order walleye on a menu. I've never done it.

Why?

Because I catch it all the time.

Where do you do that?

My reserve is up in northern Ontario. I just got back last night.

I caught a bunch of pickerel. I've never bought it, ever.

It couldn't compare to what you've experienced.

I don't look like it, but I'm a prolific outdoors person. I can still go into the bush, harvest a moose, field-dress it, quarter it, pack it out, and cook it for myself and my friends. I've been dropped off by float planes in the northeast Rockies. My reserve is on Lake Nipigon, north of Thunder Bay. You can still drink the water out of the lake. Fishing is no problem, although there is some mercury buildup because of inundation from previous dam flooding. We talk about acts of reconciliation--Ontario Hydro dammed our reserve in the early 1900s, flooded our lands, some of our burial grounds.

And now I sit on the board of the company that did that. Ontario Hydro split into Hydro One and Ontario Power Generation, and I sit on OPG's board.

How often do you remind them of that?

I've only reminded them a couple of times. [Laughs] They know.

And I'm pleased to be on that board.

Was it your father who taught you how to hunt and dress a moose?

Yes, and moose call. I'm a good moose caller.

Can you do it here?

A bull sounds like this... [He cups his hands around his mouth and nose, and emits short, nasal grunts] And then the cow is... [The sound is higher pitched and drawn out] Wow. So what got you into business?

I'm actually a recovering entrepreneur. I've had a few businesses. When I was working for my First Nation for a few years, I was negotiating deals--forestry, wind, mining, hydro agreements with other communities--and I figured, I'm kind of earning an informal MBA, but I could be smarter, sharper. So I did the Queen's executive MBA, while I was working. Shortly after I got my MBA, I decided I'd had enough. First Nations politics are quite tough sometimes. And then this job came up.

How are First Nations politics tough?

A chief's job has got to be one of the toughest jobs. One day they are negotiating multimilliondollar deals, the next day they are dealing with community members who need home repairs.

Because of the way the Indian Act is structured, we can't own the land on reserve. If you don't own your own home, then you are reliant on the government, so if something breaks--That's why people on reserves can't get proper loans.

I earn a good living, and I can't get a loan from a bank without the support of my community backing me to own a home.

So, they will take on the risk of the mortgage. If I default on it, then the band has to cover it.

The Indian Act is incredibly debilitating.

Could the Indian Act be changed or--Disassembled? [Laughs] We've been talking about that as leaders for a very long time.

But some communities are still very dependent on the Indian Act. There's such a range of circumstance. Some First Nations are in total disrepair, others are building million-dollar malls.

Some communities are in the middle of the boreal forest with no mine or oil and gas activity, or too far north for forestry. How do you build an economy out of that?

There's only so much tourism that can go around.

It must be hard to come up with a strategy that covers all these different circumstances.

It's really difficult. Education and economy are two fundamentals that are going to elevate our communities. We need to be self-sustaining with our own economy. The challenge is that those who are lucky enough to get educated become doctors, engineers, lawyers, technicians.

But they want to earn a living. If there's no economy to draw them back home, it's very difficult. A lot of our communities are suffering because a lot of our talent exits reserves to the cities.

What's your main role in regards to Aboriginal business?

Are you promoting the cause or facilitating deals?

Both. We build a space for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal businesses to come together to create opportunity for both. Front and centre for us right now is our Procurement Champions work.

Mark Little, the CEO of Suncor, was my first co-chair. Mark and I called on corporations in Canada to do better when it comes to procurement from Aboriginal businesses. Suncor last year spent $700 million-plus on Aboriginal businesses.

An example would be what?

Bouchier--they are a roadconstruction civil engineering company in Alberta. (2) They started with $250,000 in the hole and one piece of equipment.

Last year, they did about $155 million. A staff of 900, and 37% are Indigenous. You look at the socioeconomic effect that has on a community. Like Fort McKay First Nation, their average salary is about $73,500. (3) You compare that to the $50,000 of the average Albertan. What do you think that community output is? Higher education. Their youth have great programs. They've got beautiful homes. Paved roads. A hockey rink that attracts partners.

All as a result of business success.

Does spending on Indigenous business have a greater impact on

a community than spending in a non-Indigenous community?

You've got to look at the starting point. Many of our communities have been managing poverty for 150 years. Economic reconciliation comes when our communities are managing wealth. In order to manage wealth, you've got to generate it. Communities that have been embracing economic development are proliferating.

You can see the impact that has on the community. The challenge is that the federal government could be doing way more to influence their supply chains. They spend less than 1%, some years only 0.3%, of their total spend (4) on Aboriginal businesses. So we are advocating for 5%--1% per year to get to 5%--which is commensurate with our population. That would increase their spend from an average of $65 million to $1 billion a year. (5) In your view, how has the Trudeau government handled Indigenous issues?

I'm generally positive. There has been a lot more investment in communities. They're taking a much broader approach to Indigenous relations. Often in the past it would just be, "That's Indian stuff; Indian Affairs will do that." Now we are engaging with six or seven departments.

It's an opportunity for us to actually build relationships, which is fundamental. If you don't understand each other, how the hell are you going to work together?

Are you one of those who doubts Trudeau's personal commitment to the issue?

No. I think he's really committed.

I know both sides get frustrated.

I've talked to a lot of Indigenous leaders, and many are frustrated with the speed of progress. But I've seen changes. You see the boil-water advisories coming down. You see the investment in education and health.

Were the caucus ejections of Jody Wilson-Raybould and Jane Philpott a setback for relations?

I think it was a setback for our country. And the Liberal party.

Have you talked to Trudeau about it?

You know what? I have not met the Prime Minister since he has been prime minister.

That seems significant.

I'm a little disappointed. A lot of the policy and funding is very reactionary. There are so many tough issues. Suicides, our young people, clean drinking water, a $30- to $40-billion deficit of infrastructure in our communities, education rates.

But we would get at those pressing issues more if we had empowerment in the Indigenous economy, and I wish we would spend more time talking about it.

So let's talk about the Trans Mountain Extension.

Is that an issue? [Chuckles] There are at least two Indigenous groups vying for an equity piece of TMX. (6) Do you have a philosophical preference for equity participation or revenue-sharing?

When you've got skin in the game, when you've got equity, you're forced to learn quickly and develop your business acumen.

Then you can transfer that skill set to all sorts of issues. It's great to have revenue. I'm not knocking communities that do it. But if the economic model makes sense for your community to do equity, philosophically that's what I believe in.

Do you ever encounter a community that doesn't want to embrace the modern economy?

Yeah. You know, for a long time treaty rights weren't recognized or respected. Now we win over 90% of the court decisions.

A good, long-term-thinking Indigenous leader, in my opinion, knows how hard to pull on that treaty lever. Sometimes when I'm sitting with Indigenous leaders, particularly ones with treaty rights, my advice to them is, once you get to the table, release the treaty lever and start pulling like hell on the business lever. I think we get into challenges when leaders keep pulling on the treaty lever until the economic model doesn't make sense and you can't do business because you're asking for too much. In negotiations, there is always a breaking point.

Some communities are very treaty focused, and I don't fault them. But playing both tracks is where the opportunity is for our communities.

Trevor Cole is the awardwinning author of five books, including The Whisky King, a non-fiction account of Canada's most infamous mobster bootlegger.

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The Forgotten
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As the federal election gets under way, we must drill down into the data to uncover the people and places being excluded from growth and opportunity in this country. A failure to do so will cost us all
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Saturday, September 14, 2019 – Page O1

Assistant professor at the University of Toronto's Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy and author of a recent paper by the Macdonald-Laurier Institute, Forgotten People and Forgotten Places: Canada's Economic Performance in the Age of Populism

I grew up in Thunder Bay in the 1980s and 1990s, so I was surrounded by evidence of the transition from an industrial economy to a knowledge-based one. Several grain elevators closed. Pulp and paper mills were also downsized or shuttered. The effects were felt throughout the community.

Signs of economic dislocation were all around me - it was impossible to avoid. Often they were quite personal. A neighbour's father lost his job. Or friends relocated to Toronto in search of work and opportunity.

Sometimes these experiences contributed to substance abuse or family breakdown or worse.

The stories were certainly familiar to me. I saw them up close.

And yet, as I got older and got involved in politics and policy, I too frequently forgot about them. My economic thinking - including about the role of markets, government and public policy - could fall victim to abstraction. I was swept up by rhetorical flourishes about economic liberty and too preoccupied with headline economic data. I could neglect the people I grew up with, whose struggles were concealed in the overall economic picture, which much of the time was quite bright.

Donald Trump's shocking election jolted me. It was a direct challenge by 63 million American voters to many of my intellectual and political priors. I've regularly said that this experience radicalized me. I really mean it. It has caused much greater introspection and intellectual humility about politics, economics and public policy. I've been thinking and writing about Mr. Trump's election, the economic causes of populism and the lessons for Canada ever since.

Readers will know that the President regularly talks about the "forgotten men and women."

They loomed large in his unorthodox inaugural speech in January, 2017, and he has kept it up in subsequent speeches and latenight tweets.

One can agree or disagree with the claim that Mr. Trump's agenda has advanced their interests.

The record is certainly mixed.

But it's hard to argue with his assertion that these people - namely, working-class people without postsecondary qualifications who tend to work in goodsproducing industries - had previously been neglected by the U.S.

political class.

Neither the left nor the right spent much time thinking about them.

The right was satisfied with a growing economy, rising stock market and other aggregate measures of economic performance.

That there may be people who weren't participating in these outcomes was basically ignored under the pretext of "a rising tide lifts all boats." The left had, by and large, moved beyond thinking about industrial employment and was more interested in the knowledge-based economy, which was ostensibly greener, more urban and involved with more highly educated, progressive workers. To the extent that the knowledge-based economy excluded working-class people, the invariable answer was more redistribution, including growing support to just "give people money."

Mr. Trump's election therefore hasn't just disrupted the political sphere. It has caused economists and other scholars to revisit their own assumptions and the various policy implications. We're living in a new age of heterodoxy.

And, as a reformed ideologue, I think it's a positive development.

There are a number of takeaways from this Trump-induced introspection. But one of the most important is that we cannot make judgments about the health of our labour markets simply by looking at the headline data. Otherwise we risk missing the people who felt so neglected that they voted to put such a flawed political actor in the White House.

These insights and experiences ought to inform and shape this fall's Canadian election - including the priorities of the various political parties. They should be a wake-up call for candidates and voters. We must put Canada's "forgotten people and places" closer to the centre of the political and policy agenda in the context of the current election campaign and beyond.

The first step, of course, is to understand who and what may be vulnerable to the forces of trade, technology and structural changes to our economy. Although Canada's overall labour market performance has been generally positive in the past two decades, the disaggregated picture is more complicated. There are various fault lines - including gender, education level and the urban-rural divide - that we must be more cognizant of in the development and implementation of public policy.

Most of Canada's recent labour market gains have been concentrated among women with postsecondary qualifications. Their relative gains have been stronger than those of men with postsecondary qualifications and have markedly exceeded the performance of non-educated men and women. Just consider, for instance, that 30 years ago women with postsecondary qualifications had a lower employment rate than men without postsecondary education and that now their employment rate is 10 percentage points higher than that of non-educated men.

This isn't to lament the strong labour market performance for educated women. It's self-evidently positive that women are participating more fully in Canada's economy. But it's to highlight the limits of judging the labour market based on an aggregate picture. It's the equivalent of observing that Wayne Gretzky (who had 2,857 career NHL points) and his brother Brent (who had four) are the highestscoring brothers in NHL history.

It misses a lot.

Delving into these data reveals some concerning economic trends for certain people and places in the country. Men without postsecondary qualifications, in particular, have experienced stagnant or even declining employment rates, labour force participation and market-based income. A similar yet less stark decline can also be seen for women without some form of postsecondary education. That people without postsecondary qualifications have been the primary supporters of political populism elsewhere ought to give pause to Canadian policy-makers.

The situation becomes even more acute if you take out a small number of major urban centres whose labour market performance has consistently exceeded the national average. It's striking, for instance, that rural employment is still below the pre-recession levels of 2008 and 2009 and yet it's up almost 15 per cent in our bigger centres. That's not a short-term blip. It's a sustained period of secular stagnation for our rural and remote communities - and a sign of an increasing place-based bifurcation that political parties cannot afford to neglect.

Another interesting finding relates to educational attainment in Canada. Policy-makers frequently boast about our world-leading rate of postsecondary qualifications. This is true. We do lead the OECD in this regard. But this misses two key points.

The first is that, notwithstanding our positive record, there are still 6.7 million working-age Canadians (25 to 64) without postsecondary qualifications, which is roughly the equivalent of the combined populations of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba.

It would be unacceptable for policy-makers to neglect three whole provinces, and it ought to be unacceptable to ignore these Canadians - especially in light of evidence that the contemporary economy is paying a higher and higher education premium and creating fewer and fewer opportunities for those without advanced education.

The second is that we also lead the OECD for having the largest urban-rural gap in postsecondary rates. So while people in cities are accumulating more human capital, we're witnessing a growing educational divide between our cities and towns that's contributing to broader economic and sociocultural differences that could ultimately exacerbate urban-rural tensions.

The key takeaway is that we cannot succumb to economic myopia. We need to go beyond the headline data to see who is being excluded from growth and opportunity. It's the only way to ultimately develop and advance an agenda for inclusive, broadbased growth in Canada.

With this in mind, what policies should the next duly elected federal government prioritize and pursue to make this broadbased growth happen?

The first is a rebalancing of public programming and support for those who pursue postsecondary studies and those who don't. We currently spend billions of dollars each year in the form of grants, loans, tax credits and subsidized tuition for the roughly 70 per cent who go to university and college - and virtually nothing for the 30 per cent who choose a different path. This is both patently unfair and shortsighted. The societal benefits of helping those without postsecondary qualifications establish strong attachments to the labour force are surely as large as supporting someone to obtain a marginal degree. Our public policy framework should therefore signal that we have as much collective interest in their success as those who choose to pursue postsecondary education.

The second is to affirm the importance of the natural resource sector. The industry has played a key role in sustaining employment and opportunity for people who are vulnerable in the modern economy. University of British Columbia economist Kevin Milligan has even attributed the strength of Canada's middle class to resource-based jobs. Yet these jobs are increasingly challenged by a combination of taxes, mandates and regulations in the name of environmental objectives, Indigenous reconciliation and other priorities. Harming the one part of the economy that has provided an outlet for "forgotten people and places" is bad economics and bad politics. Policy-making must therefore start with a clear recognition of the natural resource sector's role in economic inclusion and manage these trade-offs accordingly.

The third is the need to catalyze economic activity in distressed communities. Recent layoffs at the Bombardier facility in Thunder Bay have left the city with an economy disproportionately dependent on public-sector employment. There are dozens of places in the country facing similar circumstances. There is a role for public policy to help catalyze private investment and employment in these communities. The United States is currently experimenting with an Opportunity Zones model involving a combination of tax-based incentives to encourage private capital to flow to roughly 8,700 designated zones across the country.

It's too early to judge whether the initiative will be successful, but the policy has been designed with a careful eye to minimizing distortions and creating the conditions for sustainable, longterm investment. Canadian policy-makers should therefore consider adopting a similar model to spur capital investment in undercapitalized communities such as my hometown.

Most fundamentally, though, politicians and citizens must not lose sight of the people and places that aren't fully participating in our economy. It's a lesson I needed to be reminded of. I won't forget them again.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION: THE GLOBE AND MAIL. SOURCE IMAGE: ISTOCKPHOTO

In Thunder Bay, decommissioned grain elevators such as this one on the Kaministiquia River stand as monuments to lost prosperity. MELISSA TAIT/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Tuesday, September 17, 2019
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Marie-Claire Blais is the next Virginia Woolf
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The Québécoise author, whose works are awash with the world's greatest injustices, describes the creativity behind her ambitious, often experimental novels
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By JADE COLBERT
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Saturday, September 14, 2019 – Page R8

On an evening cool by Caribbean standards, I meet the 21st century's Virginia Woolf in a bar off a boisterous street on an island 160 kilometres from Cuba.

Marie-Claire Blais's recent writing has all of Woolf's stylistic innovation and moments of ecstatic clarity. Her first novel to use this new style, These Festive Nights, opens with a long epigraph from Woolf's The Waves, a novel in which six interior monologues together form a song to companionship in the face of death. Blais's novels, too, are songs of individuality and connection, presented in stream-ofconsciousness sentences fluid in their motion from mind to mind, with wavelike crests in rhythm.

The Waves is often described as one of Woolf's more experimental novels. In These Festive Nights, Blais showed her desire to take the experiment further.

One of Canada's most decorated authors in either official language, Blais, 79, might still be best known among English readers for her explosive first novel, La Belle Bête (Mad Shadows), which she published at the age of 20. Blame it on the Two Solitudes: In la francophonie, her 60-year publishing career has earned her the title of Quebec's greatest living writer. In the lineage of writing by LGBT authors in Canada, she is an elder. And her project of two decades, a 10-novel cycle titled Soifs ("thirsts"), is the most ambitious thing attempted by a literary writer recently.

This summer, Anansi published the English translation of the eighth book in the cycle, A Twilight Celebration. In subject matter, Blais's latest novels are awash in the world's great injustices from the Second World War to the present. The Holocaust and Hiroshima, the global north's military misadventures in the global south, white supremacy, AIDS, the climate crisis - Blais's work acknowledges this bleak reality, despite which her characters find joy and connection. It's her engagement with these issues that makes Blais's Woolfian stream of consciousness feel fresh and new and also Blais herself a writer of our time. Another comparison to be made: In creative output, Key West, Fla., gives London's Bloomsbury a run for its money.

I met with the Québécoise author there in March, Blais's longtime home and the inspiration for the island at the centre of her novels about hope and despair in the late 20th and early 21st century. It was the writers who drew her to the island in the first place.

"I became friends with the poet James Merrill and all the people around him. I came to the city to give a reading and I thought, 'This is so extraordinary.' Elizabeth Bishop was before I came, but still all the wonderful writers were here, like John Hersey and James Merrill." To give a sense of the milieu: Journalist Hersey, best known for his book about the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, was a founding member of the Writers Compound, on a side street from where Blais and I meet. Hersey's co-founders were Invisible Man author Ralph Ellison, poet and Divine Comedy translator John Ciardi, and the second poet-laureate of the United States, Richard Wilbur. Wallace Stevens, Tennessee Williams, Ernest Hemingway, Shel Silverstein and Judy Blume - this is just a sample of the writers who have made Key West home.

Blais describes herself arriving at the end of the 1970s, as being "a little bit like a baby: You're young enough to absorb so many things.

At the same time, all these people I loved so, they were older." As her friends began to disappear, she wanted to immortalize them in her books. "Sometimes you have to make two or three characters into one, but I always try to be faithful to the writer or the painter as I met them. I hope to show them as they are."

In addition to writers and painters, Blais's novels depict practitioners of more ephemeral arts, such as drag. Several of the Soifs novels she dedicates to "Sushi, a remarkable artist." Sushi, a.k.a.

Gary Marion, presides as house queen at 801 Bourbon Bar. "Usually I try to meet all the people I write about," Blais says. "It was important for me to speak about unique people who are really living at night and doing these marvellous things that disappear, come back, disappear, come back." Of her characters who perform at the Porte du Baiser Saloon, she says, "I tried to illustrate Sushi's life at night, but not alone, with all his friends. And their compassion, because some of them died young."

Initially, she thought the cycle would be a trilogy, "and then I got so involved," finding more elements to return to in book after book, the cast ballooning to hundreds of characters. Written over two decades, the novels cover an equally large time span: Children from the early books by the later ones are grown adults with children of their own. "I like that," she says, "because I like to describe the grammar of the time we live in."

We meet at Mangoes, a restaurant-bar on Duval Street, the heart of Key West's nightlife. On this evening, several blocks of the street have been pedestrianized, making patios all the better for people-watching. Midway through our conversation, an emergency vehicle crawls by. In the pause for the blaring sirens, we both laugh ruefully. Blais says, "It's always like that."

That sense on the street of conviviality mixed with sadness and pain running to emergency permeates Blais's novels. Asked if she began the Soifs cycle to capture a time and place, Blais replies, "recapturing this wonderful time, yes, the political freedom and the revolution. It was a kind of paradise and, at the same time, there was all this human tragedy."

An irrefutable fact of both the place the author writes from and her fictional island community is the mark left by AIDS. "It was everywhere, but here it was very concentrated," Blais remembers.

As the Washington Post reported in 1989, Monroe County - of which Key West (then a population of 27,000) is the seat - experienced a higher rate of reported AIDS cases than either San Francisco or New York. The southernmost point in the continental United States at the end of a long archipelago, Key West's isolation from mainland society long made it a place where people who didn't fit anywhere else - gays and lesbians included - belonged. Blais remembers many young Canadians who found community here, as well as how the epidemic ripped through the town "like a tornado": "They came from everywhere to have more sexual freedom. The sad thing is, because they were free, they died. It was so cruel. It was terrible to associate love and sex with dying, especially for very young people." She lost a lot of friends. Those who know both the town and her books will recognize the Key West AIDS Memorial in Blais's cemetery by the sea.

From this painful time, she also recalls joie de vivre and "a great community feeling," as people came together to open a hospice so their friends could receive the best care and not die alone.

Consider how many of the titles in this cycle juxtapose levity with darkness or menace: festive nights, thunder and light, a choir of destruction, birth in a maelstrom, a Predators' Ball.

"I think it was Sheila Fischman," the translator of the first book, "who found the title for These Festive Nights. My book in French was Soifs, which means 'thirsty for everything' - spiritual, physical. I think the title in English, These Festive Nights, is remarkable because there is the festivity, but there is sadness." MARIE-CLAIRE BLAIS'S SOIFS CYCLE IN ENGLISH THUS FAR Translated by Sheila Fischman: These Festive Nights (1997) Translated by Nigel Spencer: Thunder and Light (2001) Augustino and the Choir of Destruction (2007) Rebecca, Born in the Maelstrom (2009) Mai at the Predators' Ball (2012) Nothing for You Here, Young Man (2014) The Acacia Gardens (2016) A Twilight Celebration (2019) - All published by House of Anansi Press

And now another chiaroscuro title, A Twilight Celebration, in which Daniel, a writer, travels for a conference in a small Scottish town that fetes international writers in a forest at dusk.

With this book, "We are very much in the inner soul of the writer," Blais says. It is a novel haunted by absences. At the conference: Daniel's yearning for his estranged son, Augustino, also a writer; writer friends from the island now dead; writers missing from the celebrations, "disappeared" by their home countries. Meanwhile, Fleur, a young composer, travels to Rome where his symphony is to be performed, only to realize the conductor doesn't comprehend the experiences, including homelessness, at the symphony's core. Fleur misses those who kept him warm on the beach at night. Back on the island, the newest performer at the Saloon cabaret is Victoire ("Victory"), a trans woman expelled from the military and stripped of honours, welcomed warmly by the queens but understandably chagrined that her unemployment has lead her to work among female impersonators.

Whether you choose to start with the first or the latest book in the cycle matters less than that you jump in with both feet. Shortly before beginning These Festive Nights, Blais developed a distinctive style of long sentences lasting several pages, punctuated by commas.

There are no paragraph or chapter breaks. This style serves several purposes, the writer says. At a time when each of us is preoccupied by "twenty-thousand things," the sentences "give the feeling that we are running." Influenced by both Woolf and Faulkner, this stream of consciousness is "obsessive, the way we are. We go and come back, the movement of our thoughts." It can pose a challenge to get used to.

Some advice: If you concentrate too much on trying to break apart the sentence, you will only end up frustrating yourself. Instead, relax your mind and listen for the rhythms of the sentence. Let its waves and swells carry you along its surface. It is common in these novels for two characters to have a conversation, only for one to get lost in thoughts about a third and their interaction with a fourth. "I became more and more in the habit of this kind of inner song that goes from you and I to them. It gives a feeling of a complete humanity, that we know we are all alike because we are all living dramas." She adds, "It seems important to me in these books to go in the direction that we are all so collective."

Associated Graphic

Marie-Claire Blais, 79, is one of Canada's most decorated authors in either official language, and might still be best known among English readers for Mad Shadows, which she published at the age of 20.


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, August 30, 2019 – Page B14

ROGER STEPHEN GLANVILLE

Was born April 26, 1933 in London, England to Margaret Elizabeth Glanville (née Hitson) and Thomas Clifford Glanville. His early childhood was spent mostly abroad with his family, until he was sent to boarding school in England at age 13. In 1951 while at McGill University in Montreal, Canada, he met Dinah Miriam Freeborough. They were married on August 18, 1956, the start of a nearly 63-year marriage. In 1957, Roger graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering.

He spent his 40-year career in the petroleum industry focused on oil production operations around the world, though primarily in the United States. Roger and Dinah settled in North Tustin, California in 1981. Roger retired in 2000, and enjoyed his years of leisure working on home projects, visiting his children and grandchildren and travelling with Dinah. Late June 2018, a fall started a slow decline for Roger.

He died on Wednesday, July 31, 2019 with Dinah and his younger daughter, Wendy at his side. His funeral was held on August 7th in Santa Ana, California. He is out of pain and at peace now.

Roger is survived by his wife Dinah; his children Bruce (Kathryn) Glanville; Anne (Craig) Henry; and Wendy Glanville; and his grandchildren David (Surya), Ian, Alec, Meaghan, Connor and Bridget.

He also leaves his brother, Tony (Kathryn) Glanville, sisters Elizabeth (late John) Crosse and Alden (Samuel) Jackson; 9 nieces and nephews and 11 great-nieces & great-nephews.

He is also mourned by his in-laws Anne (late Dick) Price, Jill (Hugh) Berwick; Margaret (late Graham) Martin, Dick (Diane) Freeborough, 11 nieces and nephews plus 15 great-nieces & great-nephews.

Rog Baby, Sir - We will all miss you and your fun-loving approach to life! Rest in peace!

CORINNE MARYLYN HANSEN (nee Smith)

Peacefully passed away in her sleep on the morning of August 22, 2019. At 97 years old, she had led a long and fulfilling life.

Born and raised in Winnipeg, Corinne joined the navy in 1942.

Stationed in Prince Rupert, BC, she met her future husband, Ali H. Hansen. While the courting process continued, Corinne launched into a career in interior decorating. Even after retiring to have her family, Corinne's passion and innate sense of style kept her involved. Family and friends always sought Corinne's obvious flair with home interiors. It didn't hurt that Corinne never lacked for an opinion.

Ali and Corinne married after the war, moved to Niagara Falls and started their family. Once she had three children in four years the family moved to Port Dalhousie/ St. Catharines, where they built the house of their dreams.

Outgoing and gregarious, Corinne became involved in a local fund raising organization, The May Court Clubs of Canada, ultimately rising to head the organization.

Disciplined, tough, opinionated, Corinne was very capable of barking orders, which she did right to the end. On occasion, one of her opinions was expressed a little too harshly. Yet, the next second she could win over whomever felt the brunt of her comments with a smile and a flash of her charm. She left a wake, always entertaining whether planned or not. She was stoic, yet determined to have fun in life. She reveled in her extended family, particularly with the family Christmas trips. Bypassing western medicine as best she could her entire life, Corinne said many times, she didn't want to know what terrible diseases she might have had.

Ali Hansen passed away of a stroke in 2002 at 84. Suddenly, Corinne found herself alone, yet quickly created a new life. For years she was an avid tennis player and played hard until her 80's. Woe the opponent who underestimated her ability. Her boundless energy kept her active, whether seeing friends, hosting family vacations or playing a mean game of bridge. When it came to champagne, she had no equal. One year ago at 96, she was the life of the party, dancing to the "bitter end" at one of her grandson's wedding.

Corinne had but one wish at the end, to die in her own house in her own bed. At 97, thanks to some amazing caregivers and friends, her wish came true.

Her sister, Donna Plant, her three children, Jay Hansen, Eve Gordon and Lea Hansen, her eight grandchildren and her four greatgrandchildren live on.

IAN RANDALL KERR

"I am disembodied love. I am in the palace of the philosophers."

Ian left us on August 27, 2019, at age 54, dreaming of his sweetheart Erin and his most beloved daughter Ruby.

Ian was born and raised in Calgary, Alberta, where he learned yiddishkeit and the basic tenets of humanism with his two sisters and other young members of Calgary's Jewish Community at the I.L. Peretz School. He subsequently attended Milton Williams Junior High, followed by Henry Wisewood Senior High School. Ian would never approve of this dull litany of his scholarly pursuits, so, in his own words: "In the early-mid 1980s, Ian not only chose to have big hair, he came very close to making another big mistake. He almost became a dentist (not that there is anything wrong with that). Nearing the end of the 11th hour, he somehow realized that schlepping teeth was something his dad wanted for him, but not something he wanted for himself. In what must have felt like an epiphany to a twenty year old, he realized that every single elective he ever took during his science degree was in philosophy. Upon graduation, bathed in the uncertainty and existential angst typical of that stage of things, he made the bold (if not foolhardy) move of bailing on a career in the health sciences and enrolling instead in honours philosophy. His parents, while supportive, must have taken several deep breaths.

During Ian's studies in philosophy, he fell in love with the law and was eventually sweet-talked into going to law school while completing his doctorate in philosophy and teaching 800 students."

Fast forward a few years, and after teaching at the University of Western Ontario, Ian became a law professor at the University of Ottawa, and was appointed the Canada Research Chair in Ethics, Law and Technology. In his work, Ian was particularly interested in the ethical implications of technologies, with a focus on robotics, artificial intelligence, privacy, and surveillance. One of his proudest accomplishments was launching the first We Robot conference with three colleagues in 2012. The We Robot conference has since become the leading conference of its kind, resulting in ground-breaking scholarship and a generation of new scholars in the robotics law field. Ian had a four-way cross appointment to medicine, information studies, philosophy, and law. An extraordinary teacher, Ian had an uncanny knack for sensing potential in his students, and enabling them to flourish and become their best possible selves. Students regularly beat a path to his office door for some "Ian Kerr-agement".

Ian and Erin fell in love shortly after meeting in 2001, and spent the next 18 years travelling, laughing, and loving each other and their incredible daughter Ruby, who arrived on the scene in 2010. Ian's essence was kindness, love, humor, creativity, and scholarly excellence. He loved pizza, Nietzsche, Rush, 80s movies, red licorice nibs, and drumming. He was deeply loyal, and had no greater joy than his connections with each and every person of importance to him in his life.

Ian was the drummer with various bands through his life, including Sid Suntan and the Coppertones, initially formed by Ian and his friends in a (successful) attempt to win Battle of the Bands in Grade 12. During law school, Ian drummed for the band Jeremy Bentham's Head, which Ian described as, "indisputably the driving rock-n-roll force in the history of The University of Western Ontario, Faculty of Law".

Memories of Ian will be cherished by Erin and Ruby, his many dear friends, colleagues and former students, his grief-stricken family: his mother, Eta Kerr; his sister, Sheryl Kerr Loughlin and husband, Brian Loughlin, his mother- and father-in-law, Dale and Bruce Smith, his nephews, Jamie and Spencer Loughlin, as well as his many cousins, aunts, and uncles.

Ian received excellent care from his medical team, including the exceptional nurses and other care staff on 6E of the Ottawa General Hospital, and all of the physicians who consulted with respect to Ian. In addition, Ian's family gives special thanks to Ian's hematologist Dr. Andrew Aw and Ian's palliative care physician Dr. Camille Munro, both of whose thoughtfulness, benevolence and humanity helped Ian and his family through the very difficult final stages of Ian's illness.

Friends are invited to a Memorial Service at the Central Chapel of Hulse, Playfair and McGarry, 315 McLeod Street, (at O'Connor) Ottawa, on Monday, September 2, 2019 at 12:30 p.m., with a reception to follow.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society of Canada, or Lymphoma Canada.

Ian was spectacular, luminous, brilliant, joyful; in short, an incredible person who made the most of the very short time he had on this earth.

See you in the palace of the philosophers Ian.

Condolences / Tributes / Donations Hulse, Playfair & McGarry http://www.hpmcgarry.ca 613-233-1143

KATHERINE "KAY" SHARP (nee Oster)

Katherine "Kay" Sharp passed away on Tuesday, August 27, 2019 at the age of 95. Her death marks the end of a familial generation, as she was the last surviving sibling of 11 children born to her Russian/German immigrant parents, Christian Oster and Elizabeth Sieben. Left to mourn her remarkable 95 years are her daughters, Janice (Jim Hall) and Karen Sharp (Everett Waite); her sons, Terry and Wayne Sharp (Laura Lewis); and four grandchildren, Tammy Fielding (Dave Wieder), Wesley Fielding (Bridget Mooney), Rachel Sharp and Robert Sharp.

Raised on a Saskatchewan homestead in St. Walburg, Kay's early life was filled with stories of herself and her siblings riding their farm horse bareback to a one room schoolhouse. Her life has been an example to all those who loved her, of an unfailing commitment to family, a notable fortitude and resilience, and the power of positivity and laughter. Her light and laughter will continue in all those whose lives she touched.

Cremation will take place on Friday, August 30, 2019, with a private family interment at Meadowvale Cemetery following at a later date.

Donations to the Heart and Stroke Foundation would be appreciated by the family.


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Lease guarantor finds a rental niche
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Company says it offers a way to avoid security deposits, provide assistance if tenants cause damages
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Friday, August 30, 2019 – Page H9

VANCOUVER -- People in search of a home but priced out of the market and unable to buy sometimes find different, but no less daunting, barriers to renting.

Now, a company is introducing a "lease guarantee" product that offers tenants a way to avoid the upfront cost of a security deposit and landlords protection against delinquent tenants.

The idea of a rental guarantee, or lease guarantee, is established in parts of Europe, but in Canada, it's a new idea - the success of which depends on how well it is embraced by property managers and landlords. Representatives for landlord and tenants groups in Vancouver say they are wary of the idea, citing concerns that it may place more burden on tenants. B.C., which has an estimated 1.5 million renters, has some of the lowest vacancy rates in Canada.

A lease guarantee is when a company provides assurance to a landlord up to a certain amount, covering them against rental loss or damages caused by a tenant.

In B.C., it either replaces a security deposit of half a month's rent, or it supplements it. The landlord doesn't pay anything and the tenant pays a fixed 8 per cent of the guarantee amount each year. For example, if the landlord wants a guarantee of $1,000 on the unit, the tenant would pay $80 a year to the guarantor company, Locnest. The tenant would not pay a security deposit. And once the tenant moves out, they wouldn't be refunded anything.

The company bills itself as a financial service, "with a mission to improve housing." As long as nothing goes wrong, the business model works. However, if the tenant does damage or leaves without paying rent, the guarantor would be on the hook for recovering the money.

"Obviously, that's not what we are hoping for," says Joe Munster, executive director of the new Vancouver branch of Locnest.

The Canadian company started in Ontario and Quebec last year, where it's had some success because landlords are not allowed to collect security deposits in those provinces. It's moved into Alberta and more recently, into B.C., where security deposits are often not enough coverage in case of damage to a property. As well, the vacancy rate in Vancouver is near zero, which means there's more competition. Locnest says that the assurance it provides landlords could give a preapproved tenant an advantage.

The company has been advertising on SkyTrain, trying to appeal to their millennial target market, including newcomers to the region who might not yet have established a credit rating.

"This is definitely a behavioural change where the mass public will have to get on board. If you look at the origin of company, in terms of Switzerland, the guarantor model has a market share of roughly 30 per cent and there are several organizations operating with this type of model. So we are new and committed and we have grown across four provinces and tripled our growth in the last two years. But we understand it will take a lot of volume, because the profit per lease guarantee is a small fee."

He says the rate of delinquency, when a tenant leaves owing money, is around 7 per cent to 7.5 per cent in Canada, but his company does enough due diligence to minimize that rate further. When a tenant applies and goes through preapproval, they have to prove income and undergo credit checks. But in markets where housing is difficult to find, he says that tenants are more likely to want good referrals and rarely incur damages or skip rent. And landlords are saved the administrative work of handling security deposits. However, in the event of a claim, the landlord would still have to go to arbitration in order to get paid out.

"We can protect up to $5,000, so that amount far exceeds the traditional damage deposit in B.C.," Mr. Munster says.

Donald Mackenzie, who coowns a property-management company, says the idea appeals to him, but more as a supplement to a security deposit and not in lieu of one. For example, in B.C., a landlord can request another half a month's rent as a security deposit specifically for a pet, and in lieu of that, he might accept a guarantee instead. For new units, where the damage deposit is only $900, for example, he could see supplementary coverage being appealing to homeowners.

He had never heard of a business model such as this one before and he's been talking to Locnest for the past couple of weeks.

"Instead of having a cash deposit as security, I would have a kind of promissory note from this company that they will pay if the tenant defaults. Well, who are you and will you be here tomorrow? If they can satisfy all those things for me, I will recommend them to homeowners," Mr.Mackenzie says. "But you don't want a problem in five years down the road. As long as they are in existence - which I have no reason to think they won't be - in a way they are helping people in a cash flow situation with their security deposit."

For the property owner, the model is appealing because security deposits only offer small comfort in the event of major damage caused by a tenant, he says. The downside for the tenant, however, is that after many years of being a responsible tenant and paying an annual fee, they don't recover any of that money when they leave. They are out of pocket, Mr. Mackenzie says. He equates this instant cash flow seeking behaviour to the use of payday lending.

"You are paying $80 or $100 a year because you don't have the cash flow for a security deposit and in 10 years time, you've paid the equivalent of the security deposit - and you have nothing to show for it when you move out.

You go to get the next place to rent and you still don't have security deposit saved up," he says.

"So it does have the same cash flow addiction for people in the low end of cash flow. I think it's like a payday loan."

Mr. Munster doesn't agree with the comparison to payday loans and says they have a different demographic. It's giving tenants a chance to use their cash for other expenses other than a security deposit.

"It allows the tenant to free up the money when moving into a home ... it gives you more breathing room and of course we work on your behalf to help you get into that place to provide that confidence and assurance you need sometimes in today's rental market, with a super low vacancy."

Steve St. Jean is a 36-year-old Calgary renter who appeared in a video for the company. He says he doesn't work for the company or receive money from them and he isn't sure how their business model works. But after his partner died and he went bankrupt, he didn't have the $1,150 he needed for a security deposit (one month's rent) on a onebedroom apartment. So, with his credit card, he paid a fraction of that for a lease guarantee and used his money to grow his business. He says he also needed renter's insurance to qualify.

"I've never seen anything like this, it's bizarre," Mr. St. Jean said. "They are basically securing me, saying if I mess up, they come after me, if I break my lease and leave it a mess ... which I won't."

Mr. St. Jean says at the end of his lease he has the option of signing a new one and paying the landlord the conventional security deposit, or asking Locnest to guarantee his lease again.

He says he's happy to apply for another lease guarantee.

"I am still confused by their business. How do they make money? They say it's a numbers game. If you have like 10,000 people giving you $100 that's $100,000, so it's a way for a company to profit. When I sent in my application it was really solid. I sent in my bank statements, my contracts, my very last piece of ID and proof of myself as a lawabiding citizen to be approved, so I lucked out because my paper trail was really good.

"I would say it's a game changer in the industry because it's the only company in Canada that's offering people a way to get into an apartment at such an extremely low cost. ... I'm super excited as a customer that I was able to get this opportunity, but I still have questions as well."

The Vancouver Tenants Union Steering Committee responded by e-mail: "The last thing tenants need is another expense and another company collecting their social insurance number and sharing their personal information. While security deposits are refundable, the yearly fees paid to Locnest are not and over the course of a tenancy these fees would add up substantially."

The group, which advocates for renters, said that it's in favour of removing security deposits entirely, similar to Quebec and Ontario.

LandlordBC chief executive officer David Hutniak said he'd heard about the company's arrival, and in principle, he is "not warm to the idea." Landlords can mitigate risk through proper tenant screening, he said. As well, his organization felt that a recommendation put forward last year by the province's Rental Housing Task Force to improve private-sector insurance services for landlords, had merit. According to the report, some landlords asked for the province to support efforts to bring in rent guarantee insurance, which exists in Ontario and Britain. Such insurance would cover costs not covered by security deposits. The landlord would likely incur the cost of the premiums.

"In today's challenging environment with persistently low vacancy rates, we're more focused on advocating for the continued investment in our existing rental stock and the building of badly needed new secure purpose-built rental housing, versus programs that seek to increase housing costs for renters," Mr.

Hutniak said.

Associated Graphic

Steve St. Jean, a tenant who used Locnest in Calgary because he couldn't afford his security deposit, says getting a lease guarantee helped him get a place to live after his partner died and he went bankrupt.

LOCNEST


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Laying claim
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There is no question that many Canadians have a small amount of Indigenous ancestry, but that does not justify race shifting, or the weaponization of Métis identity for the control of and access to land and resources
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By JEAN TEILLET
  
  

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Saturday, September 14, 2019 – Page O3

Great-grandniece of Louis Riel and an Indigenous rights lawyer.

She is the author of Métis Law in Canada and The North-West is Our Mother: The Story of Louis Riel's People, the Métis Nation.

N aming is important. Every group that takes any kind of collective action gives itself a name. A hockey team names itself, as does a political party. So, too, did Indigenous peoples. Originally calling themselves the Bois-Brûlés, Louis Riel's people chose Métis, a French word that means mixed, as the name of their nation and have used it since the 1830s. It refers to their unique culture in the Canadian North-West, with their own language, laws, history and traditions. Their stories are woven into Canadian history - stories that tell us their origins, how they lived and how they saw and continue to see themselves as a distinct Indigenous people.

Everyone - from historians to the courts to the federal and provincial governments - recognize the Métis Nation as one of the Indigenous peoples of Canada.

But if you are confused about Métis identity, it is hardly surprising. The federal government has no policy to deal with recent claims of Métis identity by individuals who are seeking to gain certain advantages, such as admission to law school or hunting and fishing privileges. This has created a powerful vacuum that leaves universities, charities, governments, First Nations and the Métis Nation vulnerable to dubious claims. The Supreme Court of Canada waded into the definition of Métis in the case of Daniels v. Canada in a manner that has made the confusion exponentially worse in the three years since the verdict was delivered. To make matters more complicated, the rise in popularity of genealogy and accessibility to DNA testing has led more people to claim Métis identity. It's a mess, quite frankly, and one that is growing.

The French have always used the word métis to describe people with mixed Indigenous-Canadian ancestry. The English generally called them half-breeds, which is an odious word for many reasons. We breed animals, not people. To call someone a half-breed is to call them a halfanimal, and it takes little imagination to know which half is meant to be the animal. Using the term half-breed also denies any collective culture or identity.

Eventually, this led English speakers to adopt the word Métis and apply it to all individuals with mixed ancestry. As changes to the Indian Act resulted in numerous First Nations losing their status, some of them began to call themselves Métis as well. The word became a catch-all.

After the inclusion of the Métis in the Constitution Act in 1982 as one of the "aboriginal Peoples of Canada," more individuals and groups began to identify as Métis.

In Newfoundland, for instance, a group of Inuit mixed-race people named themselves the Labrador Métis Nation (they were quite frank in stating that they chose Métis because the Inuit rejected them). In 2010 they renamed themselves NunatuKavut. Métis was never their desired Indigenous identity and was abandoned for an Inuit identity. At least this group is Indigenous.

Since 2003, tens of thousands of individuals who previously identified as "white" are now identifying as Métis. This new indigenization movement is surfacing mostly in Quebec and Eastern Canada. These individuals now claim Métis identity because they have done a genealogy and discovered an ever-sogreat Indigenous grandmother or other distant female relation.

According to Darryl Leroux, a professor at Saint Mary's University and author of the new book Distorted Descent: White Claims to Indigenous Identity, in one court case in Quebec, 75 per cent of the group claimed one Indigenous ancestor from the 1600s as their sole reason for claiming to be Métis. Twenty-five per cent relied on a non-Indigenous ancestor who was repurposed as Indigenous to support their case. It does not seem to matter to these recent converts that some 300 years and 20 generations have passed with none of their ancestors claiming Indigenous identity.

There is no question that many Canadians have a small amount of Indigenous ancestry.

But that does not justify race shifting. It does not make you Mi'kmaq today. It does not make you Métis. Indigenous identity requires a connection to a historic and contemporary community, because Indigenous identity is a living collective identity. You may be estranged from that collective today, but you must point to some Indigenous community that you or your ancestors were part of at some time in the nottoo-distant past. If you are only referring to a long-ago ancestor and now claiming to be Métis, there must be more. Where are the stories of your people? What did the collective name itself 300 years ago? What is their origin story? When and how did they act as a collective to advance or protect their interests? For that matter, what were their interests? All societies have some form of governance. How did their governance work? Give us specific names and dates and geography. To date, these people now claiming Métis identity have no answers to any of these questions. There is only the perpetual reference to that ever-so-great Indigenous grandmother and a claim to have hidden for more than 300 years.

As Adam Gaudry, a professor in the Faculty of Native Studies at the University of Alberta, has pointed out, these individuals are communing only with the dead, not the living. They are repurposing the identities of a long-dead ancestor. Some are even asserting that the Acadians were Métis. The Acadian story is a fascinating part of Canada's history, but the Acadians made no assertion of Indigenous identity.

One cannot go back in time and shift the race of groups or individuals who made no claims to be Indigenous in their own time.

This race shifting is not an idle or harmless hobby. It weaponizes Indigenous identity for a very specific purpose: control of and access to land and resources.

Prof. Leroux points out that in Quebec, one of these groups formed specifically to stop the Mi'kmaq from managing territory and another formed to stop Innu harvesting rights. The idea was simple: If you can't stop the government from giving the land and resources back to Indigenous people, find an Indigenous ancestor in your own genealogy. Become Métis and claim the same rights to lands and resources as First Nations.

Most of these groups (now numbering more than 30 in Quebec and Nova Scotia) formed in response to the opportunity they saw created in 2003, when the Supreme Court, in a case called R.

v. Powley, determined that Métis communities could possess hunting rights. Full disclosure: I was the lawyer for the Powleys.

At the time, it was a helpful determination for the Métis Nation.

But it opened a can of worms in Eastern Canada. Powley was not a case that was solely reliant on genealogy. Several experts agreed that there was a historical Métis community in Sault Ste.

Marie.

The Eastern claims are very different. Since 2003, there have been more than 50 court cases in which individuals in Quebec and the Maritimes have claimed Métis hunting and fishing rights.

The courts have rejected all of these claims. Judges have noted their "remarkable creativity" and have consistently held that claims to Métis rights require more than a genealogical claim and recent opportunistic selfidentification. One judge in Quebec famously stated that "it would be easier to nail Jell-O to a wall" than find substance in these "remarkably vague" Métis claims. But still they keep coming, and such is our age of political correctness that one is not permitted to critique these claims because self-identification has become an unassailable individual right.

The Supreme Court, in the Daniels case, made it worse in 2016.

The court held that all Indigenous people are within federal jurisdiction, including individuals with mixed Indigenous ancestry who self-identify as Métis separately from the Métis Nation.

The court deliberately disconnected Métis individuals from any requirement for community acceptance. In the court's judgment, self-identification and genealogy are the central requirements to be Métis. Daniels provided the necessary legal cover that has since legitimized the race shifters who began to arise after Powley.

So what is it like to be Métis today? If you are a citizen of the Métis Nation of the Canadian Northwest, very positive gains have been made as a direct result of the current government's decision to change Ottawa's relationship with Indigenous people, including the Métis Nation. Just this week, Minister of Veterans Affairs Lawrence MacAuley apologized on the government's behalf to Métis veterans of the Second World War and announced $30-million in compensation.

Core funding for Métis Nation governing institutions has been implemented, and land and resource negotiations have begun.

Self-government process agreements have been completed with most of the governing members of the Métis Nation. These agreements will facilitate a better standard of living for all Métis Nation citizens. They are new beginnings and signal the end of 200 years of denial and neglect. They are excellent work that needs to continue.

If you have just done a genealogy and found an Indigenous ancestor from the 1600s, or a DNA test that confirms an infinitesimal percentage of Indigenous ancestry, life might also look pretty good. Your daughter can get one of those coveted spots in law school that are reserved for Indigenous people. You might get special fishing privileges from the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. You might be able to stop a First Nation land settlement. You might get a job with the government or a company anxious to hire Indigenous people. All these things are happening right now - and there is no sign that this race shifting will stop.

Associated Graphic

Jean Teillet, great-grandniece of Louis Riel, speaks on Nov. 16, 1994, at a ceremony in Regina marking the 109th anniversary of Riel's execution. Behind her is a monument erected in 1935 to honour the soldiers from Ontario who fought against Riel in 1885.

RUDY PLATIEL/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Correction

A photo caption for a Saturday Opinion article on Louis Riel and Indigenous rights incorrectly placed a ceremony in 1994 in Regina, when it was in fact in Toronto.


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Election battle lines intersect in Trois-Rivières
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By LES PERREAUX, DANIEL LEBLANC
  
  

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Thursday, September 12, 2019 – Page A1

TROIS-RIVIÈRES PRÉVOST, QUE. -- The epicentre of Quebec's shifting political forces that will help decide the 2019 federal election is in Trois-Rivières, an oft-forgotten, slowgrowing regional hub halfway between Quebec City and Montreal.

For the next six weeks and until the Oct. 21 vote, the city where Conservative Leader Andrew Scheer launched his campaign Wednesday will not lack for political attention.

Trois-Rivières is one of 14 seats currently held by the NDP where Conservatives, Liberals and the Bloc Québécois are trying to take advantage of New Democrat decline.

Montreal may be a Liberal stronghold and Conservatives enjoy a base in Quebec City, but in the vast vote basin stretching outward from the Montreal suburbs and eastward along the St.

Lawrence River valley through Trois-Rivières, two dozen ridings are up for grabs.

Trois-Rivières and other regional hubs such as Drummondville and Saint-Hyacinthe will be regular campaign stops and play a key role in deciding Canada's next government.

A city founded 400 years ago and forged on iron foundries and pulp and paper, Trois-Rivières spent the 1980s and 90s in steep industrial decline before recent mild recovery driven mainly by government investment and service industries.

Federally, the riding has spent a lot of time in opposition, backing Bloc or NDP MPs since 1993, when a Conservative government member held it.

In the 2015 election, each of the Bloc, Liberal, Conservative and NDP candidates received at least 10,000 votes in Trois-Rivières.

New Democrat Robert Aubin was re-elected with 19,193 votes, 1,000 more than a Liberal challenger.

Once decrepit with empty shops and crumbling pavement, the city now has a revitalized waterfront where cruise ships stop and a modern stone town square where decorative fountains spray along while passersby tinkle on a piano. Potential voters who mill about the square and the city, which is 96-per-cent francophone and 3.2-per-cent immigrant, have made no final decisions.

"It's pretty mixed up around here, personally I find it very complicated, not a simple decision at all," said Claude Lamy, a 61-yearold retiree who worked in the pulp and paper industry. Mr. Lamy said his NDP MP has done a good job, but he's leaning toward the Liberals and Leader Justin Trudeau, saying he hasn't done anything "catastrophically wrong" as Prime Minister while the other leaders are unknowns.

He remains open to a change of heart.

For the governing Liberals, which have 40 of 78 seats in Quebec, boosting their MP count is seen as essential to offset potential losses outside the province.

For the Conservatives, which currently have 11 seats in the province, the goal is to at least double that score.

Some of the country's most fickle voters will decide the outcome. In 2011, they abandoned the Bloc in droves and formed the Orange Wave, swinging massively to Jack Layton's NDP. In 2015, just four years later, after Mr. Layton's death from cancer, Quebeckers rallied behind Mr. Trudeau and the Liberal Party.

Many of these voters are again wondering if it is time for a change.

The Conservatives and Liberals have invested considerable resources in Quebec and have found dynamic candidates. But many voters are disappointed by Mr. Trudeau's four years in power, and unconvinced of Mr. Scheer's ability to do better. Many voters say they simply don't know him.

Interviews with voters show how both leaders are weighing down their parties.

The first thing on Gilles Rousseau's mind when he met Conservative candidate and former Olympian Sylvie Fréchette at a hamburger joint in the Laurentians, was attacking Mr. Scheer's intention to allow backbench MPs to introduce anti-abortion legislation.

But Mr. Rousseau, who voted Liberal in the last election, is unimpressed by Mr. Trudeau's disastrous trip to India last year, during which he and his family members wore local garb at a number of stops. "The image that he projected over the last four years is that of a clown who likes to dress up," the retired municipal worker said.

Neither he nor his wife, Nicole Fortin, are tempted by the Bloc.

They are typical Quebec voters who, polls say, are more likely than other Canadians to decide where to mark their X at the voting station.

"We still have to listen to what the leaders have to say," Ms. Fortin said. "Maybe a bit of change wouldn't hurt."

NDP Leader Jagmeet Singh's turban remains his defining feature in a province where secularism and religious symbols have been a dominant issue.

"They don't know Jagmeet, and they latch on to the one thing they know about him," said Mr.

Aubin, the NDP MP who is again running in Trois-Rivières.

"When it's demystified, there's a door that opens. ... Yes, it's an extra challenge in Quebec, but it's not insurmountable."

For Mr. Trudeau, his trip to India sticks with many voters.

"The image he projected when he put on his disguises in India certainly tarnished the credibility he should have as the person who occupies the function of prime minister," said Patricia Cossette, a health-care manager in TroisRivières.

Still, she hasn't ruled out voting for him. "He's incredibly accessible and open to people.

We've had others who were more distant and imposing. His human side is definitely his strength." Pollster and political analyst Jean-Marc Léger said the NDP support has collapsed in Quebec, which opens up three-way races between the Liberals, Conservatives and the Bloc to win the 14 NDP seats.

"It's like three armies are advancing, and the question is which one of them will invade the other's territory," he said. "Among francophone voters, it's nearly a tie between the three parties. ... It's hard to predict what will happen because a lot of the seats will be won with one-third of the vote."

Initial Conservatives gains in Quebec would likely come near Quebec City, where they could add two Liberal seats to the five they hold. Liberal and NDP seats in the Saguenay/Lac-Saint-Jean region to the north are also targets.

The Conservatives have adopted a nationalist message, saying they are willing to work with Quebec to hand over more immigration powers and allow the provincial revenue agency to collect federal income tax in Quebec.

The Conservative strategy also hinges on attracting strong local candidates. In Trois-Rivières, former mayor Yves Lévesque is running. North of Montreal, they have attracted the candidacy of Ms. Fréchette, who many Quebeckers remember for winning Olympic gold and silver medals in synchronized swimming in the 1990s.

Ms. Fréchette is representative of the voters the Conservatives seek: She voted for Mr. Trudeau in 2015, but became disillusioned over deficit spending and a sense he wasn't serious enough.

Ms. Fréchette knows her success in the riding of Rivière-duNord, north of Montreal in the Laurentian Mountains, will depend on name recognition. "People will vote for the Bloc or for Sylvie Fréchette," she said.

Still, she hopes to help Mr.Scheer break out of his shell and find a way to tell Quebeckers his values align with theirs. "If I could give myself one mission, it would be to humanize him," she said.

The Liberals hope to sweep the island of Montreal, which entails taking three NDP ridings and one from the Bloc in the eastern part of the city.

The Montreal strategy rests on Mr. Trudeau, who is popular in his hometown, but also Steven Guilbeault, a noted environmentalist who will argue Liberal climate change efforts are effective.

Liberal MPs have travelled the province in recent weeks with funding announcements. The Liberals are raising fears of massive cutbacks if the Conservatives form government, contrasting with Liberal deficit spending on infrastructure.

"We are in an expansionist mode, we are not simply trying to defend our positions," said cabinet minister Pablo Rodriguez, who is seeking re-election in Montreal.

The Bloc, with 10 seats, remains a wild card that could take advantage if the Liberals flag or if the Conservatives fail to break through. After years of infighting, the party has stabilized under Yves-François Blanchet, a former Parti Québécois cabinet minister and television analyst. It is running under the slogan "Le Québec, c'est nous" (We are Quebec) and a platform railing against Canada's dependence on non-renewable energy.

"The Bloc can create a surprise," said Alexis Brunelle-Duceppe, the son of former Bloc leader Gilles Duceppe and the party's candidate in Lac-SaintJean. "A lot of people are telling us they are willing to come back to the Bloc."

At an oldies concert on the lawn of a retirement home on the residential outskirts of Trois-Rivières, the Liberal candidate Valérie Renaud-Martin, a charismatic 37-year-old city councillor, recently shook hands and chatted with retirees in lawn chairs. Ms.Renaud-Martin said complaints about the SNC-Lavalin affair or the India trip are not what she usually hears.

"Honestly, what I hear about most is cannabis," she said, adding that many people in Trois-Rivières still worry about runaway use among young people. "People still haven't completely gotten used to [legalization]."

A range of political views were in the concert crowd. One woman was annoyed about Mr. Trudeau's liberal immigration rhetoric and the ever-present trip to India. A man had questions about Mr.Singh's turban while another worried about Mr. Scheer and abortion.

Hélene Mailloux sat on a bench near a pétanque pitch listening to the conversations and eating a hot dog like a spectator at a sporting event. "It's going to be close!"

Ms. Mailloux said. She remains undecided.

Associated Graphic

People walk above the boardwalk in the port near downtown Trois-Rivières on Wednesday. The regional hub is one of 14 seats currently held by the federal New Democrats where Conservatives, Liberals and the Bloc Québécois are trying to take advantage of NDP decline.

ANDREJ IVANOV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Business Ventures and the Environment
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HOW WILL CANADA'S CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION AFFECT REGULATORY LAW AND LITIGATION?
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By ELIZABETH RAYMER
  
  

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Friday, August 30, 2019 – Page E18

In February 2018 Bill C-69, which would amend two federal environmental Acts, was introduced in Parliament; on June 20th the Bill was passed by the Senate, though not without controversy.

And back in January the Supreme Court of Canada had ruled that a bankrupt oil and gas company in Alberta had to fulfill provincial environmental obligations before paying its creditors.

Along with a Federal Court of Appeal ruling in August 2018 that found insufficient consultation had been done with Indigenous peoples in the construction of the Trans Mountain Pipeline extension, the past year has seen notable rulings -- and legislative changes -- affecting environmental law in Canada.

"There's still a lot of uncertainty over how the environmental assessment process is going to work under Bill C-69," says Shawn Denstedt, Vice Chair, Western Canada at Osler, Hoskin

& Harcourt LLP, from his Calgary office. Denstedt travels extensively in his job, particularly in Asia, and has found the outcome of this Bill continues to be a hot topic for potential investment in Canada.

"What will the regulatory system look like and how will it work? How will it impact investment? I think with investors there's a wait-andsee attitude," he says. "People who might invest in Canada say, 'until Canada sorts itself out, we're going to sit on the sidelines.' I think that is the number-one trend or issue facing investment in Canada right now."

Bill C-69, An Act to enact the Impact Assessment Act and the Canadian Energy Regulator Act, to amend the Navigation Protection Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts, was opposed by the energy sector. It will affect how major infrastructure projects are reviewed and approved in Canada through the

creation of the Impact Assessment Agency that will oversee project evaluations. It also replaces the National Energy Board with a new Canadian Energy Regulator; and an amended federal environmental assessments process will see a new Ottawa-based Impact Assessment Agency review a range of environmental impacts.

The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, for one, expressed concern that the proposed legislation would create greater regulatory uncertainty and litigation risk. Denstedt agrees.

"Bill C-69, even with the amendments, in my view, will not solve the uncertainty issue in relation to environmental assessment; it may make it worse," he says. The Bill eviscerates the expertise available under the Calgary-based National Energy Board for regulating energy projects by separating the environmental review from the NEB's mandate, he believes.

"The problem with that separation is the people who are best equipped to understand the impacts of energy development are no longer charged with that obligation."

The National Energy Board was created as an expert regulator to understand and regulate all aspects of the energy business, from economic to environmental to safety to social aspects, says Denstedt, "and by separating those functions we're doing the opposite of what sustainable development really means, which is to integrate those [environmental] considerations into decision-making processes."

Under Bill C-69, a new Impact Assessment Agency will look at the environmental assessment of a project, and the National Energy Board will then look "at the energy side of it," says Denstedt; "so you've ... pulled those two pieces apart."

The potential for larger fines has also increased significantly in environmental prosecutions, particularly under the Fisheries Act and the Migratory Birds Convention Act (MBCA), since increased penalties were introduced in 2013 and 2017, says Brad Gilmour, a partner at Bennett Jones LLP in Calgary.

"The trend over the last decade is upward in terms of increasing inspections, prosecutions and amendments to legalization to increase penalties," Gilmour says. Under the two Acts noted above, maximum fines have increased significantly, he adds; for example, if the Crown chooses to proceed summarily for a second offence, the fines could reach as high as $8 million, with the potential to multiply by the number of days an environmental incident is not successfully managed.

The trend has crystallized into considering

five sentencing factors, Gilmour adds: culpability, prior record, damage or harm, remorse and deterrence. "The courts have said the most important is culpability, which goes back to having proper procedures in place [to] prevent an incident from occurring" in the first place; this will provide a defence and may lower the penalty. "Due diligence is key." The second most important factor would be the degree of damage or harm, he says.

Rosalind Cooper, an environmental lawyer at Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP in Toronto, has also observed an uptick in numbers of prosecutions under the Fisheries Act in particular, though it is "a trend you continue to see over time," and penalties have been much higher in the United States. "I think we're consistent in the sense that we're focused on enforcement," and penalties have generally increased in conformance with that, she says.

Lawyers have also been discussing with their clients the implications of the Supreme Court of Canada's January ruling in Orphan Well Association v. Grant Thornton Limited on companies doing business in the oil patch, or elsewhere where environmental issues may be at play.

The implications of the decision -- in which the Supreme Court ruled that the trustee for the bankrupt Redwater oil and gas company in Alberta couldn't walk away from its disowned sites, and that provincial environmental obligations must be met before Redwater's creditors were paid -- are significant, says Cooper. Initially, the decision was thought to be specific to Alberta statutes and its requirements for cleaning up exhausted oil wells; oil and gas companies there cannot transfer licences without permission from the Alberta Energy Regulator, which requires that environmental obligations have first been met.

"I think that may be underestimating the importance of the decision," Cooper says, and how it may translate to other regulators across Canada.

"With some matters I'm dealing with [regarding] insolvency, regulators in Ontario have been looking at Redwater, and thinking they have enhanced powers now." The Supreme Court's commentary in this decision indicates that its ruling in the Redwater matter "applies across the board, to all sorts of insolvency situations," and suggests that the environment takes priority where assets are limited, she notes.

This makes it important for lenders to take a hard look "at the nature of the business that's being undertaken, and potential environmental risks," she says, including obligations at closure time for mines, for example. Lenders must consider environmental obligations that will accrue to a particular company at the end of day, as a super-charge from a regulator will affect the ability of lenders to recover.

"So, more due diligence will be done," as it should be, says Cooper. "Does the mining company have a closure plan? What are the types of obligations that will occur at the end of the life of the mine, and is there comfort that there's adequacy in that regard? Has a peer review been done? Do we need something else, to give comfort that that's enough?" Regulators are referring to the decision and the enhanced powers they believe it gives them, she adds.

From a policy perspective, the decision in Redwater was the right one, says Osler's Denstedt, as the public purse was the last to have to pay for Redwater's cleanup. The policy behind the decision was that if lenders have the ability to do due diligence on the companies they lend money to, during bankruptcy proceedings they should not be able to disclaim the assets that have no value or that have liabilities attached that could have been discovered during due diligence. This could have a chilling affect on lending in situations where it's harder to discover liabilities, he adds.

"The energy industry has already been on a downturn for the past few years; this is one more concern we have" regarding the future of the energy sector.

However, Denstedt notes, in the Redwater case both the Alberta Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court of Canada commented on the need for clarification from a policy perspective in the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, which allows a trustee to walk away from environmental obligations.

In Tsleil Waututh v. Canada (Attorney General), the Federal Court of Appeal (FCA) considered the duty to consult in the current federal regime for review and approval of interprovincial pipelines. In its decision in August 2018, the FCA quashed the federal government's approval of the Trans Mountain Pipeline expansion, which would facilitate bringing oil from Alberta's oil sands to the British Columbia coast, in part due to Canada's failure to fulfill its consultation and accommodation obligations to Indigenous peoples.

The decision had "high-level impact," says Julie Abouchar, a partner in Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP in Toronto, and lawyers across Canada have taken two key points from that decision.

"Most important is the need for an Indigenous consultation prior to getting a project approved.

One of the reasons why the FCA ... quashed the approval was because it found that the government had not implemented Indigenous consultation properly. At the highest level, what the FCA is saying is, meaningful two-way dialogue is necessary, including responding to and addressing Indigenous concerns."

The expectation that there be agreement with Indigenous communities before major projects are approved is not as common in the United States, she says, but "with large projects in Canada, the successful ones have agreements with Indigenous communities."

In British Columbia, where the appellants launched the case, there is no legal requirement to reach agreements, but this varies from province to province, Abouchar says.

Under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, parties must look at the ancillary parts of a project, such as whether or how marine life might be affected by increased tanker traffic. In this case, the National Energy Board was found to be in error in not considering the ancillary impact of endangered species from increased shipping of oil from the BC coast.

"All that is very interesting, because the landscape of environmental assessment is changing," she says -- which includes the Senate passing Bill C-69.

Thursday, September 12, 2019
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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Tuesday, September 17, 2019 – Page B16

JEAN APPLEBAUM

On Monday, September 16, 2019 at North York General Hospital. Beloved wife of the late Lewis Applebaum. Loving mother and mother-in-law of Stephen and Lily, Robin and Evy, Raymond and Ellace.

Loving sister of the late Esther, Gert, and brother Ken.

Sister-in-law of Max and May, Eve and the late Sid Bergstein, and Estelle. Devoted grandmother of Reuben, Lauren and Adam, Jessica and Jeff, Mark and Shelley, Jordan, Dana, Jared and Dane, Margaret and Rob (deceased), Stephanie and Tiernan, Victoria and Damion, and the late Benjamin.

Devoted great-grandmother of Marley Drew, Sienna Blake, Dylan Benjamin, Isabelle Gray, Evan, Alexis, Kaila, Paige, Alex, Jackson, Zach, Sean, Bella, Beatrice, Jack, Theo, Aubrey, Anthony, and greatgreat-grandmother to Alia.

At Benjamin's Park Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West, for service on Thursday, September 19th, 2019, at 1:00 p.m. http://www.benjamins.ca Interment at Holy Blossom Memorial Park. Shiva at The Terrace at Baycrest, 55 Ameer Avenue, on Thursday following Interment until 8 p.m. and Friday 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. Limited parking at the Terrace. Pay parking available in Baycrest parking lot in the western spots adjacent to the Terrace.

ROBERT BELL "Bob"

On Thursday, September 5, 2019, Robert (Bob) Bell, loving husband, father, grandfather, brother and uncle passed away at age 82.

Born October 22, 1936 in Toronto, he lived most of his life there until moving to Goderich three years ago. He worked hard. His drive, tenacity and ambition allowed him to live a rich, full life, which he generously shared with his family and many friends.

A successful entrepreneur, salesman extraordinaire, golfer and pilot, he loved fresh air, a G&T on the dock in Muskoka, and sunset cruises with his grandchildren.

He was a great singer, dancer and host, a history buff, proud Scot and Tilley hat wearing traveller, a lover of long country drives and "Sunshine on my Shoulders".

He never stopped missing Sheila, his wife of 54 years.

After her passing in 2014, he took comfort in their enduring connection with every butterfly and rainbow he saw.

He will be missed and always loved by his daughters Kathryn and Sam, his "pinned on" sons Jeff, Dennis and Gavin, his grandchildren, Bryce, Camille, Erin and Malindi and the old and new friends he was deeply fond of.

Join us for a visit at The Old Mill on Thursday, October 10, 2019, 3-5 p.m.

SAUNDRA GLYNN (nee McKay)

Peacefully at the Arnprior District Memorial Hospital on Sunday morning, September 15, 2019.

Saundra Glynn of McNab/ Braeside passed away at the age of 82. Beloved wife and life partner of the late Paul Thomas Glynn (October 30, 2016). Dearly loved and proud mother of Mary Teresa (MT) Glynn and Caroline Glynn. Daughter of the late Jack and Mary (nee Whelan) McKay. Saundra will be fondly remembered by her family, the McKay's of Arnprior including Sheilagh Poole (late Phil), Peter McKay (Pat), George McKay (Heather) and especially Jana (James) Croskery. Predeceased by her brother, John McKay.

Born in Ottawa, Saundra spent much of her childhood living in Quebec and New Brunswick before settling in Arnprior. Saundra had a successful career teaching elementary and secondary school in Ottawa. It was during this time, while teaching at St. Joseph's High School on Broadview that she met her husband Paul. In the early 1970s, Saundra and Paul moved to Mississauga and while raising their daughters, Saundra was elected as a trustee and later Vice-Chairman of the Dufferin Peel Roman Catholic Separate School Board. Throughout her lifetime, Saundra was engaged in a number of social justice initiatives such as Catholics of Vision Canada. Upon moving back to McNab/Braeside, Saundra continued to be an active member of the community including the Arnprior Library Board, her local book club and her Cosmology group. Saundra was a devoted wife and mother who will be dearly missed by those whose lives she has touched.

Her final care has been entrusted to the Pilon Family Funeral Home and Chapel Ltd., 50 John Street North, Arnprior where visitation will be held on Friday, September 20th from 2 to 4 and 7 to 9 p.m.

and again on Saturday morning, September 21st from 10:00 a.m.

to 10:45 a.m. A Tribute to Saundra will follow in the Pilon Family Chapel at 11 o'clock. In memory of Saundra, please consider a donation to the Arnprior Library or the Arnprior Food Bank.

Condolences/Memories/Donations http://www.pilonfamily.ca

OSCAR GOODMAN

September 12, 2019, at home, after battle with cancer. Age 84. Survived by son, Mark Andrew; five step-children; 12 grandchildren; and one greatgrandchild. Beloved partner of Sheila (Davids) Meiteen for 32 years.

Oscar, a man of high integrity, was a strong contributor to Tikkun olam, and loved language and music.

Shiva will be Sunday, September 22 from 2-5 p.m., service at 7 p.m., and Monday at 2 p.m., 1404 - 15 McMurrich St., Toronto.

DR. NOEL DEEVES ROBERTSON

Professor Emeritus of Greek History and Religion at Brock University, died peacefully September 12, 2019 at the age of 83 at James Bay Care Center in Victoria, BC. He leaves behind his wife Laura Robertson of Victoria, children Eva, Emily, Sam (Robin) and Isabella, grandchildren Alexander, Kieran, Norah, Maura and Eleanor, sister Gail Mihlenstedt and many loving cousins, nieces and nephews.

Noel Robertson authored a large body of scholarly works, with an emphasis on ritual and the practice of religion in ancient Greek society. Among family, friends and colleagues he was known as a gifted storyteller and lecturer, whose talents were also bestowed on a generation of students. He read Latin, Greek, German and French and, throughout his tenure at Brock University, gave generously of himself in a number of leadership and service positions.

Born August 15, 1936, in Winnipeg, Manitoba to Alexander and Isabella Robertson, Noel and his family then moved in 1940 to Fort William, Ontario (now Thunder Bay). Noel earned a scholarship to study at University College, University of Toronto, (B.A., 1958), where he won the McCaul Gold Medal in Classics. He went on to Cornell University for advanced degrees in Classical Philology (M.A., 1959 and PhD, 1964).

While at Cornell, Noel joined an archaeological dig under the auspices of The American School of Classical Studies in Athens (1961-63). He met his wife, Laura Fahy - also a graduate student working on the dig- in Corinth, Greece. They married in 1964, the same year he completed his PhD and dissertation, 'Nemesis: the history of a social and religious ideal in early Greece'. In 1965, Noel was appointed Leyerhulme Fellow at the University of Bristol; Eva was born that year.

He continued to teach as a postdoctoral fellow at Cornell; Emily (1966) and Sam (1969) followed.

Isabella was born (1974), after Noel became, first Associate, then Professor of Classics at Brock University (1970-2002).

Noel edited 'The Archaeology of Cyprus: Recent Developments' (1976) and authored two more books, 'Festivals and Legends: The Formation of Greek Cities in the Light of Public Ritual' (1992) and 'Religion and Reconciliation in Greek Cities: The Sacred Laws of Selinas and Cyrene' (2009) in addition to some 80 articles and chapters. A member of the board of directors for the Canadian Archaeological Institute at Athens (1978-80), visiting research fellow at the University of New England, Armidale, Australia (1993) and Vice-President of the Classical Association of Canada (1994-96), Noel also chaired the Department of Classics twice while at Brock (1973-82; 1998-2001). He also served on numerous committees throughout his time there. Part of his extensive library was donated to the University of Victoria and can be enjoyed there in the Department of Greek and Roman Studies Reading Room.

A reception will be held at First Memorial Funeral Home, 1155 Fort Street, Victoria, BC at 2:00 pm on Tuesday, September 17, 2019.

Donations may be made to: The American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 6-8 Charlton St., Princeton, NJ 08540-5232; email: ascsa@ascsa.org

NANCY TANIS ROBINSON (née Lash)

Peacefully on Friday, September 13, 2019 at the age of 75. Dear wife of Ian Robinson. Beloved mother of Tanis (Jonathon Feasby), Seanna (Dan Michaluk) and Airlie (Kevin McCann). Loving grandmother to Mack and Calvin Feasby, Hugo and Penny Robinson, and West and Nora Mae McCann. Sister of Timothy Lash and the late Marietta (aka Mouse) Lash; aunt of Zeb Reid (Becky).

Lover of all things Muskoka.

Touched the lives of so many with her charisma, warmth, generosity, fun and ability to light up the room. A Memorial Service will be held at Grace Church on-the-Hill, 300 Lonsdale Rd. on Thursday, September 19th at 1:00 p.m.

with a reception to follow. In memoriam, donations to CAMH would be appreciated by her family.

MARGARET IRENE WILLIS

December 9, 1923 September 14, 2019 Predeceased by her husband of 68 years, W. Harvey Willis.

Margaret stayed at home to raise their four children; Rodney, Timothy (Bente), Susan (Ralph) and Patricia. Grandmother of 10, and great-grandmother to 15 ("GG"). They were her pride and joy. She was predeceased by her twin sister, Daphne and younger sister, Georgina.

Margaret was an active volunteer in the community at St. Augustine Anglican Church and Holland Bloorview for 31 years. Margaret spent her later years at Revera, enjoying new friends and an active life. The family extends a thank you to the staff of The Donway - Revera.

A service will be held in The Anglican Church of St. Augustine of Canterbury, 1847 Bayview Avenue at 2:00 p.m. on Saturday, September 21st, followed by a reception. In lieu of flowers, charitable donations to St.

Augustine of Canterbury (Toronto M4G 3E4) or Temmy Latner Centre (#1001 - 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 1W7) would be appreciated.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

EVELYN MEAGHER

1920 - 2009

Ten years and you will always be Forever in our hearts Your loving family


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'We want to make this place feel like home': Helping Indigenous youth feel safe in Thunder Bay
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Wake The Giant is a cultural awareness campaign and concert aimed at 'opening the hearts and minds of people' in the Northern Ontario city. But despite being widely embraced as an example of its inclusivity efforts, it also has its detractors, who worry it will take more work to solve deep-rooted issues
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Monday, September 16, 2019 – Page A8

THUNDER BAY -- As a rock band warmed up behind him at the Thunder Bay marina Saturday afternoon, Nolan Asanabee showed off his dance moves to new friends at the back of the park.

Under his tracksuit, and a plastic lei he won at a local arcade, the 17-year-old wore a red T-shirt that was covered in signatures from those new friends.

"My fans," he joked, as the group posed for selfies.

Mr. Asanabee, from Sandy Lake First Nation, was part of a cohort of students visiting Thunder Bay from remote northern communities for Wake The Giant festivities, a cultural awareness campaign and concert to make Indigenous youth feel welcome and safe in the city.

It is a campaign that has earned hundreds of thousands of dollars in sponsorships, and has been widely embraced by the city as an example of its inclusivity efforts. But it has also been criticized as a Band-Aid solution to deep-rooted issues.

The concerns are ones that highlight the difficult work of reconciliation, and the challenge - in a city where even best intentions can be divisive - of making meaningful change.

Because for years in Thunder Bay, Indigenous students have not felt welcome. The city has received national attention for this over the past few years, with multiple reviews concluding that the town and its police service are plagued with systemic racism.

Three years ago, an inquest was held into the deaths of seven Indigenous teenagers who, between 2000 and 2011, died after travelling to Thunder Bay for high school. Six of those students went to Dennis Franklin Cromarty High School - the school Mr. Asanabee is likely to attend next year.

It's a daunting transition. To get their education, these students are forced leave their families behind and move to a city so much bigger than what they are used to that many are encountering streetlights for the first time.

Because DFC doesn't have a residence, the teens are billeted in boarding homes across the city and rely on public transit to get to and from class. In the community, they have faced racist slurs and discrimination by shop owners. It is dangerous.

But on Saturday evening, as drums and electric guitars blared in the background of Wake The Giant - and as he anxiously awaited the appearance of Ernest Monias, known as "Elvis of the North" - Mr. Asanabee said his nerves had been eased.

"I feel excited about it now," he said. "I met a lot of good people."

Wake The Giant was started by a group of teachers at DFC, in response to a long to-do list of recommendations that came out of the inquest to improve the lives of the students in the city.

Sean Spenrath, DFC's student success co-ordinator, says it was during a songwriting workshop with Toronto-based band July Talk a couple years back that the group realized how empowered the students were by music. The lyrics that the teens came up with - Mourning Keeps Coming Back, the song is called - were a jolting reminder of how much loss they had faced. Mr. Spenrath and his colleagues wanted to give them something to look forward to.

In Mr. Spenrath's view, the Wake The Giant slogan refers to "opening the hearts and minds of people in Thunder Bay; waking up from the slumber we've been in for the last decade."

It is of course, a nod to the Sleeping Giant rock formation, known to Ojibwa as Nanabijou or Spirit of the Deep Sea Water.

Today, the red-and-orange Wake The Giant logo can be spotted in the window of more than 300 local businesses in Thunder Bay - a decal that is meant to signal to students that that premises is a safe space for them; that they can go there for help, or shop freely without being followed around.

Jelena Psenicnik, who owns two restaurants in Thunder Bay, was happy to put the sticker in her windows. She is well aware of the racism in her city and was enthusiastic about the push for inclusivity. But months later, she sees the logo everywhere, and feels uneasy about how easy it was for her to get. She fears the gesture is too simple.

"Obviously anything that can be done to welcome the kids is fantastic. But [my concern is] whether it's a bit too nominal," she said.

"It's really a matter of making sure this is working, and that it's not just some sort of 'Hey, don't worry Thunder Bay, we got it.

We've got stickers all over town, so we're good.' "Sandi Boucher, a local motivational speaker and reconciliation expert, argues the campaign isn't just potentially shallow, it's dangerous.

Without a proper vetting process for these businesses, she fears

students could be misled to believe they are safe in a business premises where they are not.

"The only thing worse than not feeling welcome is being told you're welcome and then it turns out you're not," she said.

"It's just too easy." She is similarly skeptical about the value of a concert. She found it offensive that it was scheduled on the same day as the Full Moon Memory Walk, an annual event to honour missing and murdered Indigenous women. These types of scheduling conflicts happen "constantly," she says. "It's just a huge divide, and speaks to the basis of the intention in Thunder Bay."

Elder John Gagnon, from Aroland First Nation, who has worked at DFC for three years, felt optimistic, watching the crowd Saturday, that it was a unifying experience (all DFC students, and those visiting the school from northern communities, got into the concert for free).

"This festival here, this is what the city of Thunder Bay needs.

We need to get everybody on board, to get along. For the sake of the kids - for their safety," he said. To him, Wake The Giant means "you're waking up the people. Waking up the Giant. [We are] saying 'That's enough.' " Michele Solomon, a councillor at Fort William First Nation who spoke on behalf of Chief Peter Collins at the concert, agrees.

"Anything we can do to help young people feel better and thrive, I can get behind that," she told the crowd.

For Lewis Chapman, Saturday's event wasn't only the first big concert he attended, it was also his first big performance.

The 18-year-old, from Big Trout Lake, is in his second year at DFC and has been playing guitar for five years. When he learned that he and his classmates would have the opportunity to join July Talk on stage to play the song the band wrote with the students, he thought it was a "pretty cool opportunity."

And as thousands of people in the audience cheered them on, he couldn't help but beam.

"I'm not going to lie," he said.

As a young Indigenous man, he has found Thunder Bay to be "quite dangerous."

But as Mr. Chapman took in the festivities with his girlfriend, he felt hopeful that it might ease some of that intimidation for new students in the future.

"It's a cool event, I think it'll be awesome," he said. "Maybe this will warm [the new students] up to it."

Norma Kejick, executive director of the Northern Nishnawbe Education Council, has seen hundreds of students graduate.

But she has also been to too many funerals for students.

On stage on Saturday, she spoke of the hardships the students face in getting their highschool education. Out of the 24 First Nations communities she represents, only two have schools that go to Grade 12. Everyone else must travel to the city.

Ms. Kejick also addressed the criticism that the campaign has faced.

"I've heard comments from some people saying, 'Why do we have three white people running around the city slapping up logos on businesses?' " she said.

"Well, why does it always have to be us brown people - First Nations people - that have to be the first ones to try to reconcile?

If we're going to make change, we have to do it together."

Mr. Spenrath acknowledges that after the success of Wake The Giant, and the enormous amount of support it has received, he and his colleagues have a platform and a responsibility now.

Initially, they planned to use any funds raised toward a muchneeded new school and residence. But concerned that this could deter the federal government from putting up that cash, they decided instead to put it toward continuing the awareness campaign.

"We want to take the next year here to really focus on the logo project," he said, adding that they will be establishing a cultural sensitivity training package for participants moving forward.

"Our biggest goal now is to parlay [these connections] into potential part-time jobs for the kids," Mr. Spenrath said. "We want to make this place feel like home."

Associated Graphic

Below: Lewis Chapman, of Big Trout Lake, and his girlfriend, Regan Ferris, watch Coleman Hell perform on Saturday. As a young Indigenous man, Mr. Chapman finds Thunder Bay to be 'quite dangerous.'

PHOTOGRAPHS BY DAVID JACKSON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Above: Thunder Bay's Coleman Hell performs at the Wake The Giant Music Festival on Saturday.

Right: Nolan Asanabee, from Sandy Lake First Nation, shows off a T-shirt covered in signatures from new friends made at the Wake The Giant festival. 'I met a lot of good people,' he says of the event.

Harmony Fiddler from Dennis Franklin Cromarty High School places a Wake The Giant sticker in the window of a Thunder Bay business in March.

Left: Festivalgoers enjoy Coleman Hell's performance on Saturday.

Below: Elder John Gagnon, who works at Dennis Franklin Cromarty High School, smudges the grounds at the music festival.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Correction

A Monday news feature on Indigenous youth included an incorrect spelling of Nolan Aysanabee.


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THE GREAT OUTDOORS
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Social-media platforms such as Instagram have helped boost the popularity of provincial and national parks. Despite the crowds, this is a good thing. Making nature more accessible should be part of our project of building a more equal Canada
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By MÉLISSA GODIN
  
  

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Saturday, September 14, 2019 – Page O5

Multimedia journalist who reports on gender, climate change and human rights. She is a Rhodes Scholar, a National Geographic Explorer, and a GroundTruth Project Fellow.

A few weeks ago, my friends and I tried to reserve a camping spot at Garibaldi Provincial Park in British Columbia, only to discover that it was completely booked until early October.

For the past few summers, I have made a yearly pilgrimage to Garibaldi Lake, reserving my camping spot five minutes before arriving at the head of the trail. Although Garibaldi is one of B.C.'s pristine provincial parks filled with glacier lakes, windy hiking paths and snow-capped mountains, it can be difficult to access.

Getting to the picturesque Panorama Ridge is a 30-kilometre journey round-trip, which even for avid hikers can be quite tiring.

And yet, this summer, the trails were busier than I have ever seen them. Hordes of people wearing everything from hiking boots to platform heels climbed the path to the lake to get their well-earned photo next to the crystal blue water.

The number of visitors to the outdoors has hugely increased in the province. This year, B.C.'s parks have been visited 4,928,500 more times than they were in 2014-15. For outdoorsy British Columbians, this increase is extremely evident: Quarry Rock in Deep Cove is now monitored by a ranger to ensure that only 70 people are on it at a time, and it is next to impossible to get a parking spot in front of Joffre Lakes.

The increase in visitors is in part a result of initiatives by the provincial government to boost tourism to B.C. According to The Walrus, Destination BC - a provincial tourism agency - receives $51million a year to promote the beautiful outdoors. Their strategy involves paying social-media influencers to popularize various parks around the province.

Many in the outdoor community are upset that their favourite spots are now packed with visitors and frown upon anyone that geotags their hiking locations. Experienced hikers argue that Instagram has resulted in people going outdoors for the wrong reasons.

Frustrated by the rise of "insta" tourists, an anonymous 31-yearold man from Idaho created an Instagram account called Public Lands Hate You. At the time of writing, his bio reads "people 'doing it for the gram' are prioritizing profit, fame, and 'rad pics' over the health and future of our favourite places. Who else is fed up?" According to these critics, people are going outdoors to get the perfect photo for Instagram rather than to appreciate the quietness of the forest or the sweet smell of red cedar trees.

To an extent, people such as the man behind Public Lands Hate You are accurately identifying a change in the way people behave in nature. I was shocked last summer to arrive at the third Joffre lake to find a woman lying on a rock, posing in a silk dress.

Photos of parks are being posted at an unprecedented rate and Instagram influencers are capitalizing and commercializing nature.

As a result, it is fair to question whether people are going outdoors for fresh air or for the likes on Instagram. But in other ways, the growing popularity of nature may be a result of the outdoors becoming more accessible.

In Canada's recent history, some of the country's most beautiful parks have largely been enjoyed by the middle and upper classes. A tour guide at Banff National Park told me that the area was originally frequented by rich Europeans who paid upward of $35,000 for a month of vacation in the great Canadian wilderness.

Today, many of Canada's most beautiful outdoor landscapes are more readily available to the rich who live in proximity to these places or can afford to vacation in them. In Vancouver and its surrounding areas, for instance, many of the best hikes are situated between the North Shore and Whistler - two of the most expensive cities in Canada. The people who have access to these free hikes - who can squeeze it in before or after work - are those who live in these affluent areas.

"Where do you ski?" is the ultimate class question in Vancouver, with the rich typically gravitating toward Whistler, where a one-day lift ticket costs upward of $100.

I developed all my outdoor skills while participating in mandatory camping trips with my private school. Each student was expected to buy loads of gear that cost their parents a small fortune.

Every September, we - a group of smelly, privileged preteens - would set out into the forest with heavy backpacks and polyester clothing. We learned how to purify stream water and hang our bags of food in nearby trees. When we became young adults, we knew where and how to camp: We had camping stoves and dry bags in the back of our closets.

This is not to say that class is the sole indicator of whether someone will be "outdoorsy": There are many low- to middle-income communities throughout Canada that regularly engage with nature. On the whole, however, Statistics Canada found that "households' participation in outdoor activities close to home increased as the annual income increased, from 56% for those with annual incomes of less than $20,000 to 88% for households with annual incomes of $150,000 or more."

For people who do not grow up participating in outdoor activities, going into the wilderness - which, in British Columbia, is filled with bears and cougars - can be quite intimidating. It can also be dangerous for people who do not understand mountain safety.

But Instagram - which provides the exact location of trail heads and provides hiking tips to users - makes the outdoors more accessible. I recently overheard a woman on the St. Mark's Summit Trail tell her friend that until a few years ago, she didn't know these trails existed: She had assumed only avid outdoor folks with the right gear could do hikes. Instagram not only gave her information about where these trails were but also changed her vision about who could do them. While people may be discovering the outdoors because of Instagram, they are not necessarily going outdoors for Instagram.

Of course, Instagram is not lowering the prices of ski passes or the cost of outdoor gear - it is not changing the demographics of who lives in proximity to some of Canada's most popular outdoor destinations. But in its own limited way, Instagram may be demystifying the outdoors.

The increase in outdoor tourism may also be a result of major infrastructure projects that have made the outdoors more available to people of varying physical abilities. The Sea to Sky Gondola in Squamish, built in 2014, for instance, was designed to accommodate wheelchair users. Before the gondola, the views from Mount Habrich could only be seen after a 7.5-kilometre hike.

Now, people of varying ability levels can enjoy the jaw-dropping views of the Howe Sound. This summer, I visited Banff National Park and was impressed by how disability-friendly the park was: At Lake Louise, I watched two wheelchair users race around the boardwalk along the shores of the glacier lake. Although many parks remain out of reach for people with disabilities, projects such as the Sea to Sky gondola provide an interesting example of how the outdoors could be made more accessible.

Increasing the accessibility of the outdoors and national parks to the Canadian public can have public-health benefits: It gets people outside, exercising and breathing in fresh air.

Many, such as the man behind the Public Lands Hate You account, argue that the increasing number of people visiting the outdoors will result in ecological damage. But as Joel Barde says in The Walrus, there are ways in which ecological damage can be mitigated, such as turning parks into "training ground for new hikers." Having more people engage with the outdoors and gain a greater appreciation of nature could also be a powerful tool for getting people to care more about climate change and conservation.

Although there are many unanswered questions about how the increased number of outdoor visitors should be managed, the solution is not to judge new hikers for wanting to take photos.

They too are able to recognize the beauty of a glacier lake and want to see it for their own eyes, and yes, get that forbidden selfie.

The increased popularity of the outdoors is not simply a superficial, Instagram-driven phenomenon. Sure, people may spend a lot of time taking photos. Maybe a small group of people are going outdoors with the sole goal of getting the perfect shot. But perhaps people are going outdoors because suddenly, it seems like they can.

Increasing the number of people that can access the outdoors and national parks should be part of our project of building a more equal Canada. In a young country such as Canada that is still looking to define itself, the outdoors - and our relationship to it - is seen as central to our cultural identity.

One does not need to look far to find evidence of this. Until recently, our $5 bill depicted a group of people playing hockey on a pond rink. When I was last at the Calgary airport, a massive photograph depicted the back of a young, blonde woman as she paddled in one of Banff's crystal blue glacier lakes.

Although many Canadians opt out of outdoor activities as a matter of preference, others are not given a chance to decide whether the outdoors will be part of their Canadian experience. Maybe Instagram is helping give them that choice.

Associated Graphic

It's a 30-kilometre round-trip hike to reach Panorama Ridge in British Columbia's Garibaldi Provincial Park, but Instagram has plenty of posts from those willing to make the journey for a perfect view.

INSTAGRAM

Tuesday, September 17, 2019
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Vancouver developers sour on rentals
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Kerrisdale lot rezoning shows how demand for affordable housing runs up against rising building costs
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By KERRY GOLD
  
  

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Friday, September 6, 2019 – Page H7

VANCOUVER -- In the leafy Vancouver west side neighbourhood of Kerrisdale, there is a lot at West 35th Avenue that has sat overgrown and empty for several years. There are small indications of future redevelopment, including a stack of lumber, orange fencing and a city application sign that shows a proposal for clustered white rental townhouses.

A single detached house used to sit on the 12,440-square-foot corner double lot. The old house was torn down three years ago and the property appears to have been for sale ever since. An MLS listing shows that it was purchased for $2.5-million in 2016.

The lot is now for sale, for $5.88million.

In the meantime, the owner has also gone to the trouble and expense of applying to rezone the property to allow for 12 rental townhouse units. The rezoning application is part of the marketing of the property. In July, 2018, just before the civic election, the former city council approved the project. Not surprisingly, there was neighbourhood backlash to it, says the architect who's designing it. But the mood for more density in neighbourhoods zoned for detached housing was strong, particularly with an affordable housing crisis. The low-density west side of the city is an obvious area for more density. Critics argued that the rents were not affordable.

Brian Billingsley, principal of B Squared Architecture, says that the expectation for affordable rental is counterproductive.

"The planners were really supportive of the project, they liked it and they kind of pushed it through really fast," Mr. Billingsley says. "We were one of the last batch to go through rezoning with the old council before the election. The only person who voted against the project was Adriane Carr for the very reason that she didn't think it was affordable. But dealing with the City of Vancouver, nothing is affordable and everything gets taxed all through the project. And I don't know how people think builders can absorb all the cost. It makes no sense to me."

It is one of the few residential detached houses in the city (called an RS zone) to be spot rezoned for multifamily housing.

The majority of detached houses that get rezoned are in areas that have been planned, such as the Cambie corridor.

The average starting rents for the project are $1,900 for a one bedroom and $3,700 for the three bedrooms, according to the city, which has set a long list of conditions to be met before the rezoning is enacted. Mr. Billingsley says he's almost met those conditions, and he believes that when it gets built it will provide housing for people who can afford those rents. As those people move from their less expensive apartments, it will then free up existing housing for others.

"There is a certain upward mobility being provided, right? And voting against everything because it's too expensive, that's not progressive either. That won't solve the housing problem in Vancouver or anywhere else."

However, one developer argues that the market for highpriced rental units is so small that the rental development business is not viable and his company is moving away from rental housing entirely.

Long-time developer Anthony Hepworth, president and chief executive of Pennyfarthing Homes, says his company has built every type of property but is no longer interested in rentals because the returns aren't great enough to cover the high costs. As a result, they've sold off all of their rental properties except for one.

"Rental for the most part does not make sense," says Mr. Hepworth, who has a PhD in engineering. He's been with Pennyfarthing since 1980. "It's a lousy business," he says of rental.

He says the problems are the high cost of land as well as climbing construction costs in the past three years. Pennyfarthing developed a rental building at 1450 Creekside Dr. in 1987 and the generously sized 1,150 units rent for around $3,000 a month. After 32 years, the rents have only doubled, he says. The water view building is in a desirable location, a five-minute walk from Granville Island. But at that rent, it can take a month or two to fill an empty unit.

"We are capped out at $3,000 a month. The potential for people to pay more than that, is very, very limited.

"Theoretically, there should be a lot of room for rentals to climb - and I think some people are betting on that. But there is a small market for that," he says.

Can the market provide affordable rental housing? Not for the majority, says Andy Yan, director of Simon Fraser University's city program. He calculates that rents for new units between $2,700 and $3,200 a month exclude 75 per cent to 80 per cent of renter households in the city. In other words, rental is not instantly synonymous with "affordable."

"The problem is when new market rental housing in the city is conflated and valorized, whether intentionally or not, as affordable housing that is immediately accessible for low-to-middle-income renters. It shouldn't be."

Mr. Yan says that half of renter households can afford a maximum rent of $1,256 a month, at best. The median household income for renters in Vancouver is $50,250. However, 27 per cent of renter households in Vancouver earn less than $25,000. According to the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, affordable housing is 30 per cent of one's income. That means that one quarter of Vancouver renter households can afford to pay $625 a month, and that's at the high end of what they can afford, Mr. Yan says.

"That is so far out of the financial reality that the numbers don't work out," Mr. Hepworth says, when asked if he could supply that kind of rental. "I think we worked out the numbers for the west side of Vancouver and you need to get about $3.50 a square foot, so a 1,000 sq. ft. unit would be $3,500, and they don't build them that big. They build 800-foot units and you're still looking at $2,700 or $2,800 a month for that.

"Unless there is a dramatic increase in salaries, it's very hard to see many people who will be able to afford it."

He points to the fact that incomes have doubled since the 1980s, but condo prices have quadrupled.

Mr. Hepworth does not believe affordable housing is in Vancouver's future. The softened market has not translated into lower prices. The condo market has stalled and developers are holding properties until the prices return.

Some multifamily developers are looking to the United States for projects, he says. His own company has four properties on hold until the market goes back up, including one in New Westminster, B.C.

He is seeing properties intended for family housing sit undeveloped.

"I do know what has happened in the townhouse market, and people that bought townhouse sites in Cambie phase three, particularly south of 37th Avenue, all hugely over paid and all those projects are not viable. They didn't get started, because they haven't got the presales. They haven't got bank financing and their land costs are simply too high. So they are sitting there."

In order to build economically viable rental buildings, especially on the west side, you'd need to go to about 15 stories, says Mr. Hepworth, who believes spot rezonings are a solution.

But Vancouver Hospice Society executive director Simin Tabrizi would like to see more community consultation instead, especially if the spot zoning involves rental units that few can afford. Ms. Tabrizi was part of a major pushback against a rezoning proposal next door to the hospice, for 21 units of rental townhouses, at 4575 Granville St. That proposal was rejected and criticisms included the high rents proposed for the townhouses.

Ms. Tabrizi has proposed that the Society purchase the property and develop it for affordable short-term rental for seniors in the last years of life, a possible partnership with a government agency that could subsidize it.

The housing would offer care to people who would normally, and unnecessarily, be placed in hospital. She says it makes more sense than expensive rental because it would fulfill a need for a vulnerable group.

"The City has imposed stuff all over the place and I don't know how it benefits the city," Ms. Tabrizi says. "I think the [former] city council became a partner in the whole scheme around housing and speculation of housing, so whether that direction will change with the new council, or not, I don't know. I think the prevailing idea is that we desperately need housing, and so it's go-go-go.

But I think, really, it's time to pause a little and do away with this spot zoning and also really engage communities around planning."

Similar to many housing experts, Mr. Hepworth comes back to government funding as a solution, although he says it's still complicated.

"The only way you can get affordable housing is by subsidies.

Then it becomes, who gets the subsidy and how is it applied? It gets very difficult," he says.

"Of course, the federal government could also return to the days when it built subsidized housing for low and middle incomes," Mr.Yan says.

Associated Graphic

A lot on West 35th Avenue in Vancouver sits vacant. The site has been approved for 12 units of rental townhouses and holds the potential to more than double its value.

PHOTOS BY KERRY GOLD/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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'Kids do care': Teenage environmental activists aim for change with weekly protests
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Inspired by the Swedish activist Greta Thunberg, students around the world are pressing for environmental action every Friday. Groups in Abbotsford and Calgary are particularly dedicated
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By MIKE HAGER
  
  

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Friday, August 30, 2019 – Page A8

ABBOTSFORD, B.C. -- After weeks of demonstrating outside Abbotsford City Hall, the teens have learned not to take it personally when they trigger an outburst of hostility.

So, when a middle-aged driver spots their banners calling for action on the global climate emergency and shoots his middle finger out his window, shouting "I like my car," Angie Calhoun, 14, doesn't miss a beat and continues chanting for change.

Up to a dozen other teens have been joining her in this conservative Vancouver suburb for more than five months as part of Fridays for Future, a worldwide movement pushing all levels of government to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees to avoid catastrophic environmental change.

About 60 strikes were scheduled this Friday across Canada, according to the website where the decentralized activists can advertise their actions, and the Abbotsford group is one of the smallest but also one of the most dedicated.

Angie says she and her four younger siblings persuaded their parents to let them and two of her friends participate this spring after watching a viral YouTube speech by Swedish activist Greta Thunberg, who jump-started a worldwide movement of teens cutting class to mount protests outside government offices. Ms.

Thunberg, 16, arrived in New York Wednesday after a two-week crossing of the Atlantic on a zeroemissions sailboat so that she can speak there at the Sept. 23 UN Climate Action Summit.

Angie and her fellow protesters, who have only missed one Friday since the demonstrations began, say they hope the activism that Ms. Thunberg inspired will pick up momentum this fall as students return to class. "It'd be nice to ask if I could say something at an assembly so all the students know what we're doing," she says of her coming first year at the local high school.

The students say they get at least one middle-finger salute during each two-hour shift they put in. A few times, drivers with modified vehicles have even reacted to the young protesters by "rolling coal," spewing out clouds of black smoke in an act of defiance and intimidation.

"I just laugh it off," she says.

"I don't really care."

Without the right to vote, teens can still put public pressure on governments to act, says Lauren Palmer, a classmate of Angie's who has been demonstrating most Fridays. "We want to show government and businesses that kids do care about this and that this is something that's important and really matters," Lauren says.

Citing the dire warning of the United Nations' climate science agency last fall, she and her fellow protesters say the deadline for taking action and keeping the damage of global warming to a minimum is clear: 11 years.

The only other climate strikers in the country who may be more dedicated than Angie and her squad may be a group in Calgary, who haven't missed a Fridays for Future action since March.

Rose Jackson, 18, said at least a handful of people have shown up outside Calgary City Hall every week, even donning respirators when wildfire smoke made breathing outside harmful at the end of May. Her group has kept their aim away from specific legislation and more toward educating bitumen boosters about the need to transition to a more sustainable economy. "We believe we need to unite to make some real change," she said.

Doug McAdam, a professor of sociology at Stanford University who has studied social movements for four decades, says the young people leading this movement have a lot of moral authority and their message appears to be exploding in popularity. While visiting Switzerland earlier this year, he was impressed by the 30,000 or so kids attending weekly climate strikes in both Lausanne and Geneva.

It is rare for high schoolers to mount sustained campaigns, he says, adding that student protests usually erupt on college campuses, where young people heavily influenced by their peers have "pretty flexible schedules" and are packed into dense communities.

But despite the impressive turnouts, many governments have reacted to this public pressure with symbolic gestures, Prof.

McAdam says, not substantive changes to energy policies. The true test of the moment is whether it can lead to policy change.

"Can you mobilize enough voters going forward that elected officials at all levels start to really feel like their re-election or election chances are tied to this issue?" The plight of the climate strikers, he says, mirrors the arc of the recent gun-control campaign waged by U.S. students who survived school shootings, which Ms.

Thunberg has credited with sparking her own activism. That movement died in many places because the students were not able to change guns laws. More mass shootings this month in public spaces - not schools - have revived talk of bans and expanded background checks.

"They were up against an issue where there's just gridlock nationally," Prof. McAdam said of the students fighting for more gun control.

In Abbotsford, though, the demonstrators are not fighting a foe as formidable as the U.S. gun lobby.

The city has committed to gradually switching its 600-odd trucks, police cruisers and fire trucks from gasoline-powered vehicles to ones that use greener fuel sources. And when Mayor Henry Braun met with the teen protesters in May, he told them Abbotsford has a five-year plan to change all the light bulbs on city properties to more efficient LED bulbs.

"I told them I was encouraged they're taking an interest because, I said, 'When I was your age, I wasn't thinking about stuff like that,' " said Mr. Braun, who added that his goals were much more mundane, such as banking enough of his wages from the local chicken and berry farms to purchase his own car.

Still, one of the demonstrators' core priorities - getting the city to declare a climate emergency - was scuppered when city councillors voted against a measure adopted this year by Vancouver and a handful of its nearest suburbs aimed at expediting ways for a municipality to curtail local emissions.

Mr. Braun says he trusts the science of global warming and has seen Abbotsford's climate change significantly over his six decades in the area.

But he says the climate-emergency motion proposed by activists at the council meeting would cost too much and that any new environmental policies that might raise property taxes need to be discussed with the community.

"It all comes down to money - and we only have so much," he said, adding that the city needs to spend roughly $200-million to bring much-needed improvements, such as sidewalks to more than 100 kilometres of roadways within the city.

If anyone has the right to an apocalyptic attitude when it comes to Abbotsford meaningfully confronting climate change, it must be Aird Flavelle, the treasurer of the provincial Green Party, who has failed in four attempts to be elected to city council and two campaigns to become an MLA.

Mr. Flavelle, who stands nearby with a small group of parents and other adults, but "keeps out of the hair" of the teen protesters, says the local climate strike doesn't attract as much support as the strikes in Europe.

However, he says, local attitudes are changing.

"The only problem is we're leaving them a heck of a mess. If we acted really powerfully and strongly now, then we could lighten their load an awful lot for the next five and six decades."

The teens say there is much more their city could do to fight climate change, including creating more bike lanes and better transit options for people struggling to ditch their cars in a large municipality with a long history of farming.

The challenge of getting people to move past general support for climate action to a willingness to act on the commitment became evident on a Friday earlier this summer, just across the street from the demonstration at City Hall.

David Kleyn walks 10 minutes to and from work each day to save gas, but the libertarian says he is definitely not "environmentally conscious" and disputes the science underpinning the pleas of the teens.

Passersby Erika and Pierre van der Horst say it is up to everyone to do their part to help the environment. But they worry that it is too late to do much.

"The world is on a destruction path," said Ms. van der Horst, who identified herself as a Christian.

"If you believe in God, then you believe in the end of time."

Associated Graphic

Swedish activist Greta Thunberg - seen in New York on Wednesday after sailing there to attend a UN summit - jump-started a global movement of young people skipping class to protest outside government offices.

ANDREW KELLY/REUTERS

Left: About a dozen teens participate in a climate-change protest outside the Abbotsford City Hall in early July. The group has been demonstrating there almost every Friday for more than five months as part of a worldwide movement to push government to limit global warming. Below: Angie Calhoun is one of the teens who takes part in Fridays for Future.

PHOTOS BY JIMMY JEONG/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Teenage climate-change demonstrators, seen in Abbotsford last month, say they get at least one obscenity directed at them during each two-hour shift they put in, with some modified-car drivers spewing clouds of black smoke in acts of defiance as they drive by. Angie Calhoun, right, says she laughs it off. 'I don't really care.'

JIMMY JEONG/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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In this First Nation in Northern Ontario, undrinkable water is a crisis of health and faith
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Neskantaga has lived under a boil-water advisory for nearly 25 years, with the recent breakdown of two pumps marking the latest blow to the isolated community. Despite lawmakers' pledges to fix the long-running issue, many residents are skeptical that a repeatedly delayed upgrade to the water-filtration system will change things
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By GEOFFREY YORK
  
  

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Tuesday, September 17, 2019 – Page A10

NESKANTAGA FIRST NATION, ONT. -- After a quarter-century of Canada's longest boil-water advisory, the people of Neskantaga thought their water crisis could not possibly get worse.

They were wrong. The breakdown of two electric pumps has left the isolated First Nations community without any water in some of its homes this week and only a trickle of unchlorinated water in others. Its school has shut down, and nearly 100 people were flown to Thunder Bay on emergency evacuation flights on Sunday, with more evacuations scheduled for Monday evening.

Some residents are already reporting headaches and skin infections from the water, according to Chief Chris Moonias.

The federal Liberals have pledged to eliminate all of the 56 remaining boil-water advisories in First Nations communities across Canada by March, 2021. But the prolonged crisis at Neskantaga and other First Nations has raised doubts about whether or not that promise will be met.

In a media briefing on Monday, officials from the federal Indigenous Services department suggested the Neskantaga residents could take sponge baths with boiled water for hygiene. They said they expect a replacement pump to be installed by Wednesday to fix the problem. The evacuation flights were an unapproved "selfevacuation" by the community, they said.

Neskantaga, on the shores of Attawapiskat Lake about 450 kilometres north of Thunder Bay, has gone nearly 25 years without safe water in its taps - longer than any other community in Canada. It has become a lingering symbol of a crisis that still haunts more than 55 Indigenous communities across the country.

"This water supply is UNSAFE," warn the printed notices in Neskantaga, some of them so old that they are peeling and faded. "Any water that is going to touch your mouth must have been boiled."

Despite the health warnings, people are still getting sick from the tap water. The latest to become ill this summer were a powwow drummer and a visiting canoe paddler.

Last month, the local water plant operator, Wilfred Sakanee, climbed into his truck to distribute a stack of new warnings. He had printed 80 of them - one for every house and office in this community - in an effort to prevent more illnesses.

The Indigenous Services department has pledged that a new water treatment plant will be opened in Neskantaga by mid-October, providing safe water in the taps of its homes for the first time in a quarter-century. But among many residents here, there is understandable skepticism about the promise.

The new plant was first scheduled to open in the spring of 2018. The opening was postponed. Then it was due to open in March this year, and again it was delayed. (Among the reasons: a dispute between the construction contractor and the First Nation.)

"Although this project was delayed, we are now on track," said a statement this summer by Liberal MP Bob Nault, whose riding includes Neskantaga.

He called it "a historic turning point" for the residents of Neskantaga. "It's about time and long overdue. ... Canadians would find it intolerable not to have clean and safe drinking water - they simply wouldn't tolerate it."

In budgets over the past three years, the government has announced more than $2.5-billion in long-term funds for its plan to eliminate all long-term boil-water advisories at First Nations by March, 2021.

But in Neskantaga, where $8.8-million in federal money has been allocated for the new treatment plant, will the water be drinkable by October as promised?

"Nope," Mr. Sakanee predicts.

"They will have to do more testing. I probably won't drink it at first, until it's secure."

He wants the Oji-Cree community to maintain its backup sources of water for six months after the new plant opens, in case of problems with the new source.

"This is how we live," Mr. Sakanee says, pointing to a trailer filled with hundreds of cardboard boxes containing 10-litre jugs of water, trucked into Neskantaga at federal expense on an ice road last winter.

There is also a small-scale reverse-osmosis water purification system, in a wooden shack near the lake, where residents can fill jugs to haul away. But this system has occasionally broken down in the winter, sometimes forcing people to buy water from a privately owned grocery store. "It's like we're buying our own water," said Allan Moonias, a councillor in Neskantaga.

A water filtration system was built in the community in the early 1990s, but tests soon found that it was malfunctioning and the boil-water advisory was officially imposed on Feb. 1, 1995.

It's a story that has recurred endlessly across Canada in the decades since then.

Poor planning, mismanagement, inadequate monitoring, jurisdictional confusion and the challenges of remote locations have all contributed to the persistent delays in building treatment plants - and the plants often break down when they finally do open.

At the Slate Falls First Nation in Northwestern Ontario, the federal government opened a new $11.6-million water treatment plant in March, 2018. The plant was aimed at ending 14 years of boil-water advisories. But less than six months later, the Slate Falls advisory was imposed again because of what Ottawa called "technical deficiencies" in the equipment. The advisory was not lifted until July this year.

Four years ago, more than 100 First Nations across Canada lacked safe drinking water. Last month, according to federal data, 56 First Nations were still under long-term boil-water advisories, including 42 in Ontario.

Since November, 2015, the data shows, 87 long-term advisories have been lifted at First Nations across the country - but 39 new advisories have been imposed.

"There is more work ahead, but we're working shoulder to shoulder with communities to lift the 56 remaining advisories by March, 2021, as promised," said a statement last month by Indigenous Services Minister Seamus O'Regan.

In Neskantaga, the lack of safe water has hobbled daily life in countless ways.

For those without a vehicle, the journey to collect water in large jugs can take an hour or more. To boil large quantities of water, they need to buy gas for their stoves, another time-consuming task.

Boiling enough water for a shower or bath can take so much time that most people end up using the tap water for showers - and many have complained of skin rashes and infections as a result.

By October, if the new plant is completed on schedule, all of this could change.

But after decades without clean water, the people of Neskantaga are finding it hard to imagine the new era.

Some wonder if the pipes and taps will be still tainted, even if the water is clean.

Others predict that the new tap water will look different from the water in the jugs, provoking more apprehension in the community.

"It's going to be hard to convince people that it's okay to drink the tap water," Allan Moonias said. "It's going to take time. People will hesitate. They still have a trauma in them."

For anyone younger than 25, the tap water has never been safe and the jugs are all they have ever known. The older people have trained themselves to avoid the taps and their habits have become ingrained.

Now, the community is pondering the psychological hurdle of the switch to taps.

"How do we get people to trust the tap water?" Chris Moonias asks. "We need to figure that out. Twenty-five years is a long time."

One of the community's elders, 73-yearold former chief Peter Moonias, still remembers the old days when Ottawa provided water to the visiting teachers, nurses and trading-post workers in his community - but not to the Indigenous people.

He heard federal officials promising that this would be fixed when the community moved to a new location in the 1990s. Instead the boil-water advisory was swiftly imposed.

"It's the biggest human-rights issue here, even though it's not usually considered a human-rights issue," he said. "Everyone else in Canada has water, and we don't."

He points to a dozen boxes of 10-litre water jugs, stacked outside his door because there is no room inside his overcrowded house, shared by seven people.

"Is the water still good, sitting in the sun like that?" he asks.

Peter Moonias says he will be "very surprised" if the new treatment system is functioning in October as promised. But even if it does, it will be difficult to break the habits of a quarter-century.

"I never turn on a tap anywhere," he says. "It scares me."

Associated Graphic

Wilfred Sakanee, operator of Neskantaga's water plant, inspects the facility on Aug. 19.

Mr. Sakanee handles water jugs on his truck that were transported at federal expense.

Although health notices are displayed around Neskantaga warning of the water's condition, people are still getting sick, including a powwow drummer and a visiting canoe paddler this summer.

Neskantaga possesses a small-scale reverseosmosis water purification system that residents can use for water, but it occasionally breaks down in the winter, forcing some locals to buy water from a privately owned grocery store.

Neskantaga First Nation resident Marcus Moonias looks over the water jugs stored on his porch in August. As of last month, 56 First Nations were under long-term boil-water advisories, including 42 in Ontario, according to federal data. The federal Liberals have vowed to eliminate all 56 by March, 2021.


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Deals Going Forward
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HERE ARE SEVERAL DEALS THAT FIRST NATIONS AND ENERGY COMPANIES ARE DEVELOPING ON THE GROUND
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By SANDRA RUBIN
  
  

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Friday, August 30, 2019 – Page E12

Challenges to the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion, the cancelled Energy East pipeline and Ottawa's killing of the Northern Gateway pipeline all provide headlines on deals that are very -- and understandably -- challenging.

But away from the news stories, in many parts of the country First Nations are working with energy companies on more straightforward deals.

"From coast to coast to coast, First Nations are developing joint ventures in energy," says Candice Metallic, a partner at Maurice Law, an Indigenous-owned national law firm. "You only have to look at the wind farms, the transmission lines, the development of hydroelectricity -- things that are consistent with First Nations values."

And often they're not just signing impactbenefit agreements, they're taking an ownership

stake. "For renewable energy joint ventures I think 51 per cent ownership is the norm for First Nations. And I believe the major companies are more open to those types of deals."

Many Indigenous groups have opposing internal views on certain energy developments, Metallic, a citizen of the Listuguj Mi'gmaq Nation, acknowledges from her office in Pikwakanagan, near Ottawa.

"Even if you look at BC and Alberta, there are First Nations there who are more businessminded and want to develop an economy for their communities. They are more accepting of pipelines and those types of projects.

"I don't think opposition to pipeline projects is necessarily the overwhelming position of First Nations across the country."

In fact, late last year, dozens of First Nations leaders met to discuss purchasing the embattled Trans Mountain pipeline from the federal government.

The Indian Resource Council (IRC), which represents 134 First Nations with oil and gas resources on their land, said afterward the majority of members want to acquire the pipeline project and make it wholly Indigenous owned and operated. It's been reported the IRC is in talks with Ottawa, which bought Trans Mountain to try to shepherd it through all the required approvals and litigation.

But at the end of April, in an open letter, the Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs laid out a myriad of reasons why the IRC should back off, including cost overruns and a decreased demand for oil due to climate change.

There was also a veiled threat the battle would continue no matter who owns it. "We would remind you that it would only take opposition from a single Nation to cause significant delays and further cost overruns."

Metallic says the stance was not entirely surprising. "Unfortunately there will always be people who are just not open to any type of development in any part of their territory, and people who want to get involved in business to economically benefit their community. That's a reality."

Reconciling the two views may not always be possible, she says.

Paul Seaman, an energy, Indigenous and environmental law partner at Gowling WLG (Canada) LLP, sees more and bigger Indigenous-owned energy projects coming in the future.

In Alberta, there were roughly 330 Indigenous-owned enterprises doing business with oil and gas operations in 2017, according to the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. And Premier Jason Kenney has promised to form a new $1-billion Crown corporation to help Indigenous communities invest in resource projects, including pipelines.

Meanwhile, Seaman points to the Eagle Spirit pipeline, a proposed $16-billion First Nationsowned pipeline that would be operated in conjunction with four Canadian pipeline unions, including Teamsters Canada. It would ship oil from Fort McMurray in Northern Alberta to Prince Rupert, BC -- and to the Pacific Ocean for export, finally expanding Canada's market beyond the US.

"These days equity ownership is very much front and centre," says Seaman, a citizen of the Manitoba Métis Federation. He says projects are "an easier sell, in a sense" in BC, where no historic treaties were signed with the federal government, which means title to the land was never ceded.

That gives First Nations full say -- and presumably greater leverage on an ownership stake -- on any project that impacts their land.

When First Nations communities are part owners, it ensures there have been detailed discussions, which helps avoid later claims that the Constitutional duty to consult with the affected communities was not met.

"There's often lots of heartburn around the duty to consult and the regulatory regime in Canada not providing certainty," Seaman says from his Vancouver office. "When you have the Indigenous community as part of the commercial enterprise, they are a de facto project proponent. They're part owners. It doesn't make sense to be consulting with yourself, if I could put it that way."

That said, he points out that participation still depends on the community and the type of project.

"There are storage terminals, electrical transmission lines and alternative energy projects.

Then there are pipelines that carry a substance like heavy crude, which tend to be more polarizing than a transmission line or a pipeline carrying gas."

But Seaman doesn't see the end-game for most Native groups in Western Canada as full ownership of new energy projects. "It could happen, but what we're seeing is more of a consortium kind of a model because one of the ways you manage risk is to have more than one partner."

To own or to partner, it's a conundrum many Native communities in Québec wish they had.

In most of the Maritimes and the Gaspé Peninsula in Québec, First Nations bands signed Peace and Friendship Treaties which, unlike the historic treaties in other parts of Canada, did not involve surrendering title.

But Indigenous groups in swaths of Québec and Ontario never signed any kind of treaty.

Many of them are poorly treated by energy developers, says James O'Reilly of O'Reilly & Associés in Montréal.

"In many cases, they don't acknowledge it's Indigenous land," says O'Reilly, who has specialized in Aboriginal law, with an emphasis on the advancement and protection of Aboriginal rights, for more than 40 years.

"They say, 'We've got our permits, we've got our authorizations from the Québec or federal government and we have to talk to you, but that's it.' They say, 'You don't have your rights proved. Go prove your rights, take the governments to court.'" The problem is many bands are small or poorly organized or don't have the money for a long court battle, he says.

"My view is that the companies like HydroQuébec, the biggest energy developer in Québec, along with the major mining and forestry companies, typically do not recognize the true rights of the Aboriginal peoples.

"In my view you can easily say they ride roughshod over the rights of the Innu, the Algonquin and the Atikamekw Nations and the Mi'gmaq.

They haven't been able to ride roughshod over the Cree, the Cree have fought them back each time

and they know that." The Mohawk are also powerful, he adds.

"I'd like to be able to tell you that things are great but from my experiences in court that's not the case," says O'Reilly, who was named an Honorary Chief of the Samson Cree Nation of Alberta, among other Native accolades. "Things are as difficult now or more difficult than 45 years ago.

"With what's happening out west, the Trans Mountain pipeline possibly being stopped, maybe people see Aboriginal groups as pretty powerful in affecting large energy developments. But it's not like that all over the land."

For those bands that want to get involved in their own projects, financing remains one of the biggest obstacles, says Nancy Kleer of Olthuis Kleer Townshend LLP, which specializes in representing First Nations.

"Economic-development capacity in First Nations governments is one of the issues, they don't have a lot," she says from Toronto. "They're working on it but they've had limited involvement in business development because they've been living on tiny little reserves and not able to raise capital easily. It's been challenging."

Kleer says the Indian Act precludes them from using their land as security, so they have little to backstop loan requests.

"A lot of First Nations are looking at business development to benefit their communities, so they set up limited partnerships to try to get involved. Joint ventures are how a lot of economic development happens at this point, so many are now working on building capacity internally."

Some groups are asking the project proponent for loans to allow them to acquire an equity stake, she says. They are also training their own people to develop and run projects.

She points to the East-West Tie transmission project in Northern Ontario, where six Northern Superior Anishinabek First Nations are partnering with NextEra Energy Canada, Enbridge Inc.

and OMERS Infrastructure on a 450-kilometre transmission line.

The six Nations also formed a partnership and created an economic development company, Supercom Industries, to help contract, train and employ First Nations people on the project.

Supercom already has 195 graduates, including surveyors, power-line crew, heavy-equipment operators, mechanics, electricians and work-camp support staff.

"People are getting good educations. They're also going to university, getting business and engineering degrees, and bringing their expertise back to their communities," says Kleer. "It's a slow process, but it's happening."

Thursday, September 12, 2019
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Russian exile warns Kremlin is moving to quash opposition
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Putin critic says regime to use city council vote as chance to try out new methods ahead of 2021 parliamentary election
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By MARK MACKINNON
  
  

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Saturday, September 7, 2019 – Page A4

LONDON -- Sunday's city council election in Moscow should have been a dreary affair. Such contests usually come and go with little attention; the winning candidates are almost always Vladimir Putin loyalists, hand-picked by the Kremlin.

But this year's vote has become an unexpected rallying point for Russia's opposition, with tens of thousands of Muscovites joining a succession of summer protests demanding fair elections - with another demonstration expected on Sunday. One of Mr. Putin's most prominent critics says the unrest has happened because both the opposition and the Kremlin see the city council election as a test run for the bigger struggles ahead, as Mr. Putin enters what should be his last years in power.

In an exclusive interview with The Globe and Mail, Mikhail Khodorkovsky - who was Russia's richest man before he spent a decade in jail on charges viewed as punishment for his opposition to Mr. Putin - said that both the opposition and the Kremlin are trying out tactics that might be used again in 2021, when Russia will elect a new parliament, or Duma.

The makeup of the next Duma will be crucial as Mr. Putin's presidential term comes to an end in 2024. The Kremlin boss, who has ruled the country for 20 years as either president or prime minster - but who is constitutionally barred from another term in office - is expected to try to find a way to cling to power.

"The elections in 2021 will be key to the future of the country, in some respects," said the 56-yearold Mr. Khodorkovsky, who moved to London shortly after his release from prison in 2013. "The authorities are taking great pains to work on and develop the methods they will use in 2021."

The oligarch-turned-democracy activist - whose life story is the subject of a documentary film, Citizen K, that will have its North American premiere Saturday at the Toronto International Film Festival - said he has been watching with interest as anti-government protesters in Hong Kong have won a series of concessions from the local government through staging weeks of demonstrations that have at times paralyzed the city's key institutions.

ELECTORAL STRATEGIES One condition of Mr. Khodorkovsky's release was that he promised to stay out of Russian politics.

It's a vow he's now brazenly ignoring - his Open Russia foundation funds independent media and pro-democracy groups inside the country. He has also used his personal website to call on his supporters to express their demands for change "out on the streets" on Sunday.

Mr. Khodorkovsky said the run-up to Moscow's city council vote has seen the Kremlin "experimenting" with new methods of controlling the opposition, such as barring dozens of Kremlin critics from taking part in the election, a tactic that backfired when it was announced in June, provoking an angry summer of protest.

The Kremlin's next step - detaining hundreds of protesters - only fed the outrage.

Both sides are now manoeuvring ahead of Sunday, with the opposition hoping that tactical voting will result in the defeat of pro-Kremlin candidates, while the Kremlin has moved to disguise its favoured candidates by having them run as independents, rather than under the banner of Mr. Putin's deeply unpopular United Russia party.

Polls now show that only about one in five Muscovites supports the pro-Kremlin party, although Mr. Putin's personal popularity rating remains over 60 per cent across the country.

More protests, and more arrests are expected in the days ahead. And while the standard punishment for taking part in an unsanctioned protest was 15 days, this summer saw the authorities start to use a new "mass unrest" charge, which carries a maximum punishment of eight years in jail.

Russia's opposition has also been damaged by internal divisions, with Mr. Khodorkovsky publicly squabbling with Alexei Navalny - the most prominent opposition politician still inside Russia - over whether and how Russians should vote in Sunday's election. Mr. Khodorkovsky has called on his supporters to vote for only "genuine" opposition candidates, if they have one in their district, and to spoil their ballots otherwise.

Mr. Navalny, who has mobilized the most serious street challenges to Mr. Putin's rule, says his followers should vote tactically and support whichever candidate - even if it's the Communist Party - that has the best chance of defeating Mr. Putin's United Russia party. Supporters of Mr. Navalny who have registered using a website will get a text message on Sunday with a recommendation about whom to vote for in their district.

The latter tactic appears to have irritated someone in power.

On Thursday, masked police officers raided the Moscow headquarters of Mr. Navalny's AntiCorruption Foundation, seizing computers, as well as the contents of several safes.

Mr. Khodorkovsky says his disagreement with Mr. Navalny isn't acrimonious, but he is scathing about the idea of supporting political parties such as the Communists and the far-right Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, which Mr. Khodorkovsky says are both de facto tools of the Kremlin. Mr.

Khodorkovsky says his own baseline test is whether a party or a politician opposes - or acquiesces in - the jailing of political dissidents.

"I firmly stand for what we call moral voting. I'm not ready to support those people who, due to their beliefs or because they're scared, are not ready to support political prisoners."

It is a deeply personal issue for Mr. Khodorkovsky, who split his decade in incarceration between Moscow's notoriously harsh Matrosskaya Tishina prison, often in solitary confinement, and a Siberian labour camp where he was forced to make mittens. At one point, he was attacked by a fellow inmate who attempted to take out Mr. Khodorkovsky's eye with a knife.

LIFE IN EXILE Mr. Khodorkovsky, who accumulated a fortune estimated at US$15-billion during Russia's chaotic 1990s transition from communism to capitalism, was seen at the time of his arrest as one of the country's hated oligarchs - a class of businessmen reviled for making fortunes while the rest of the country went through a wrenching economic change.

As a result, the then-oil tycoon was something of an easy target for Mr. Putin, who told the Russian public that his crackdown on Mr. Khodorkovsky and other oligarchs was part of an effort to restore law and order in the country.

Nonetheless, Mr. Khodorkovsky's arrest in October, 2003, was seen as a key moment in Russia's slide back toward authoritarianism. Western governments were immediately convinced that Mr.

Khodorkovsky had been targeted because Open Russia had been financing political parties opposed to Mr. Putin.

By the time he was freed from prison in December of 2013 - just ahead of Russia's hosting of the 2014 Winter Olympics - Mr. Khodorkovsky's image had been transformed into that of a principled freedom fighter, albeit one who went into exile as a condition of his release.

Mr. Khodorkovsky lived briefly in Germany and then Switzerland before settling on London as a base where he could liaise with the city's large Russian diaspora.

Although he hasn't been back to Russia since his release from prison, the country and its future still occupy most of his time and energy. During a 90-minute conversation with The Globe and Mail, he twice sprang up from his chair to pace a sparsely decorated boardroom as he thought aloud about his country's future, and what might follow the end of Mr.

Putin's long reign.

"It could happen tomorrow, it could happen in 10 years," he says about the end of the Putin era.

The biggest question, Mr. Khodorkovsky says, is what will rise in Mr.Putin's place - another czar-like figure, or a genuine parliamentary democracy.

This, he says, is the subject of another "conceptual disagreement" within the opposition.

"The general model at the moment is that we'll take out the bad czar and replace him with a good one, and then we'll build democracy. I don't think this will work. It didn't work with Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin, and he was a good czar."

There's no obvious security around Mr. Khodorkovsky, but he acknowledges that a series of high-profile attacks targeting British-based opponents of the Kremlin - including the 2006 murder of former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko, using radioactive polonium-210, and the 2017 chemical weapons attack on Sergei Skripal, another ex-KGB member - has made it impossible for a Russian dissident to feel completely safe in London.

Still Mr. Khodorkovsky, who has used courts across Europe to recover some of his former wealth, and now lives in a multimillion-dollar residence in the centre of London, has been through much worse.

"There is no such thing as absolute security," he says. Then he launches into a retelling of the knife attack he survived in prison.

"After all that, living in London seems pretty safe."

Associated Graphic

Mikhail Khodorkovsky, seen in his office in central London on Thursday, lives in exile in the country since being released from prison in 2013.

JIM ROSS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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A land not so free
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Nicole Dennis-Benn talks about her new novel, which follows an undocumented immigrant's pursuit of the American dream, and the irony in the way people perceive the United States as a land of opportunity
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By DONNA BAILEY NURSE
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Saturday, September 14, 2019 – Page R11

Literary critic and a juror for the 2019 Scotiabank Giller Prize

Nicole Dennis-Benn's debut novel, Here Comes the Sun (Liveright), exposed the harsh reality behind Jamaica's image as an island paradise. Her second novel, Patsy, flips the script to interrogate the United States' reputation as a land of opportunity. Patsy, an undocumented immigrant, has abandoned her daughter in Jamaica to follow her best friend and lover to the U.S. She is in hot pursuit of the American dream. The Globe and Mail talks to Nicole Dennis-Benn about immigration in the United States, homophobia in Jamaica and the irony of islanders perceiving the U.S. as the land of the free.

How did the character of Patsy come to you? How did she evolve?

Patsy came to me as a woman writing letters home to her mother. At the time, I was teaching at the College of Staten Island and I had to get up early and commute by subway. I would be sitting with all these immigrants, Trinidadians and Jamaicans, hearing their accents. They were wearing uniforms. It was getting to be winter and advertisements started coming up on the subway for vacations at Sandals. These ads ran above our heads as we were travelling and I was struck by the irony of all of us immigrants here in the U.S. struggling to make ends meet, while all these ads were encouraging people to go to the countries we fled.

Patsy was a woman I imagined travelling with me as she went to work on the Upper East Side. For some reason, she wouldn't leave me alone. At that time, I was pushing out my first novel, Here Comes the Sun.

Why do you think she stayed with you?

I've never seen the lives of working-class immigrants documented on the page. Patsy is a woman running away from poverty, from motherhood, wanting to love the way she loves. She is reinventing herself, trying to find her place in the world. She's not like me, who came to America for school. She has no degrees, no documentation. These immigrants exist as nameless and faceless in a country where they have no social-security number.

The book feels especially timely.

Could you comment on Donald Trump's immigration policy?

The only thing I'd say is that the government has never been kind to immigrants without documentation, regardless of the administration.

This current administration is just more vocal.

In your novels, you represent the physical world so vividly. But I feel as though it is the hidden emotions of individuals and the atmosphere of a place that you most powerfully bring to life.

I tell my students that when you are writing characters, you eat and sleep with them. You have to walk around the block with them and see it through their eyes. For Patsy, I had to imagine what it would be like to catch the flu and have to wait in emergency because you have no health insurance. I had to think about where to store your money if you have no bank account. I had to imagine coming to a place that was a fantasy and the disappointment of seeing the reality.

You've said you thought about being a writer but you didn't think you could do it.

I was a big reader: Sweet Valley High, The Baby-Sitter's Club, Nancy Drew. But I did not see myself in literature. In high school, I was writing stories about blond girls and white picket fences. When I immigrated to America, I started writing down my feelings, just being lonely. That was how I got inside Patsy's head. Once in America, I was reading James Baldwin and Alice Walker and Toni Morrison and I wanted to do what they did. My professor at Cornell liked my essays and he said I should major in English. But I told him I just couldn't do that. I was in premed. The expectation was I had to have a good career.

I understand that you heard Toni Morrison speak at Cornell. What was that like? Also, how did you feel about her passing?

At the time, I took everything for granted. So I didn't really appreciate how huge she was, although I had her book Beloved which I had stolen from the library in high school. The event was sold out and so I had to stand out in the hall. I could hear her telling about the importance of staying true to yourself. I wish I had understood then how important it was to at least get my book signed.

I took it hard when she passed away. It was like a relative who had died. Toni Morrison brought me to literature. She showed me the complex lives of workingclass black women. She gave me licence to write about them.

One of the reasons black women's writing is so rich is because of the high degree of intersectionality. In the case of Patsy, she is black in a Eurocentric world, female in a male-dominated world, working class in a capitalist society and lesbian in a straight world. How are you able to manage these elements so seamlessly in your writing?

Somehow I was able to tap into all these elements of my own experience - black, female, working class, lesbian - and write them as truly as possible. All of these things are truly me and I am putting them into a Patsy or a Margot (from Here Comes the Sun).

How did you decide to use Jamaican language in the story? And why is the language so important to Jamaican people?

I am really adamant about putting our language back in our literature. Because growing up we were always made to feel ashamed of it. The language debates are still going on where, even now, one person in Parliament - I won't mention their name - is saying kids in school should be speaking standard English. Another is saying that so many kids are from rural Jamaica, they should be allowed to learn in a language they understand.

We shouldn't diminish and dismiss our own language. Like James Baldwin says, language is identity. Growing up, the poet Louise Bennett (Miss Lou) always used our language. That was her way of telling us that our language was us. She left the island and moved to Toronto when the language debates broke out. Now on TVJ [Television Jamaica] people like Simone Clarke and Dahlia Harris are speaking patois, reclaiming our language. In dialogue I have my characters speak in our dialect. To me, two Jamaicans, particularly working-class Jamaicans, would not be speaking standard English to one another straight through, unobserved.

In the novel, you celebrate the love between Patsy and Cecily. But the story also constitutes a harsh critique of Jamaican intolerance. I am a little afraid for you.

Every time I am writing about homophobia in Jamaica, I am holding my breath. But I can't not speak about it. In the 1990s, there were so many stories of men being brutalized because they were gay or of lesbians being raped.

When I went home on visits, I went to parties with upper-class LGBTQ people who, unlike the working-class gays, had the means to hide. The little girl in me is still working class and I still see things through that lens. Yes, there are changes happening. Yes, Jamaica had its first Gay Pride parade. But the conversation about homophobia has to shift to classism. If I go to the Calabash festival, the organizers can say, "Nicole and Emma (my wife), come and stay with me." But it is a completely different scenario for poor, young LGBTQ individuals, many of whom are rejected by their families and are living in the streets.

In Patsy, Jamaicans see the U.S. as the land of the free, which historically speaking, seems ironic.

America is sold to the world as a paradise. What people see is this beautiful portrayal of this white, upper-middle-class life. But there is also deep racism here. Writing Patsy, I had to incorporate my feelings about the fact that the place looks nothing like it does in the movie Breakfast at Tiffany's. I had to incorporate that reality into Patsy's experience. When she sees a white woman on the street fearing black men and (at the same time) talking about vacationing in Jamaica, she wonders, "Doesn't that white woman realize Jamaica is full of black men?" I wanted to point out these ironies.

In a way, I wanted to create a dialogue with African-Americans.

There would be no place for me here if it weren't for writers like Toni Morrison and Alice Walker and James Baldwin. Even so, we are still not free.

Associated Graphic

Nicole Dennis-Benn, seen in New York in May, says Toni Morrison 'showed me the complex lives of working-class black women.'

PHOTOS BY FRANCES F DENNY/THE NEW YORK TIMES


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Innovation in Oil & Gas
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COMPANIES IN THIS SPACE ARE NEEDING TO LEAN IN, WITH CREATIVE RESULTS
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By JULIUS MELNITZER
  
  

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Friday, August 30, 2019 – Page E4

Innovation and oil and gas aren't exactly an intuitive association for Canadians. To the untrained eye, for example, oil wells appear to have changed little since the first well was commercialized in Canada about 150 years ago. And images of the oil sands are forever bleak, anything other than evocative of the notion of creativity.

But those who know the industry know better.

Indeed, oil and gas companies and service providers were forerunners in the adoption of digital technology as far back as the 1970s. And today, artificial intelligence and big data are playing significant roles in the industry's evolution.

It doesn't hurt that the Canadian sector is part of a global industry, but that's hardly the whole story. The estimated value of clean tech in Alberta's oil and gas sector market is $2.7 billion, including $1.3 billion in Calgary. For its part, Canadian Natural Resources Limited spent $527 million in 2015 alone towards research and technologies to enhance resource recovery, operating efficiencies and environmental performance -- a spend that put the company seventh in Canada in overall research and development spending.

"Canada has been exceptionally active on the innovative side partially because of the tough

weather conditions in this country and partially because of the challenges of extraction from places like the oil sands," says Peter Bryan in Borden Ladner Gervais LLP's Calgary office. "And that's been occurring on both the process and the product side."

According to a 2017 Calgary Economic Development report prepared by the Delphi Group, what's impressive is that the innovative streak seems to be permeating the entire industry, not just the giant producers and service providers.

"Entrepreneurs developing new clean technologies, service providers that are creating new business models that support clean technologies, oil and gas producers and pipeline companies in the midst of inventing and adopting clean technologies, and an innovation ecosystem that is keen to support, form this growing sector," the report states.

The innovations range from faster and more precise drills, to mobile rigs that can move from one drilling site to another without having to be taken apart and re-assembled, to using artificial intelligence for ocean floor exploration, to taking advantage of reinforcement learning to guide drills underground based on historic information or simulated data -- a concept that has much in common with the driverless car.

Arguably, Canada is contributing at least as much to oil and gas innovation as it is drawing on the efforts of innovators abroad.

"Because of the harsh conditions we face here, our innovations are deployable all over the world," says Vivek Warrier in Bennett Jones LLP's Calgary office.

Domestically, the industry's degree of commitment to innovation crystallized in 2012 with the formation of Canada's Oil Sands Innovation Alliance. Today, COSIA's membership accounts for more than 90 per cent of oil sands production in the country.

"Ultimately, COSIA is a clearing house for innovation and technological solutions, with implementation left to individual companies," says Simon Baines in Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP's Calgary office.

The organization's vision, as stated on its website, is to "enable responsible and sustainable growth of Canada's oil sands while delivering accelerated improvement in environmental performance through collaborative action and innovation."

More particularly, COSIA aims to: · Produce oil from the oil sands with lower greenhouse gas emissions than other sources of oil; · Reduce the footprint intensity of oil sands mining on the land and wildlife; · Improve the management of oil sand tailings -- the sand, silt, clay and water found in oil sands that remain behind after extraction; and · Reduce water use and increase water recycling rates.

The organization's ongoing initiatives include: · Exploring the use of carbon capture and storage options to divert carbon dioxide underground before it reaches the atmosphere, including a pilot project that engages algae to reduce GHG while producing valuable products; · Collaborating with other stakeholders to release a comprehensive review of technologies that will accelerate tailings treatment; and · Investigating steps to reduce freshwater use intensity by 50 per cent and the net water use intensity from the Athabasca River and its tributaries by 30 per cent, both by 2022.

By joining COSIA, members commit to sharing experience and intellectual property with other members with a view to achieving these goals. As of July 2018, according to a report prepared by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the organization's members had shared 981 distinct technologies and innovation that cost more than $1.4 billion to develop.

Finally, with the announcement from Alberta Premier Jason Kenney's new United Conservative Party (UCP) government that it intends to replace the $1.4-billion carbon tax imposed by the previous government with a Technology In-

novation and Emissions Reductions program for large industrial emitters, innovation in Alberta's oil and gas industry appears to be on a roll.

So, governmental action aside, what's driving all this innovation?

On one hand, low oil prices, and on the other hand, environmental concerns. As it turns out, they operate synergistically in many cases.

"Reducing the environmental impact of a process sometimes goes hand in hand with cutting costs," says Brett Slaney, a patent agent in Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP's Toronto office. "And because of the competitive pressures in the current market, companies have begun innovating whether they realized they were doing so or not."

By the late '90s, Slaney points out, there were virtually no patent applications from the oil and gas sector in Canada.

"By 2013, there were 2,000, and there's been a continuing uptick since," he says. "Innovation is happening on both the process and the product ends, with large energy companies and large service providers ranking about equally among the top 10 filers in the country."

Baines is of similar mind.

"Oil and gas companies, particularly in the oil sands space, have for some time been intent on improving their industrial and manufacturing

processes and increasing efficiency by reducing utilization of some of the inputs required, such as water and energy, which not only reduces costs but is good for the environment," he says.

The future also looks bright. As Slaney sees it, the oil and gas sector has barely begun to scratch the innovative surface.

"When it comes to creating efficiencies through innovation, there's a lot of low-hanging fruit out there," he says.

Not surprisingly, the oil and gas industry has been counting on its lawyers to innovate as well.

"Because of the downturn, Canadian producers and midstreamers have had to come to new and innovation risk-sharing agreements, and at the same time be a little more collaborative than has historically been the case," Warrier says. "Industry lawyers can play an important role here."

By way of example, producers have traditionally had to commit a fixed amount of product when contracting for pipeline access, the socalled "take or pay" model.

"The difficulty with the model, of course, is that producers have to pay whether they use the capacity or not, and that's increasingly frustrating in today's volatile environment," Warrier says.

So, arrangements between producers and midstreamers have evolved. One of many solutions is

the area dedication model, where instead of committing a fixed volume for transport, producers commit all the production from a specific area, whatever that turns out to be.

"Midstreamers have seen that their customers, the producers, are really suffering, so they've adopted new creative structures ensuring that they get a rate of return on infrastructure that takes into account the risk to build, and that producers can get their products to market without breaking the bank," Warrier says.

This type of risk-sharing solution, however, cries out for legal expertise -- particularly because the midstream sector has lacked experience with such arrangements.

"As lawyers, we have to find a way to ensure that the financial solutions work from a legal perspective in the sense that they don't create undue exposure for either party and that both parties will benefit," Warrier says. "This is especially so because our midstream sector has not traditionally had a huge appetite for risk-sharing."

All this having been said, industry optimism has grown since the election of a UCP government that is expected to be more business-friendly than Rachel Notley's New Democratic Party.

"My feeling, just from answering the phone over the last couple of weeks, is that investors were sitting on the sidelines and unwilling to move until after the election," Warrier says. "They seem much more ready to do so now."

All of this has attracted the interest of USbased private-equity interests, which have seen rapid growth in the Permian Basin in the US drive multiples there sky-high.

"What these investors have discovered is that that can get a very similar yield in places like Alberta's Duvernay Basin, but that they can get into them at a much better price point that will drive greater returns," Warrier says.

Thursday, September 12, 2019
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CHANGING THE YOUTUBE CHANNEL
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Blind social-media star Molly Burke has amassed a huge following that tunes in for her makeup tutotials, charismatic venting and sassy humour, Brad Wheeler writes
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By BRAD WHEELER
  
  

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Saturday, September 14, 2019 – Page R1

Can a superstar be an unknown? It's a legitimate question in a modern era of increasingly fragmented audiences, wider generational disparities, changing media consumption patterns and the demise of the pop-culture monoculture. Bob Dylan once asked how it felt to be a complete unknown, but perhaps there's no such thing any longer.

Take Molly Burke. She's a 25-year-old blind YouTube superstar and motivational speaker from Oakville, Ont., now based in Los Angeles.

She's been featured on NBC's Today with Megyn Kelly and in The Washington Post. Legally blind since birth, diagnosed with the genetic disorder retinitis pigmentosa as a preschooler and completely without sight for 11 years now, she gives online makeup tutorials, vents charismatically, inspires legions and has just released It's Not What It Looks Like, a memoirmeets-wellness title that quickly landed at the top of The New York Times bestselling nonfiction audiobooks list.

With 72,800 Twitter devotees, more than 800,000 Instagram followers and nearly two million subscribers to her YouTube channel, Burke joins the ranks of other young Canadian social-media sensations such as the YouTube-savvy Lilly Singh and the Instagram celebrity Donté Colley.

Her online, on-screen manner is freshfaced, honest and disarming. She's a heroine to her fans, having overcome bullying, depression, the loss of vision and, at the moment, insects.

"They're spraying my apartment for cockroaches," laughs Burke, on the phone from L.A., where she waits out the fumigation at her local Starbucks.

Burke's YouTube videos are empowering, irreverent blasts of self-help and useful displays of frustration.

Although she's known for her confidence and positivity, a big part of Burke's brand and appeal is her sassy humour. In a recent video, she candidly discussed things one should never say to a blind person.

"Have you tried seeing a naturopath?" (Yes, but not for her blindness.)

"Do you know my blind friend?" (Maybe, but probably not. "It's not a club," Burke says.)

"Can't you just get an eye transplant?" (No.)

"You're lucky your parents kept you." (Says Burke: "This is something nobody should say to anybody.") To those of older generations, statuses such as "social-media celebrity" or "online personality" are viewed with skepticism at best, dismissal and derision at worst. It's kids stuff, a fad, not real - give them a Bert Convy, now there was a star. Going viral is good thing? Not if you've lived through the Plague.

"I get it," Burke says. "There are online creators who do crazy things. They don't represent us well. They're the ones who get the press, though, and it turns people off."

Burke's celebrity is real, even if it is incomprehensible to people who grew up idolizing only Hollywood actors or those stamped with the "network television star" seal of approval. But where celebrities of the past were foisted upon a vulnerable public by questionable curators, today's "online creators," in the parlance, build up their audiences one mouse click at a time and, initially at least, with no machine behind them. "We carve our own career," says Burke, who began her public speaking career at 5 and has been doing it professionally since she was 18. "We have to build our own network and develop our own following. When we start out, we don't have teams of people behind us."

Burke now has a squad that includes video editors, an assistant, a manager and, perhaps most importantly, a mom.

"Molly needs help like anybody else," says Niamh Burke, a professional photographer who helps with her daughter's content-craving Instagram concern.

"This is a business."

Molly Burke is in the business of being Molly Burke. Many were initially drawn to a backstory that involved adolescent bullying and the creeping, unstoppable diminishment of her sight.

On her profile-raising television appearance with Kelly, Burke talked about going blind completely - "I had to mourn the loss of the girl I was" - and told the traumatizing tale of being abandoned by pranking schoolmates in a forest at 14.

"It's the part of my story that shocks people the most," Burke says of the bullying she endured.

"But people in the disability community laugh at that, because they know bullies go for the most vulnerable target, which are the people they perceive as being different."

If Burke no longer endures bullying, her everyday dealings with insensitivity and obstacles seem daunting - not to mention demoralizing for those who still hold out hope for the human race. "I don't think about being blind until someone makes me think about it," she says. Unfortunately, it's unavoidable.

The casual reminders of her condition include the Uber drivers who deny her rides because of her service dog (Gallop, a strapping mountain-dog-black Lab mix). When Burke goes on dates, the guy often is only interested in what it feels like to be blind. And then there are the people who talk to her mother instead of her about what she wants to eat. "These are the moments that frustrate me," Burke says. "My blindness changes their perceptions of me, my abilities and my independence."

To the unknowing people who might watch her videos or casually come across her on television, Burke's blindness is fairly undetectable. It's not something she dwells on, and many online comments about her are of the "I forget she's blind" variety.

Burke's response to those reactions? "I think, 'Yeah, me too.' I forget that everybody doesn't live the way I live."

Mind you, having a service dog dozing at her feet during the televised Kelly interview is a dead giveaway. "He's laying at my feet right now," Burke says, referring to the nap-happy pooch originally named "Gallup," after the polltaking titan George. "He's chronically sleepy when he's not working. But he's happy, you know?

He's always in a positive mood."

The dog's buoyancy is onbrand. The businesses that associate with Burke - Dove, Johnson & Johnson, Samsung, Allure magazine and audio-book creator Audible are among them - do so on the basis of her unsinkability and audacious determination, which are qualities she's always had.

According to her mother, Burke as a child was a persistent participator.

"It was heartbreaking to watch her at times," the elder Burke says. "She took tennis lessons because her brother played, and even though she couldn't see the ball, she wouldn't give up. She'd be up at the net and the instructor would try to throw the ball at her racquet. The other kids would be annoyed. They didn't understand."

According to figures supplied by her management, Burke's online audience is 94-per-cent female, with nearly half her fans in the 18-24 demographic.

"At the end of the day, I'm a 25-year-old woman who shares my life," says the magenta-haired motivator and die-hard Ed Sheeran fan whose most recent video involved IUD horror stories. "Yes, I'm trying to break down barriers and stereotypes about disabled people. But I'm a true girly-girl. I love sparkles and skirts and lipstick. I love shopping and fashion. It's reasonable that I attract a like-minded audience."

(Burke also loves Starbucks.

And although she has devoted more than one video to the caffeine-peddling chain, she has no commercial relationship with the Seattle-based company.)

There's one more thing Burke says you should never say to a blind person: "Can I pray for you?" Such an offer, while well intended, is offensive and comes off as condescending to her, she says. That she needs to be fixed is an assumption Burke wants no part of. "This is my life," she adds.

"People say they don't know how I can do my makeup without a mirror, but, honestly, I don't know how they couldn't."

Burke doesn't need your prayers, but she'll gladly accept your Instagram follow. If her status is confusing to you, think of it as the new math. "50,000,000 Elvis fans can't be wrong" was a famous 1959 marketing assertion. Burke's numbers (albeit much smaller) add up, too.

Associated Graphic

In addition to being a YouTube star with nearly two million subscribers, Molly Burke, seen with her service dog Gallop, has been a motivational speaker since the age of 5 and has recently published a bestselling audiobook, It's Not What It Looks Like.

CHRIS SANDERS/AUDIBLE/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Molly Burke's online audience is 94-per-cent female, and about half of those viewers are between the ages of 18 and 24, according to figures from her management.

CHRIS SANDERS/AUDIBLE/THE CANADIAN PRESS


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